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TUE oii'T or 





- • * • 





And many Ibge Pfate lUtutrationH, 

J. P. LESLEY, State Geologist. 

VOL. Ill— PART I. 




J. P. Lesley, E. V. (I'Invilliebs at<d A. DW. Smith. 






Excellency ROBERT E. PATTISON, Gmtraor, 

and ti-offUn Pretideni of the Board, Harriibnix. 

[,1AM A. Ingham Philadelphia. 

RY McCoRMiCK Hamsbiirg. 

tLBS A. MiNBR, Willcesbarre. 

?H WiLLCOx, Philadelphia. 

s W. Hall Harrisbarg. 

lEL Q. Brown Pleasantville. 

ii.ES H. NovES, Warren. 

V. H. Davis, Doylestown. 

.EY B. CoxE, Drifton. 

JAM A. Ingham,  .... Philadelphia. 

Lesley, Philadelphia. 

1 tot the Commoiiwealth oT PcDDsrlTinia, In the year i99s. accDMlDg lo ad* of 


Stcrtlary of tkt Beard of Commiiiiextri bJ the Gtelogitat Survey. 

Id the office of tbe Llhtarian of CoDgteu, at 

Wasbihoton. D. C. 


To his Excellency Governor DANIEL H. HASTINGS, Ex Officio 
Chairman of the Board of Commieaioners of the Geological 
Survey of Pennsylvania: 

Sir: I have the honor to submit for your approval the first 
part of Volume III of the Final Report, ordered by act of Leg- 
islature, approved June 8th, 1891. Volumes I and II have al- 
ready been published and distributed in accordance with the 
laws and the rules of the board. 

The general geological map of the State, Lyman's Map of 
the New Red and Halberstadt's detailed Bituminous collieries 
map, have also been published and distributed. It was ex- 
pected that the present volume would complete the final re- 
port, but the material is so abundant as to render it neces- 
sary to issue a second part to volume III. 

After the State Geologist, Prof. J. P. Lesley, had completed 
<jhapters CXI to CXV (pages 1629 to 1833) of this volume, em- 
bracing the Pocono Sandstone formation No. X, and the 
Mauch Chunk formation No. XI, in the Anthracite region, his 
health broke down, and the board, with his approval, placed 
the work of completing the final report in the hands of Mr. E. 
V. dlnvilliers and Mr. A. DW. Smith, gentlemen who had 
long been in the employ of the survey, and in whom Prof. 
Lesley reposed entire confidence* 

The undescribed field divided itself naturally into the An- 
thracite and the Bituminous districts, the former of which 
was assigned to Mr. Smith and the latter to Mr. d'Invilliers, 
who was also Bequested to undertake a description of the 
Mauch Chunk red shale and Pottsville conglomerate series, 
outside the Anthracite region. Their labors involved a great 
deal of original field work and have been long and arduous. 

The present volume, in addition to Prof. Lesley's chapters 
on the sub-conglomerate measures, contains Mr. d'Invilliers* 


chapter on Nos XI and Xn, the Mauch Chunk Bed Bhale and 

Pottsville Conglomerate, above referred to, and Mr. Smith's- 

report on the Anthracite Coal Measures. 

The next and concluding volume will contain a report on 
[ ! the Bituminous Coal Measures Nos. Xni to XVI, by Mr. d'ln- 

villiers, and a chapter by Mr. B. S. Lyman, on the Mesozoic or 

New Bed Sandstones of South-East Pennsylvania. 

A separate Index Volume will contain an ample subject, 

and geological, reference to all the volumes of the final report, 

and a concise table of contents of all the publications of the 

survey, the latter prepared by myself. 



320 Walnut street, June Ist, 1895. 

Vol. Ill, Pabt 1. . 

<3uipter. Page. 

CXL No. X. The Pocono Formation, , 1629 

CXIL No, X. Pocono on the Lehigh, 1635 

No. X Pocono mountains in Pennsylvania, 1651 

<3Xin. No. X. Pocono in Perry county, 1655 

No. X. Pocono coal of Hunter's Cove, 1655 

No. X. Pocono in Huntingdon county, 1659 

Shoup's run gap section in Terrace Mtn., 1659 

No. X. Pocono in Sideling Hill, 1663 

No. Xd. Upper Gray Sandstone Grotip, 1665 

No. Xc. New River Coal Series, 1665 

No. Xb, Middle Conglomorate Group, 1667 

No. Xa. Lower Green Sandstone Group, 1669 

No. X. Pocono coals on Tipton run, 1679 

Product of Tipton mines, 1685 

Fault at the Tipton mines, 1685 

Tipton Fossil Plants, 1689 

No. X. Pocono formation in Cambria Co., 1695 

Pocono in Westmoreland and Fayette,. 1699 
Stevenson's section in the Conemaugh 

Gap, 1703 

No. X. Pocono Formation under Southwestern 

Pennsylvania, 1769 

The Pocono in the Boyd's Hill Well, at 

Pittsburgh, 1713 

No. X. Pocono Formation in the Northern 

counties, 1717 

Pocono in the Allegheny Mountain 

Plateau, 1721 

No. X. Pocono in Crawford county, 1749 

Sharon, Clean Conglomerate, 1749 









Glenville Section, 1755 

Meadville Group of Prof. White, 1757 

Oil Creek Lake Group (White), 1767 

Waverly Bocks and Fossils, 1779 

Nos. X-XL Mountain Limestone, 1789 

Mountain Limestone on Trough Greek, . 1799 
Silicious Limestone in Lycoming Co., . . 1801 

No. XL Mauch Chunk Ked Shale, 1805 

Outcrop geography of the Mauch Chunky 1809 

No. XI at Mauch Chunk, 1813 

General Description, 1815 

Mauch Chunk Bed Shale around the 

Northern Field, 1823 

No. XI in the Broad Top Coal Field, 1833 

No. XI in Northwestern Pennsylvania, 1833 

No. XI along the Allegheny Mountain, 1840 

No. XL Mauch Chunk Bed Shale, 1841 

No. XI in Westmoreland and Fayette Go's, . . . 1843 
No. Xn. Pottsville Conglomerate in the An- 
thracite Begion, 1853 

Prefatory Letter of E. V. d'Invilliers, 1855 

No. xn. Pottsville Conglomorate, 1857 

No. xn in the Broad Top Basin : 

Huntingdon and Bedford Go's, 1862 

No. XII in Sullivan and Lycoming Go's, 1864 

No. xn in Clinton county, 1866 

No. xn in Centre county, 1867 

No. XII in Clearfield county, 1868 

No. XII in Cambria and Somerset Co's, 1869 

Well Becord at Cherry Tree, 1870 

No. xn in Bradford and Tioga Go's, 1871 

No. xn in Potter county, 1872 

No. xn in McKean county, 1873 

No. xn in Cameron, Elk and Forest Go's, 1881 

No. XII in Forest county, 1885 

No. xn in Jefferson county, 1886 

No. xn in Indiana county, 1889 

No. xn in Armstrong county, 1890 

No. xn in Westmoreland and Fayette Go's, . . 1891 




No. xn 

No. XII 



No. xn 

in Warren county, » 1892 

in Venango county, 1895 

in Clarion county, 1895 

in North Butler county, 1896 

in Crawford county, 1898 

in Mercer county, 1902 

in Lawrence county, 1909 

or "Beaver River Group," Beaver 

county, 1912 

in Beaver, Lawrence and Mercer coun- 
ties along the Beaver and Shenango 

Valleys, 1914 

, General Section, 1914 



Chapter. Pa^e. 

GXVm. Commercial Importance of, 1916 

Location and General Description, 1917 

Formation, No. Xn, 1920 

Limits of No. Xn, 1920 

Thickness of No. XH, 1922 

Coal Measures, 1923 

Thickness of the Coal Measures, 1924 

Structure of the Anthracite Region, 1924 

Composition of Pennsylvania Anthracite, . . . 1926 

Specific Gravity of Anthracite, 1928 

Vegetable Ori^n of Coal, 1929 

Mining Methods and Appliances, 1932 

The Anthracite Survey, 1935 

Scope of Present Report, 1939 

List of Anthracite Publications, 1940 

CXIX. Northern Coal Field, 1946 

Structure, 1947 

Formation No. Xn, 1949 

Coal Measures, 1951 

Proportion of Refuse in Coal Beds, 1952 







1. Forest City— Carbondale Division, 1952 

2 . Jermyn— Priceville Division, 1958 

3. Scranton Division, 1966 

4. Pittston Division, 1973 

5 . Wilkes-Barre Division, 1982 

6 . Nanticoke — Shickshinny Division, 1999 

7. Loyalsock and Mehoopany Coal Field,. . . 2007 

Glaciation in Northern Field, 2015 

Buried Valley of Newport Creek, 2017 

Wyoming Buried Valley, 2017 

Limestone Beds, 2020 

Eastern Middle Coal Field, 2022 

8. Upper Lehigh— Pond Creek Basins, 2023 

9 . Woodside and Cross Creek Basins, 2028 

10. Little Black Creek Basin, 2030 

11. Big Black Creek Basin, 2032 

12. Black Creek — Robert's Run and McCau- 

ley Mountain Basins, 2034 

13. Hazleton Basin, 2038 

14. Dreck Creek and Beaver Meadow Basins, 2041 

15. Green Mountain Basins Nos. 1 to 5, 2044 

16. Spring Mountain and Silver Brook Basins, 2046 
Western Middle Coal Field, 204£ 

17. Delano — Shenandoah Division, 2052 

18. Lost Creek — Locust Gap Division, 2058 

19. Centralia— Mt. Carmel Division, 2062 

20. Shamokin — Treverton Division, 2066 

Southern Coal Field, 2072 

Structure, 2074 

Formation No. XII, 2075 

Coal Measures, 2075 

Condition of the Coal Beds, 2076 

21. Broad Mountain Basins, 2077 

22 . Heckscherville Valley Basin, 2081 

23. Panther Creek Basin, 2086 

24. Tamaqua — Middleport Division, 2094 

25. Pottsville Division, 2104 

26. Llewellvn — Tremont Division, 2117 

27. East Franklin — Brookside Division, 2126 


Chapter. Pace. 

28 . Williamsto wn — Lykens Division, 2133 

29. Schuylkill— Dauphin Basin, 2138 

CXXUL Estimate of Contents of the Anthracite Field, 2147 

Total Shipment and Production to 1893, 2152 

Coal Available in the Ground, 1893, 2152 


Pago. Plate. 

1630. Columnar sections showing position of Bradford 

Oil Sand and map of Bradford Oil District,, . . 205 

1632. IX, Lowest Oil Horizon, 206 

1632. Proven Oil Territory to illustrate Report R, 206 

1634. Bradford Oil District, continued, 207 

1636 . X, Pocono sandstone in Shickshinny Mtn., 208 

1638. X, in Perry county, Buffalo and Cove Mtns., 209 

1640. X, XI, Terrace Mtn. and Trough Valley, 210 

1642. X, Coals. Broad Top, 211 

1644. New River Series and Conglomerate of Pocono 
S. S. in Sideling Hill Tunnel, Huntingdon Co., 

Pa., 212 

1646. X, Pocono sandstone coals at Tipton, 213 (A) 

1648. X, The Allegheny Mtn. at Hollidaysburg, 213 (B) 

1650. X, Allegheny Mtn. and Pine Creek Gap, 213 (C) 

1652. Devonian sections East and West of Tioga River, 214 

1654. X, XI, Xn, in Lycoming county. Pa., 215 

1656. Key to dissected sheets of J. P. Lesley's unfinish- 
ed map of 1853, 216 

1658 to 1864. J. P. Lesley's map of 1853,.. 217, 218, 219, 220 (A) 
1666. X, XI, xn, Xin, XIV, Coal beds and limestones 

in Indiana county, 220 (B) 

1668. Oil well boring tools, 220 (0) 

1670. XI, xn, The Kettle and Mauch Chunk, 220 (D) 

1672. XT, Silicious Limestone outcrop, 220 (E) 

1674. XI, Fossils. Mauch Chunk Red Shale. Mountain 

Lime 221 

1676. XI, Fossils Sub-conglomerate (Mountain) Lime- 
stone, 222 

1678. X, Pocono, or Lower Carboniferous fossils, 196 


Pa«e. • put*. 

1680. X, Pocono, L. Carboniferous f ossils, continued, . . 197 
1682. X, Pocono, L. Carboniferous fossils, continued,. . 198 
1684. XI, Fossils Subconglomerate (Mountain) Lime- 
stone, 223 

1686. XI, Fossils Bubconglomerate (Mauch Chunk), . . . 224 

1688. XI, Mountain limestone fossils, in the west, 225 

1690. XI, Fossils Subconglomerate (Mountain, Keokuk, 

etc.), Limestones, 226 

1692. XI, Fossils Subconglomerate (Mountain) Lime- 
stones, 227 

1694. XI, Fossils Chouteaux, Keokuk, Kinderhook,etc., 

Limestones, 228 

1696. XI, Fossils Subconglomerate ("Subcarboniferous") 

Limestones, 229 

1698. XI, Subconglomerate limestone fish, 230 

1700. XI, Subconglomerate limestone fish teeth, 231 

1702. XI, Subconglomerate limestone fish teeth, 232 

1704. XI, Subconglomerate limestone fish teeth, etc., . . 233 

1706. XI, Subconglomerate limestone fishes, 234 

1708. XI, Fish teeth. Insect wings. Reptiles, 235 

1710. XI, Reptile foot prints — Tracks of worms from 
Mauch Chunk Red Shale, Mount Carbon, 

Schuylkill Co., Pa., 23tt 

1712. Xn, Pottsville /conglomerate outliers, crest of 
Chestnut Ridge, near Connellsville, Fayette 

county, 237 

1714. xn, Olean (Lowest Pottsville) conglomerate in 

Western New York, 238 

1716. xn, Olean (Lowest Pottsville) conglomerate in 

McKean Co., Pa., 239 

1718. xn. Inter-conglomerate coals of the Northern 

counties of Pennsylvania, 240 

1720. xn. Inter-conglomerate coal measures of Lycom- 
ing Co., Pa., 241 

1722. xn, Pottsville conglomerate, Lycoming Co., Pa, 242 

1722. Little Pine Creek Coal Basin, 242 

1724. xn. Conglomerate coals of Lycoming Co., 243 

1726. xn, Conglomerate coals of Wyoming Co., 244 

• • • 


Paite. PUte. 

1728, Xn, Coals Gaines Coal Basin, Tioga Co., 245 

1730. xn, Pottsville conglomerate coal beds in Mc- 
Kean Co. and Geol. map of the Howard Hill 

Coal Field, ; 24^ 

1732. XII, Conglomerate coals in McKean Co., Pa., 247 A. 

1734. xn. Coal beds, McKean Co., 247 B. 

1736. Wilcox spouting water well, McKean Co., Pa., . . . 247 C. 
1738. xn, Coals. Potato Creek Coal Basin, McKean 

Co., 248 

1740. xn. Coal beds. Inter-conglomerate and Topo- 
graphical map Buffalo Coal Co's tract, 249- 

1742. xn, Conglomerate Coals of McKean Co., 250 

1744. xn, Conglomerate Coals of McKean Co., 251 

1746. xn. Conglomerate Coals of McKean Co., 252 

1748. xn, Xm, Coal measures in and above the Con- 
glomerate in McKean Co., 253^ 

1750. xn. Conglomerate Coals in McKean Co., 254 

1752. XII, Conglomerate Coals in Crawford Co., 255 

1754. XII, Conglomerate Coals in Mercer Co., 256 

1756. XII, Xni, Columnar Sections in Mercer Co., 257 

1758. XII, Xin, Ferriferous ,and Mercer limestones 

and ores in Lawrence county, 258 

1760. xn, Xin, Coal measures in Lawrence Co., 259- 

1762. xn, Pottsville Conglomerate sub-divisions. Coal 

measures above; Oil measures beneath, 260 

1764. XII, Pottsville Conglomerate sub-divisions on the 

Beaver river, 261 

1766. xn, Xni, Coals in Butler and Beaver Co's, 262 

1768. XII, xm, Map of the Allegheny Valley near Par- 
ker, in Armstrong and Butler Co's 263 

1770. Xni, Allegheny Cbal Series in Blair Co 264 

1772. First Bituminous Coal Basin, Cambria Co., 265 

1774. xm, Allegheny Series in Cambria Co., sections 

along the P. R. R, 266 

1776. xm, Allegheny Series (L. C. M.), Cambria Co., ... 267 

1778. XIII, Allegheny Series in Cambria Co., 268 

1780. xm, Allegheny Series in Cambria Co., 269 

1782, xm, Sections in Cambria Co., 270 

XIV geologi<;al survey of Pennsylvania. 

Pag*. PtaM. 

1784. Xin, Allegheny Series in Cambria Co., 271 

1786. Xin, Allegheny Series, Cambria Co., 272 

1788. Xni, Allegheny Series, Cambria Co., 273 

1790. Xm, Allegheny Series, Cambria Co., 274 

1792. xm, Allegheny Series, Cambria Co., 275 

1794. Xni, Allegheny Series, Cambria Co., 276 

1796. XII, Allegheny Coal Series, Clearfield Co., 277 

1798. Outcrop Map of Freeport Lower Coal Bed, Clear- 
field Co., Pa., 278 

1800. xm, Allegheny Coal Series in Indiana Co., 279 

1802. XTTT^ Allegheny Coal Series in Armstrong Co., . . 280 

1804. xm, Allegheny Coal Seris in Armstrong Co., . . 281 

1806. xm, XIV, Coal Measures, west of Pittsburgh, 282 

1808. Xin, XIV, Allegheny County Columnar Sections, 283 
1810. xm, Freeport iXJ. Coal, Variations in Butler, 

Beaver and Allegheny counties, 284 

1812. xm, Allegheny Coal Series in N. Butler C«., ... 285 

1814. xm, Allegheny Coal Series in N. Butler Co., ... 286 

1816. xm. Clarion Co. Coal Field, north part, 287 

1818. Xin, Clarion Co. Coal Field, south part, 288 

1820. xm, Allegheny River Ancient channel, abandon- 
ed since the Ice Age, 289 

1822. xm, Allegheny Coal Series in Clarion county, . . 290 

1824. xm, Allegheny Series in Clarion Co.^ 291 

1826. xm, Allegheny Coal Series in Clarion Co., 292 

1828. xm, Allegheny Series in Jefferson Co., 293 

1830. xm, Xn, Allegheny Series in Jefferson Co., 294 

1832. xm, XIV, Castleman's river, Somerset Co., 295 

1834. XrV, Barren Measures in Somerset Co., 296 

1836. XIV, Pittsburgh Series in S. W. Pa., 297 

1838. XIV, XV, Pittsburgh bed in Somerset Co., Wel- 

lersburg Basin, 298 


1916. Map of the Anthracite Region, 299 

1918. Relief Map of the Anthracite Region, by Mr. E. B. 

Harden, 300 

1920. The Internal Vegetable Structure of Coal, 301 


A*ftce. Plftto. 

1922. Methods of Mining Anthracite Coal, 302 

1924. Methods of Mining Anthracite Coal, 303 

L926. Methods of Mining Anthracite Goal, 304 

1928. Methods of Mining Anthracite Coal, 305 

1930. Methods of Mining Anthracite Coal, 306 

1932. Methods of Mining Anthracite Coal, 307 

1934. Methods of Mining Anthracite Coal, 308 

1936. Methods of Mining Anthracite Coal, 309 

1938. Views of Anthracite Coal Breakers, 310 

1946. View of the Wyoming Valley, also of the Kings- 
ton Plats, 311 

1948. Sections of No. XH in the Northern Field, 312 

1952. Map of Northeast Half of Northern Field, 313 

1956. Bore Hole Sections Southwest of Forest City, No. 

2 Shaft, 314 

1957. Bore Hole Sections, etc., continued, 315 

1960. Sections through Forest City, Coal Brook, Glen- 
wood, Grassy Island, Leggett's Creek and Mar- 

rine Colljleries, 316 

1964. Columnar Sections, Grassy Island to Dunmore 

beds, 317 

1968. Columar Sections, Clark to Red Ash or Dunmore 

beds in vicinity of Scranton, 318 

1970. Measures above the Clark bed in vicinity of 

Scranton and Olyphant, 319 

1972. Sections through No. 1 Shaft, Meadow Brook, 
Scranton, Dodge, Continental, Hampton, Sloan,- 
and No. 4 Shaft Collieries, 320 

1976. Map of Southwest half of Northern Field, 321 

1980. Columnar Sections of Tompkins, Schooley and 

Barnum Shafts, 322 

1986. Sections through Pine Ridge, Mill Creek, Hollen- 

back. Empire and Stanton Collieries, 323 

1990. Sections through Maltby, Black Diamond, Mill 
Hollow, Kingston, Dodson, Gaylord and Not- 
tingham Collieries, 324 

1992. Columnar Sections of South WilkesBarre and 

Empire Shafts, 325 


Opposite PUt«. 


1994. Columnar Sections of East Boston, Kingston No. 

3 and Gaylord Shafts below the Orchard bed, 326 

2000. Relief Map of the Southwestern end of the North- 
ern Field, by Mr. E. B. Harden, 327 

2002. Sections through Ashley, Sugar Notch, Warrior 

Run and Wanamie Collieries, 328 

2004. Sections through Nanticoke, Glen Lyon, West 

End and Salem Collieries, 329 

2006. Columnar Sections of Nanticoke Nos. 1 and 2 

Shafts, 330 

2009. Map of the Loyalsock and Mehoopany Coal Field, 333 

2018. Map showing position of the Wyoming Burled 

Valley, 331 and 332 

2022. Map of the Eastern Middle Coal Field, 334 

2024. Three Views of Strippings at Hollywood Colliery, 335 

2025. Sections of No. XH in Eastern Middle Field, .... 336 
2028. Columnar sections at Upper Lehigh, Drifton, 

Hazleton, Honey Brook, Beaver Meadow and 
Gowen Collieries, 337 

2030. Sections across the Upper Lehigh, Pond Creek, 

Woodside and Cross Creek basins, 338 

2031. Sections of Coal Beds at Drifton, Milnesville, 

Ebervale and Jeddo, 339 

2032. Five sections across the Little Black Creek basin, 340 
2034. Seven sections across the Big Black Creek basin, 341 
2036. Sections across the Black Creek, Robert's Run 

and McCauley Mountain basins 342 

2040. Five sections across the Hazleton basin, 343 

2042. Sections across the Beaver Meadow, Jeansville 

and Honey Brook basins, 344 

2046. Sections through Treskow, Audenried, Green 

Mountain and Oneida Collieries 345 

2048. Map of Western Middle Coal Field 346 

2050. No. Xn at I^ast Mahanoy R. R. tunnel, 347 

2052. Views showing Mammoth Bed near Shenandoah, 

from photographs by Mr. E. B. Harden 348 

2053. Views showing interior of Anthracite Mine, from 

photographs by Mr. E. B. Harden, 341) 


Fhge. Plate. 

2054. Map sbowiiij; shape of the floor of the Mammoth 
Coal Bed, in vieinitv of Mahanov Cit> and 
Shenandoah, :\7A) 

l!Or)(). Sections through Cophiy, Schuylkill, Ok-ndon. 
West Lehigh, Mahanov City and Primrose Col- 
lieries, )551 

2057. Sections through P^ast Mahanoy tunnel and Hill- 

side, Vulcan, Ehuwood, Tunnel Kidge, St. 
Nicholas and Boston Run Collieries, 35J 

2058. Columnar sections at Mahanoy City and North 

Star Collieries, 35:^ 

2059. Sections through Knickerbocker, Shenandoah 

City, Coal Run, Lehigh No. 3, Packer Nos. 2 
and 4, Wm. Penn and Ellengowan C^ollieries, . . 354 
2000. Columnar sections Mammoth to Buck Mountain 

bed, in vicinity of Shenandoah, 355 

2061. Columnar sections at Ellengowan and St. Nich- 

olas Colieries, 356 

2062. Sections through Bear Ridge, Stanton, Draper, 

Lawrence and Preston Collieries, 357 

2063. Sections through Bast, Tunnel, Big Run, Potts 

and Ke} stone Collieries, 358 

2064. Columnar section at Potts Colliery, 359 

2065. Sections across the Centralia and <^oal Ridge 

basins, 360 

2066. Sections through Merriam, Enterprise, Mt. Car- 

mel, Pennsylvania, Brady and Excelsior Col- 
lieries, 361 

2068. Sections through Henry Clay, Big Mountain, 
Burnside, Cameron and North Franklin Col- 
lieries, 362 

2070. Columnar section in vicinity of Shamokin, 363 

2072. Views of Sharp Mountain and Mine Hill Gap, 

from photographs by Mr. E. B. Harden, 364 

20*3^4. Pottsville Conglomerate v^No. XH, from photo- 
graphs by Mr. E. B. Harden, 365 

2076. Map of central portion of Southern Field, 366 


• •  


Face. PlMa. 

2078. Section of No. Xn on the Broad Mountain, 367 

2082. Sections through Repplier, East Pine Knot, 

Anchor and Thomaston collieries, 368 

2084. Divisions of Mammoth bed in the Heckscherville 

basin, 369 

2086. Map of Panther Creek basin and General Colum- 
nar Sections showing Coal Beds, 370 

2088. Sections of No. XII at Nesquehoning, Sharp 

Mountain and Locust Mountain Gaps, 371 

2090. Sections through Hacklebarney, No. 1, No. 2 and 

No. 7 tunnels, 372 

2092. Cross sections at Summit Hill, Greenwood and 

Tamaqua, 373 

2094. Sections of Coal Beds in Panther Creek basin, . . . 374 

2096. Sections through Buckville, Newkirk, Kentucky, 

Reevesdale and Bell Collieries, 375 

2098. Columnar sections at Silver Creek Colliery, 376 

2101. Sections through Kaska Willianr, Windy Har- 
bor and Eagle Hill Collieries 377 

2106. Sections through Milford, Coal Hill, Bear Ridge, 

Salem Slope and Pottsville Gap Collieries, 378 

2108. Section of No. XH at Pottsville, 379 

2110. Sections through Hickory, Wadesvllle and Potts- 
ville Collieries, 380 

2113. Sections through Beechwood, Revenue, Oak Hill 

Slope, Herbine and Red Ash Collieries 381 

2114. Columnar section at Newkirk, Kaska William, 

Eagle Hill and Beechwood Collieries, 382 

2116. Columnar section of Pottsville Shaft and Bore 

Hole 383 

2120. Sections through Middle Creek, Colket, Good 

Spring and Kemble Collieries 384 

2122. Columnar sections. Orchard to Mammoth Bed, in 

vicinity of Tremont, 385 

2124. Columnar sections. Mammoth to Buck Mountain 

bed, west of Pottsville, 386 

2128. Sections through Blackwood, New Lincoln and 

Rousch Creek Collieries, 387 


Paire. Platen 

I'lau. Coal Beds of the Lower Half of :So. XII, west of 

Tremoiit, 388 

2135. Section through Williamstown Colliery, 389 

lil37. Section through Short Mountain Colliery, 390 

2138. Map of Western part of Southern Field, 391 

2140. Section of No. XH at Lincoln and Kalmia Col- 
lieries, 392 

2143. Two sections across the Schuylkill-Dauphin 

basin, 393 

2145. Two sections across the Schuylkill-Dauphin 

basin, 394 

2152. Diagram showing Antbrpcite Shipments, 1820 to 

1893, made by Mr. H. T. Fisher,. 395 


Chapter CXI 

X The Pocono formation. 

This is the first, oldest, or lowest sub-division of that 
great Carboniferous System which has furnished most of 
the mineral coal to the commerce of mankind in our days ; 
and indeed to the manufacturing ingenuity of the monks 
of the middle ages who mined the earth fuel in times as 
far back as the ninth century in Belgium and in Provence ; 
an interesting and instructive history into which it is not 
necessary to go in this book. 

It is also the salt-hrine-hearing formation of that range 
of country which stretches from Western Pennsylvania 
and Eastern Ohio through West Virginia and Eastern 
Kentucky into Alabama. The old salt wells of Saltzburg 
on the Kiskaminitas, of the Salines on the Kanawha, and 
of Pomeroy on the Ohio, are only conspicuous examples 
of the' curious fact that this formation has furnished more 
salt brine and over a wider territory than any other sand- 
stone formation in the Palaeozoic column. Other deposits 
of sand in the ancient seas have preserved the salts which 
soaked them in those times, but none in such an eminent 
degree as this ; and we may well believe that its mode of 
deposit resembled that which prevails along the shores of 
the Black Sea at the present day. To this supposition its 
remarkable feature of oblique or current bedding lends ad- 
ditional probability. Sand banks, in front of a long and 
low-lying shore of a wide-spread continent without mount- 
ains, and traversed by great and sluggish rivers, shutting 
in behind them long wide shallow lagoons exposed to a 
hot sunshine, must always give occasion for abnormal 

1 ( 1629) 





evaporation, and the deposition of nnusnal quantities of 
seasalts. The percolation of fresh rain water through sub- 
sequent geological ages has not exhausted the supply. 

The earliest coal beds are found in this same Pocono 
formation ; an additional indication of the shallowing of 
the Appalachian sea, preparatory to the appearance of 
those continuous marshes, or peat bogs, jungles of reeds 
and ferns, and standing forests of cone-bearing trees, which 
occupied immense stretches of the surface of the earth in 
the Carboniferous age, and became in course of time our 
anthracite and bituminous coal beds. But the process of 
preparation was both regular and slow. The scattered 
plants of the Catskill rocks were floated from distant lands. 
The coal beds of the Pocono formation are thin and local ; 
some of them mere collections of leaves and twigs floated 
into small lakes or ponds ; a few were genuine peat bogs, 
of limited extent, and soon buried under inflowing sand. 
Even the earlier beds of the Productive Coal Measures were 
irregular in size and area, by which it can be easily in- 
ferred that the great vegetation of the true coal age had 
not yet spread itself far and wide over the earth's surface. 

Pocono coal has been found within the limits of Penn- 
sylvania in Cove and Buffalo mountains on the Susque- 
hanna, in Sideling Hill in Huntingdon county, on Tipton 
Run in Blair county, and in many other ravines descending 
the escarpment of the Allegheny mountain ; but every at- 
tempt to work it profitably has been a failure except at the 
Tipton mines, which will be described in another part of 
this report. 

In Virginia, at Augusta Springs and other places, 
equally fruitless mining adventures have been undertaken. 
But in Wythe county two beds, one 4 feet thick, the other 
8, have been mined for a length of outcrop of about a mile, 
beyond which they become too thin to mine, although 
they can be traced along Brushy mountain and the ridges 
back of it for many miles northward and into Tennessee. 
In Eastern Kentucky similar small coalbeds are known, in 
the '* Knobstone formation," as the Pocono is there called^ 
facing the Western edge of the Kentucky coal field. 



The abundance of salt brine and the scarcity of coal are 
therefore the principal features of the Pocono formation, 
so far as the treasury of the commonwealth or the business 
interests of its citizens are concerned in it. But to the 
geographer, the civil engineer, and especially to the geolo- 
gist, its character as one of the great sand deposits of the 
ancient sea bottom has many other attractions. In thick- 
ness it varies from a few hundred to several thousand feet ; 
and so rapidly that the change takes place in a distance of 
less than fifty miles. In constitution it is in one region a 
single mass of hard and massive grey sandstone and pudding- 
stone strata ; in another region a triple mass of current- 
bedded greenish sandstone beds separated by shales 
containing seams of coal; and in a third region a many 
sub-divided mass of soft thin sands and massive limestones. 

This contrast can be best illustrated by giving measured 
sections of the formation at various points on the Lehigh 
river ; at Sideling Hill tunnel in Huntingdon county ; at 
the Allegheny mountain in Blair county ; in the gaps of the 
Conemaugh and Youghiogheny in Westmoreland and 
Fayette counties ; on Oil creek in Venango county ; and 
at the Lake Erie outcrop in Erie' and Crawford counties. 

The Mountain limestone {^'Siliceous limestone ^^) at the 
top of Pocono, which appears in Lycoming county, and in 
the gaps and oil wells of the Pittsburg region, grows to 
great proportions in West Virginia, and becomes the pre- 
dominate deposit in the Mississippi Valley. It will be de- 
scribed in a subsequent chapter. In Pennsylvania it is an 
intermediate formation between the Pocono and the Mauch 
Chunk (X and XI) too thin and obscure to arrest much at- 
tention when the scheme of numbered formations was first 
made out, and before its proper relationship to the lime- 
stones of the far west was known. 



Chapter CXII. 

X The Pocono on the Lehigh. 

The section of vertical strata in the gap of the second 
mountain below Mauch Chunk, measured by Mr. Win- 
slow, has been given on page 1595 of Vol. II, and is here 
repeated : 


XL Mauoh Chunk bbd bhalb, 2168' 

X. PoooNO 8AND8TONB, beglnniug 1000' S. of the 

East Mauch Chunk RR. station. 
« SS., hard, gray ; with oong. beds ( White's Na 1), . 440 

*< Shale and slate, darlc, 20 

^* SS., ooarse grained, grayish, 26 

•< Slate, dark 13 

:: ;^«*^*>Jy«^^'^»™y'( (White's Na 2), . . . 1 ?? 
<< Conglomerate, coarse, S ^ ' (14 

<* Shale and SS. grayish-green, 28 

** YeUow ochre, 5 

<< Shale, greenish, 18 

♦* Yellow ochre, 6 

** Shales, olive green, ochrey, 65 

*< SS., dark gray, with shale and slate, 282 

" SS., white, fine *<soapstone" bed at base, .... 48 

*< Shales, dark, greenish and variegated, 40 

'< SS. dark-gray and reddish, with a few large scat- 
tered pebbles (passing the Mauch Chunk RR. 
station), 214 1253 

The next section measured by Mr. Winslow, was along the 
Lehigh Valley railroad from a point in East Mauch Chunk 
1800' N. of the bridge to a point 3000' N. of Glen Onoko. 

XL Mauoh Chunk Red Shalb, 3342 

X. PoooNo Sandstonb, gray, hard, 160 

" Sandstone with shale, dark gray, 118 

** Sandstone, gray, hard, with quartz pebbles, . . . 305 

'* Conglomerate, siliceous, 25 

** Sandstone, greenish gray, partly concealed, . . . 252 

*< Sandstone, gray, 84 

*' Concealed interval, 279 1228 

Still higher up the river, from the ravine N. of Quakake 
Creek southward to switch house below old Penn Haven 
railway junction: — 



Di^X.'&ha'TW iamlstmu in. S/UcUshitmy^Mtn 


XL Mauch Chunk red shale, visible, 06 

X. PocoNO shale, green, hard, 20 

<* Sandutoue, gray, silioeous, 15 

*< Shales, green, 20 

'* Sandstone, grayish-red, 10 

<< ** greenish gray, hard, 40 

*^ <* gray, hard, with pebbles, 146 

" Shales, green, ' 36 

" »* yellowish, ochrey, 20 

*^ Sandstones and shales, greenish, 296 

" *« " «* red, 25 

" ** " «« 205 833 

Still higher up the river, from Stony Creek northward 
along the L. V. RR. the strata on a south dip of only 6® to 
10** read thus :— 

X. PoGONO conglomerate, gray, 20 

** Sandstone and conglomerate, gray, flinty, .... 100 

" Shales, greenish, 165 

*< Shales, greenish, 8 

** Sandstone, greenish gray, . 8 

" '* and dark shales, 9 

** Shale black and coaly, 1 

<* Sandstone, dark gray, hard, 20 

" Shales, dark, 7 

** Sandstone, shaly, dark, 17 

** ** and shales, greenish gray, flinty, . . • 87 

" concealed, 80 

<< << greenish gray, hard, flinty, 35 557 

Still further north, along the L. V. RR. south from 
Drakes Creek, with north dip : — 

X. PocoNo sandstone and conglomerate, gray, .... 126 

" — — concealed, 93 

<* Conglomerate, fine, flinty, 213 

*^ Sandstones and shales, dark gray, 51 

** concealed, 27 

" Shale, yellow ochrey, 13 

" " hard, 13 

<* Conglomerate and sandstone, dark gray, 13 

" concealed, 76 

** Sandstone, dark, greenish gray, hard, 77 

<* Conglomerate and sandstone, gray, flinty, .... 20 

** Shale, greenish, hard, 27 

^* Sandstone, gray, hard, 49 798 

Still further north, on the steep south slope of the Nes- 
copec mountain, the L. V. RR. exposes south dipping rocks 
up to the Summit rflck cut, thus : — 

X. PocoNO sandstone, white, hard, flinty, pebbly, • 10 
" concealed, 422 


:X(tXin^e)«(y ccumty,'^uffiito^&mA'Mi. 

Vlllc XamJk^tttTatemitf^^tm^&rrttiaf. 



X. Saudbtone, gray, hard broken, 49 

** concealed, 860 

** Sandstone, gray, coarse, 12 

«* ** white, fine, flinty, 24 

** concealed, 77 

*' Sandstone, olive green, flne, IS 

** *< light green, coarse, 18 

t*  concealed, to first red shale, 140 1110 

Still farther north, a section of the Wyoming mountain 

south of Ashley (in the Northern Anthracite coal field) 
reads thus . — 


XI. Mauoh Chunk Red Shalb, 1002 

X. PoooNO Sandstone, white, coarse, flinty, .... 288 

** Conglomerate, with fine quartz pebbles, 8 

** Sandstone, hard, greenish gray, « 8 

** Conglomerate, small pinkish quartz pebbles, . . 32 

** Sandstone, white, coarse, pebbly, 40 

** " yellowish brown, fissile, friable, ... 88 

<* '< greenish, hard, 44 

•* ** gray, hard, fractured, pebbly, .... 57 

** ** greenish, hard, with conglomerate beds, 266 

** ** shaly, greenish, fractured, 148 

'< ** Conglomerate, soft (slate and sand- 
stone pebbles), 8 

'* Sandstone, greenish, hard, much fhictured, ... 112 

" *• greenish-gray, 168 1177 

IX. Catskill Red Shale and Sandstonk. 

*♦ Shale, brick red, 247 

" Sandstone, green and gray, 84 

** ** and shale, red and reddish, 141 

*' *< green, fine, with broken slate, .... 14 

♦* " gi^y» coarse, flinty, 28 

** " and shale, red, 16 

** " gray, hard, 4 

" and shale, red, 80 

** white, coarse, flinty, 17 

^* and slate, greenish, 11 

*< Conglomerate, sandy, 8 

** Sandstone, gray, flinty, 11 

** " or slate, soit and red, 17 

** " yellowish, friable, 84 

** *< or slate, soft and red, 84 

'* *< green, soft and broken at bottom, ... 22 

'» *< slate, flne, soft, red, 41 

•* Sandstone, chocolate gray, hard, 26 

** " slaty at top, red, 18 

*• " hard, gray, pebbly, 35 

**  yellow, friable, 4 

^* •* gray bard, 8 




c^V^J X,X/ 'S&tiace ^th..hf Q'rouqkyaUeiy 




IX. Sandstone, dark gray, fine, a few pebbles, 82 

" ** gray, hard, flinty, 87 

** Conglomerate, fine, dark, with shale, 6 

" Shale, soft, red, 5 

** Sandstone, chocolate red, hard, 13 

Shale, clayey, red, 24 

Sandstone, friable greenish, 18 

Sandstone, friable, yellowish, 15 

*' green, compact, 21 

Concealed, 20 

Sandstone and shale, red, soft, 48 

** " yellowish, * 11 

Concealed, 183 

Sandstone, coarse, greenish, weathers black, with mica 

scales, 104 

Concealed, 38 

** Sandstone, gray, fine, shaly, 12 

" . " red, hard, shaly, 14 

" " slaty, gray, micaceous, * 3 

" Concealed, 14 

** Sandstone, with mica, red, , 6 

" Concealed, ; 9 

** Sandstone, slaty, red, i 10 

Concealed, ...... 6 

Sandstone, shaly, pebbly, micaceous, 26 

** ' *< brown and grayish, green, mica, 28 

** Concealed from this down ward, visible, .... 1G56 

The lower part of this last section has been subjoined to 
the upper to show the important fact that there is no visi- 
ble break between tl\e Catskill and Pocono formations, and 
no such uonconformability between the Devonian and the 
Carboniferous systems, where most largely developed, as 
has been asserted in various geological books. The same 
fact is evidently declared by tlie other sections.* 

* It is impossible to fix upon any plane of division t>etween IX and X, 
anymore than between YIII and IX, as has been shown in Vol. 2 above; 
nor between X and IX, as will be shown hereafter. The deposits of muds, 
sanda and gravels, with variations of coarseness and color, went on for ages 
in unbroken sequence upon a wide belt of sea bottom, of considerable 
depth, scarcely inhabited by any creatures except fishes, and without the 
slightest mark of disturbance, except that slow and continual subsidence 
which was needful to maintain a water basin or long sea trough, without 
which it would have become filled up ; as indeed it did become after the in- 
road of the Pottsvilie conglomerate No. XII, at the commencement of tlie 
age of the workable coal beds. It will be noticed that in the Stony Creek 
section above 1' of black coaly shale appears ali^iost exactly midway of the 
section. This corresponds to the much more considerable exhibitions of 
thin coal seams and black shales in the middle division of the Pocono rocks 


/tr»nrrO»/StnataB0mnatr if/^emfSSJrzaM^la^aBTieBM/Ainang^n 


Further north, in the Pittston gap of the Susquehanna 
river through Shickshinny mountain, White's section has 
been given already in Vol. 2, on page 1608; but it is here 
repeated to show the rapid thinning of the formation in a 
few miles as it passes underneath the Wyoming coal basin. 

Coxton Section. 

IX. Mauoh Chunk Rbd Shalb, 150 

X. PocoNO Sandstone, massive gray, 100 

<* Conglomerate with slate and sandstone pebbles, .... 2 

" Greenish shale, 1 

<* Sandstone, gray, massive, 65 

" Concealed, 60 

<< Rtd shale, sandy, seen 10 

" Concealed, 5 

« Conglomerate, coarse, whitish, 45 

<* Sandstone, gray, a few pebbles, 80 

'< Sandstone, shaly ; and concealed beds, 26 

<* Sandstone ; large quartz pebbles at base, 80 353' 

Further north in Wyoming county, we have in White's 
Dutch mountain section (Vol. 2, p. 1582 above, from G 7, p. 
141) only what he names Transition beds IX-X, CatsMU- 
Pocono transition bedSy 7X-X, because no definite division 
plane can be fixed on with any satisfaction. The Dutch 
mountain plateau is made by the Oriswold Oap Oongl/ymt- 
rate^ which White assumes as the bottom of the Pocono. 
It is that which ends the Coxton section just given ; and 
its rise towards the Pottsville Conglomerate XII, and its 
gradual thinning along its Schickshinny mountain outcrop 
is graphically exhibited in page plate 14 of his Report G 7, 
p. 144, (reproduced, reduced on plate 208 of this report). 
The transition beds, 370' thick, beneath this Griswold Gap 
conglomerate down to the top red sandstone of the Catskill 
series, are thus recorded in G. 7, p. 141 : 

X. Griswold gap conglomerate, a very massive greyish 

white rock filled with large quartz pebbles, at least, 30 

X-IX. Shale, interval, much concealed, 80 

<* Sandstone, massive grayish (Cascade), 70 

** Shale, sandy, red, 5 

•* Sandstone, gray, 20 

of Sideling Hill, in Huntingdon county, to the Tipton coals of Blair county, 
and to similar deposits elsewhere already mentioned in this chapter. It 
hints at a momentary local tilling of the water basin. 



X-IX. Shale, interval (concealed), 46 

** Sandstone, greenish (Cascade), 90 

" Shale, red, 10 

*< Sandstone, greenish, somewhat massive (Cascade), 180 400 
IX. Shale, red, and sandstone, alternate masses, mak- 
ing a superb series of eight Cascades, for 475' to 
water level. 

Still further north, on the Tioga river, in Tioga county, 
White's section {already given on page 1586 above in Vol. 
2), in which no transition beds are designated, reads thus: 

XII. Pottsville Conglomerate, 60 

XL Mauch Chunk red akale, 245 

X. Poeono sandstone, massive, 20 

** Concealed interval, say 500 

** Sandstone gray, 25 

** Calcareous breccia, 8 

** Sandstone, gray, 25 573 

IX. Catskill, red shale. 

Prof. White's general section in Susquehanna, Wayne, 
Bradford, Wyoming, etc. (already given on page 1576, Vol. 
2), is repeated here to make plain what is said above: 

X. PocoNO sandstone, bufflsh, pebbly, 40' 

*< Shales, buff, sandy and concealed, 200' 

*< Sandstone, huffish white, massive, 125' 

** Shales with sandstones, gray, current bedded, . . 205' 

" Oriswold Oap Conglomerate, white, 85-665 

*< liix^s Oap fish bed at its base. 

JX-X, Cats kill- Pocono transition beds; concealed, .... 50' 

<* Sandstone, gray, current bedded, 15 

" Concealed strata, 25' 

*< Sandstone, grayish white, 20' 

" Concealed strata, 25' 

** Sandstone gray, current bedded, 15' 

** Sandstone gray, and reddish shales, 200' 

«* Mount Pleasant Conglomerate, 25-375 

" Mount Pleasant fish bed at its base. 
IX. CATSKiLii strata, proper, viz:— 

** Mount Pleasant red shale, 150' 

These Pocono measures are described in White's Report 
G5, p. 56, thus : — The 40' rock at the top is very massive 
and contains very many white quartz pebbles and would 
certainly be identified with the Stcb-Olean conglomerate ot 
McKean were the section made in any of the northwestern 
counties of the state. 

The underlying shale mass maybe 175' or 225' thick ; but 
it is averaged at 200'. 


r cc;(iii(A) 

j2%,X,^vcmo janclitone coaA at ^iatanv. 




The 125' sandstone mass has all the Pocono characteristic 
features, an uninterrupted pile of buff colored layers (1 to 
4 feet thick), moderately fine-grained, very hard, and some- 
what current-bedded. In a notch of the Lackawanna 
(Schickshinny) mountain N. W. of Oliphant 100' of its 
beds are visible strikingly resembling the Gorry Sandstone 
of Erie county. 

The 265' of shales under it include several beds of gray- 
ish-white tolerably coarse current-bedded sandstones. On 
Roaring Run branch 200' or 250' of reddish-olive shales 
overlie shales in which sandstone layers occur. 

^^The Griswold Gap Conglomerate is a remarkable horizon. 
In the whole 800' to 850' interval between it and the Bottom 
Conglomerate of XII, our section of Mauch Chunk and 
Pocono rocks has not exhibited a deposit in which the quartz 
pebbles are numerous, large or persistent enough to war- 
rant the name of a conglomerate But at this horizon lies 
a true conglomerate^ so solid and massive as to make the 
crest of the Moosic mountain. In the notches of this crest 
the rock can be studied all along the western border of 
Wayne county, and it has two fine sloping outcrops on the 
opposite site of GriswolcPs gap^ just east of Forest City, 
on the road to White Oak pond. ' Its outcrop from this gap 
can be followed, northward, to near Mt. Pleasant, usually 
on the eastern slope of the mountain crest ; and southward, 
across the Wayne county line into Lackawanna county, 
about 6 miles south from Waymart. Its pebbles, very 
white, are somewhat angular and flattish rather than ovoid, 
vary in size from i" to 2", and rest in a rather coarse, brown- 
ish-gray matrix weathering whitish. I would compare this 
formation with the Cussewago Sandstone of my Erie county 
report, Q*. 

" The Fish bed of Bix^s gap is a calcareous layer, 2' to 
3' thick, which outcrops near the base of the Oriswold 
CongloTnei^ate^ just west of Waymart, in Rix's gap. Peb- 
bles of red shale and greenish shale and many fish remains 
are mixed with the ordinary quartz pebbles. 

" The Transition layers {Sub'Pocono\ a markedly dif- 
ferent kind of sediments from the conglomerate just de- 



scribed, occupy the next 375 ; and the North and South 
Knobs of the Elk mountain range are made by this group. 
Mount Ararat and the Sugar-loaf of the Moosic mountain 
range, are similar isolated heights preserved from erosion 
by outlying patches of this group ; 250' to 300' of the sec- 
tion being visible on and around their summits ; — horizon- 
tal plates of coarse, grayish-white, current-bedded sand- 
stone (often streaked with layers of small quartz pebbles), 
each from 15' to 25' thick, and separated by beds of sandy 
shale (some of them, especially those low in the series, of 
reddish hue) from 20' to 50' thick. 

'' The Mount Pleasant Conglomeraie^ at the base of the 
group, is a massive grayish-white sand rock, 20' to 25' thick, 
through wTiich pebbles of quartz are scattered, and some- 
times in such abundance as to constitute it a conglomerate. 
Even where the whole mass is mostly sandstone, there is 
always ^pebhly portion near the bottom^ 3' to 6' thick ; and 
the pebbles in this lower portion are reddish or rose col- 
ored^ in striking contrast with the white pebbles of the 
Chriswold gap conglomerate* 

^^ Fish bed.: — A calcareous conglomerate^ 2' to 3' thick, 
forms the base of the Ml. Pleasant rock^ like the Chriswold 
gap rock : — quartz pebbles, pieces of shales, and/ragments 
offish bones (to all appearance) so worn as to be undeter- 
minate." (White.) 

The Nescopec Gap Section near Catawissa in Columbia 
county, is the only other one in eastern Pennsylvania which 
needs be quoted (G7, p. 51). It has been given in full in 
Vol. 2, p. 1604 above. 

* The summit of the hUl at the village of Mt Pleasant is capped by an 
outlying patch of this formation, about half an acre in extent Here its 
pebbles are quite large. Prospect Rock is a broad table of it, and its long 
lines of clifls look out from the east and west sides of the South Knob of the 
Elk mountains. In Ararat Peak it is very conglomeritic, and the people, 
mistaking it for the Bottom conglomerate of XII^ believe that coal beds 
exist in the 300' to 400' of measures which form the cone of the mountain 
over it ; which, of course, is a mistake. In Sugar Loaf peak it outcrops 
again. Along Moosic mountain slope, facing east, in Wayne county, its out- 
crop can be traced from Mt Pleasant southward to the Lackawanna county 
line ; and in that direction the rock seems to become a coarser conglomer- 
ate. (White.) 

165(t ovAiumicAh scrvbt of penssylvaxia. 


X. rocono sandstone, coarse, yellowish, ^ 

« *' concealed; no doubt shaly, 250 

*' Sandstones, massive, whitish, some conglome- 
rate, 300— 680 

IX-X. Transition sandstone and shaLes, gray, 800 

" Sandstones, gray, becoming reddish downwards, . 75— 875 
IX. CaUkill red shaley 100', etc. 

X. Pocono Tnountains in Pennsylvania. 

It will be readily inferred from the sections given in this 
chapter and the notes accompanying them that the Pocono 
formation plays a predominating rdle in the geography of 
eastern and northern Pennsylvania. In fact, it makes the 
sharp crests, or flat tops of most of its mountain ranges, 
and highest table lands ; as well as those isolated peaks 
which have escaped erosion, and now stand like solitary 
sentinels here and there on the great Catskill plateau. 

To enumerate the mountains the crests of which are 
made by the long continuous outcrop of the Pocono sand- 
stone would be to repeat the catalogue of Catskill mount- 
ains already recited in Chapter CVI of the second volume 
of this report ; for in the case of every one of them, either 
there are two crests, one Catskill and the other Pocono, or 
a terrace of Catskill is looked down upon from a higher 
crest of Pocono. Thus, the Second mountain on the Le- 
high, double-crested and almost perfectly straight, runs to 
the Susquehanna river ; makes a loop in Perry county, as 
Cove mountain ; (see Plate CCIX, p. 1638) ; runs east as 
Fourth or Peters mountain ; returns to the river and makes 
another cove as Buffalo mountain ; again runs east as Mo- 
hantongo mountain and returns to the river bank as Maho- 
noy mountain ; runs east again (north of the Western Mid- 
dle Anthracite field), and becomes the Catawissa and Nes- 
copec mountains ; returns west as Wyoming mountain and 
east again as Schickshinny and Lackawanna mountain, 
nearly to the New York line; then returns west as Elk 
mountain, the Great North mountain, and the backbone 
Allegheny mountain 200 miles in a great curve through 
middle Pennsylvania to Maryland. 

Under all these diflferent names the mountain is one and 
the same ; one outcrop zigzags across the surface of the 



AOnA Oiyfaamfe . .Vr JK 


State, presenting now vertical, now steeply slanting, now 
almost horizontal dips ; a Catskill terrace beneath a Pocono 
crest ; gapped abruptly by great rivers, or cut by a thou- 
sand head branches into a wilderness of ravines, the steep 
step-like walls of which are of red Catskill sandstone and 
shale, and the high upland plateaus paved with gray Pocono 
strata. Prom the Pocono plateau proper between the Le- 
high and the Delaware most of this pavement has been re- 
moved. But the Nesquehoning or Broad mountain, west 
of the Lehigh river, is a triangular flat compound arch of 
Pocono, covered with sea sand, so like the - sand spreads 
over the Broad mountain of Pottsville conglomerate (No. 
XII) north of Pottsville, that nothing could induce the 
owners of the few farms upon its level top to quite resign 
their hope of mining coal upon it. A similar triangular 
uplift of Pocono mountain occurs between the two fish- 
tail ends of the Southern Anthracite Field in Dauphin 
county. These, however, are but enlargements of the one 
continuous out.crop, which is altogether nearly a thousand 
miles long. 


Ms.X,XI,X/l. i^vH^amtin^ cowntif.'S^a, 

Secueo ^Soatb Og^i^lkAt 

mtirm t^yl n n m v k .JffXa 


Chapter CXIII. 

X. The Pocono in Perry County. 

The Cove mountain forms a rampart about 1000' high, 
with a level and unbroken crest, sweeping from the river 
near Duncannon westward 4 miles and returning to the 
river 8 miles. The rocks dip about 45° (S. 30° E.) at Dun- 
cannon ; and here in 1877 a tunnel was driven across them, 
200', to a bed of shale 10' thick, containing two beds of 
coal^ two feet apart, the upper one 8 inches thick, the lower 
one 30 inches ; 2' black slate covered the upper coal. The 
coal beds are crushed to fragments seldom exceeding a 
pound in weight. An analysis by McCreath gave : — Car- 
bon, 48.28 ; volatile matter, 14.38 : ash, 36.44 ; sulphur, 0.32*. 

Prof. Claypole speaks of two other coal crops under the 
one described above ; all three traceable along the surface 
of the mountain by slight but continuous terraces or 
benches ; but there is no reason for expecting the other two 
to be of any better quality. In fact a line of long since 
abandoned trial pits may be found in the woods (J^'2, 292, 

X. PocovA) Coal of Huntefs Cove^ P^erry County. 

The southern outcrop of Pocono in Berry mountain runs 
from Mt. Patrick through the middle of BuflPalo township 
into Howe township, ending in a high knob at the Juniata, 

*I had some years previously examined an outcrop opening on tliis worth- 
less deposit 4 feet thick and condemned it But after the discovery of the 
Lykens Valley bed of Dauphin county, in the Pottsville conglomerate No. 
XII, ignorant miners persuaded people that this coal near Duncannon in 
Pocono sandstone No. X was the same ; hence an expensive rock -tunnel to 
test it in the deep. An analysis of Lykens Valley coal by McCreath gave : 
Carbon, 78.83 ; vol. matter, 8.83 ; ash, 9.39 ; sulphur, 0. 67.— The relationship 
of these coals with those mined in Hchuylkiil county can be seen at a glance 
by consulting the cross-section, plate XXXI of F,2p. 286 (reproduced on 
a reduced scale on page plate CLXX XVIII, p. 1548, Vol. 2. 




and returning east as Buffalo mountain, to the river at Liv- 
erpool. The two mountains make a triangular cove, wat- 
ered by Hunter' s creek. Their crests rise about 1000' above 
the river. The formation is 2000' thick ; dipping in Berry 
mountain, 65°, N. 10° E, under the red shale (XI) of the 
cove. The top sandrocks are about 2000' beneath the low- 
est anthracite coal beds of the Lykens Valley basin. 

One small coal bed and probably others, exist in these 
Pocono rocks, but they are absolutely worthless. A drift 
was carried in at the end of Berry mountain 300 feet on one 
of these coal beds, which w^as reported to be 3' thick at the 
heading. Prof. Claypole's section at the mouth reads as 
follows (P2, 154) : — Sandstone ; thin yellow sandstone, 8 
inches ; coal^ 1 inch ; soft green shale, 6 inches ; slaty coal, 
1 inch ; red and green shales ; coal^ 1 inch ; green shale, 
yellow ochre and plant remains. The coal is so soft, both 
at the mouth and at the end of the drift, that it is not true 
coal. It has what resembles shale flakes in it. The plant 
remains are so mashed and broken as to be indescribable, ex- 
cept fragments of Calamites. On one wall of the drift two 
infipressions of Calamites were noticed, the larger one 3 feet 
long by 6 inches wide, perhaps C. transitionis, Goep. Also 
strong ribbed casts are common (only one rib in the middle). 
No roots or underclay are seen ; consequently the beds are 
not true coal beds, but mere layers of vegetable leaves 
floated into local pools of water, and matted and mouldered 
in decomposition ; and apparently all of one species; as 
in a boggy pool in a pine forest of the present day. 

These coal seams occur about in the middle of the Pocono 
formation, which agrees with the Sideling Hill section of 
Huntingdon county, to be next considered (P2, p. 156). 

The high synclinal Pocono Sandstone Knob, overlooking 
Huntingdon, is a fine object. It corresponds to the high 
synclinal Pottsville Conglomerate Knob, which overlooks 
the Susquehanna. The Pocono formation was measured on 
the Susquehanna, 1950' thick, and its massive sandrocks 
give the converging, Berry and Buffalo mountains lofty, 
sharp and nearly dead level crest lines, quite unbroken and 
impassable by roads, excej)t at one place where a deep 



notch or wind gap occurs, traversed by no stream ; but a 
rill starts in the middle of the notch and flows south ; and 
here men have made a fruitless opening on a supposed coal 
bed, like those above described* (F2, 227). 

Buffalo mountain is gapped at Liverpool, on the Susque- 
hanna, and the views obtainable of the two mountains and 
two gaps are eminently picturesque. 

X Pocono i7i Huntingdon County. 

The crests of Terrace mountain and of Sideling hill come 
together in the magnificent synclinal knob, rising majestic- 
ally from the right bank of the Juniata river some miles 
below the city of Huntingdon, from the summit of which a 
superb panorama of mountain ranges and fertile valleys well 
repays th e artist and geologist for the fatigues of the ascent. 
The^Catskill terrace adorns the mountain slopes and sweeps 
around the knob, as described in preceding chapters in 
Vol. 2. 

Coarse, pebbly, greenish-gray, false-bedded, massive sand- 
stone strata, interstratified with thinner gray shales make 
up'the mass. Thin seams of coal, varying?from 1 to 6 inches 
in thickness, are seen at the ''Copperas Rocks" in Trough 
Creek fgap through Terrace mountain, half a mile below 
Paradise furnace, about 200' beneath the top of the forma- 
tion (as fixed by Prof. White). 

The two sections which follow are recorded in Prof. 
White's report T3, pp. 79, 81, with a general cross-section 
on page 80, reproduced on a reduced scale on plate CCXI, 
page 1642 above. 

S7ioup*s run gap section in Teirace Mtn. 

Gray sandstone, massiye, coarse, somewhat pebbly 
(underlying red ehale XI), 210' 

Gray sandstone, dark, with thin dark shales, .... KXV 

Gray sandstones, massive, pebbly beds in a partly con- 
cealed interval of 26<y 

Gray sandstone flags and shales, 100' 

*The celebrated Wind Gap of Lehigh county, may be liJcened to this 
notch, but is perfectly waterless, much higher and more difttcult to explain, 
but an attempt to explain it will be made in the concluding chapters of the 
volume devoted to the deposits of the Ice Age. 





Red shale^ 15' 

Greenish-gray sandstone, 66' 

Blue-black shale, with a few thin flags ; ^ 

(At the top, impressions of Lepidodendron gaaA 
pianum : | 

In the bottom 25' an abundance of fossil shells. ) J 

Gray sandstone, massive, 20 

Sandy shales, 10' 

Yellowish-gray sandstone, massive, 25' 

(Interval concealed), 146' 

Gray sandstone, massive, 100' 

Green sandstone and red shale in a partly concealed 

interval of 125' 

Greenish-gray sandstone, massive, *. . . 25' 

Bed shales visible in an interval of 75' 

Greenish-gray sandstone (making cliffs), 25' 

Bed shale of IX in great force. 

Riddleshurg gap section in Terrace Mtn. 

Gray sandstone, massive {under XI), 75' 

Siiale and sandstone, 13 

Shale, dark, S 

Sandstone, 10' 

Shale, dark, with broken plants, 3' 

Gray sandstone, . ..> 26' 

(Interval concealed), 50' 

Gray sandstone, massive, 50' 

Black coal shale, i' 

Sandy shales, , 2^ 

Pebbly sandstone, massive, 40' 

Shales and shaly sandstone, 8' 

Sandstone, massive (lower half pebbly), 66' 

Gray sandstone, with shale partings, 60' 

Calcareous breccia, 1|' 

Sandstones and shales interstratifled, 30' 

Bed shale, showing at the bottom of a concealed inter- 
val of 40' 

Shales, } yellowish, sandy, 15' > 3^, 

( olive and yellow, 15' ) 

Sandstone, massive, 50' 

Shales, olive-yellow, 16' 

Sandstone, gray, 6' 

Shales, yellowish, sandy, 40' 

Sandstone, gray, 2|' 

Shales, dark, very fossiliferous (in the bottom 10' 

Spirit er, Bhinchonella, etc.), 50' 

Sandstone, massive, 10' 

Shales, j »»^dy, 10' > ^, 

f red, yellow, etc, 36 ) 

Sandstone, very massive, 80' 





Bed ahalCf abuadant in a partly-concealed interval of 95 

Shales and flags, 50' 

Med and yellowish ahalea^ 25' 

Sandstone, gray, 8 

Bed shale, 20' 

Sandstone, gray, 5 

Bed shale, 10' 

Bed sandy beds, 5' 

Gray sandstonb, massive; inolading one ealea- 
reous breeda (3' to 4^) 40^ above the bottom ; and 

several other smaller ones, 140' 

Red shale, 100' 

Sandstone, greenish gray, 25' 

Bed shale, 20' 

Sandstones, green, with red «Aa2ej[7ar^in^«, 65' 

Bed shale, 125' 

Bed sandstone, 5' 



Ked shale of Na IX in great force. 

The above sections are subdivided into groups, the upper- 
most of which consists of Pocono rocks with little or no 
red shale; the middle one of Pocono rocks, with interstrat- 
iiied red shales, ending below in a massive gray sandstone 
of great thickness; and the lowest one of Gatskill rocks. 

Shoup*s run, Biddlesburg, 

Upper group, X, ^^I hl30' "^^ i 1102' 

Middle group, X 400 $ 353' S 

Lower group, IX, ...... . 250* 340' 

The 100' massive gray sandstone at Shoup's run gap is 
undoubtedly the 140' massive gray sandstone (with calca- 
reous breccias) at Riddlesburg gap, in both cases 1000' be- 
low the bottom red shale of XI, and the lowest well defined 
gray Pocono sandstone of Terrace mountain (T3, 83). 

X, Pocono in Sideling Hill. 

In Sideling Hill Ashbumer and Billin's section was fa- 
cilitated by an examination of the East Broad Top Rail- 
road tunnel, and furnished the most interesting and in- 
structive data we have respecting the character of the Po- 
cono formation No. X. This section is exhibited in co- 
lumnar form in plates CCXI, CCXII, pages 1642, 1644 above* 
They are taken from Report P, plate 21, p. 206. The de- 
scription which follows is condensed from Mr. Ashburner's 
report, pp. 206 to 216. 



The whole formation' was divided by Ashburner into 
— Uppei^ Xd massive and flaggy sandstone beds, 610' ; — 
Middle^ Xc, coal series, 313', and X6, false-bedded sand- 
stones, with conglomerate beds, 380'; — Lower ^ Xa, sand- 
stones and shales, 830' ;— total 2133' thick. 

Xd. Upper Oray Sandstone Qroup, 

(Partly concealed.) Composed, for the most part, of hard, coarse- 
grained, massive, brownish-gray and gray sandstone, alternating 
with thinly bedded and flagi^y sandstone, and shale of the same 
color. Near the top of the mass are a few beds of red shale and 

sandstone, 580. 

Massive gray sandstone surfaces, coated with ferric oxide, at the 

west end of Sideling Hill tunnel, & 

Alternating massive gray and greenish-gray sandstone, containing 
a twelve-inch seam of black slate, showing impressions of minute 
plants, 22. 

Xc. New River Coal Series. 

Massive gray sandstone, containing thin partings of coal, 29. 

Oray argillaceous sand, 0. 5 

Coal (Seam No. 19), a 2| 

Soft greenish-gray micaceous shale 1. 8 

Light gray, massive sandstone, containing thin plates of coal and 

micaceous specks, 56u 

Sandstone, containing thin partings of coal, 1. 

Soft, loose sandstone, containing seams of coal, running irregu- 
larly through the mass, amounting in all to about 5 inches, ... 6. 
Massive sandstone, containing in its lower part plates of coal, ... 12. 

Poor bony coal (Seam Na 18), a 2 

Sandstone, 1. 6 

Argillaceous sand, 0. ^ 

Coal (Seam No. 17), maximum thickness, 9 inches, 0. 3 

Argillaceous sand, containing plates of coal, 0. 4 

Gray sandstone, containing between the strata a gpreat deal of loose 

sand, . 16. 

Oray sandstone, containing nodules of pyrites and plates of coal in 

the upper portion of the mass, 26. 

Coal very much broken up (Seam No. 18), 0. 1 

Sandstone containing nodules of iron pyrites, 2. 6 

Coal (Seam No. 15) ; brilliant luster, rhombohedral fracture, re- 
sembling bituminous coal, 0. 1 

Sandy fireclay, 0. 6 

Coal (Seam No. 14), 0. 1 

Sandstone, with thin partings of coal in the lower portion, 4. 

Sandstone, 9. 

Fireclay, , . 0. 1 

Shaly sandstone, 34. 


XJ(IXII,XIII,XIV. Cealieds tvndjinu^tmei in 
ana Co, 


Coal (Seam No. 13), 0. 1 

Alternating sbaly and massive, gray sandstone, 6. 

Poor bony coal (Seam No. 12,) 0. 3 

Shaly sandstone, 6. 

Coal (Seam No. 11) ; very much broken up and associated with red 

sand, 0. 1 

3haly sandstone, 4. 

Coal (Seam No. 10), maximum thickness 6 inches, 0. 3 

Shaly sandstone, 2. 

Coal (Seam Na 9), 0. 1 

Shaly sandstone, 1. 

Coal, with sandstone above and below (Seam No. 8), 0. 1 

Gray sandstone, 86. 

Steel-gray shale, of a greasy luster, 0. 8 

Coal (Seam No. 7), 0. 1 

fireclay, 0. 1 

Sandstone, 5. 

Coal (Seam No. 6), 0. 1 

Sandstone, 0.10 

Coal (Seam No. 5), resembling very much specimens from Mont- 
gomery county, Virginia, .... 0. 2 

Soft sandstone, 0. 6 

Coal (Seam No. 4), 0. 2 

Sandstone, containing loose brown, argillaceous sand, 14. 

Loose sand shale, surfaces coated with acicular crystals of sulphate 

' of alumina, formed by the decomposition of pyrites, 3. 

Coal ; very much broken up by false bedding, and containing a great 

deal of iron pyrites (Seam No. 3), 0. 2 

Massive, gray sandstone, having a rhombohedral firacture, and con- 
taining specks of slate and ferruginous matter, 28. 

Coal (Seam No. 2) ; very much broken up by false bedding, .... 0. 1 

Soft, gray, shaly sandstone, exhibiting false bedding, 5. 

Poor bony coal (Seam No. 1), 0. 1 

Xb, Middle Conglomerate Oroup, 

Soft, black shale, containing plates of coal and impressions of minute 
plants, surfaces stained with ferric oxide ; alternating with a fine- 
grained conglomerate, containing micaceous specks, 25. 

Yellowish-gray, argillaceous shale, containing thin plates of coal. 

Surfaces showing ^'slicken sides." 26. 

Sandstone, 9. 

Black, carbonaceous slate, enclosed in liard massive sandstone, ... 0. 2 

Hard, massive, gray sandstone, 17. 

tiard, conglomeritic, light-gray sandstone, containing a few alterna- 
tions of black slate, 51. 

Hard, massive sandstone, alternating with gray slaty micaceous sand- 
stone, 45. 

Soft, gray shale, 1.0 

Alternating dark gray, flaggy and slaty sandstone, containing mica- 
ceous scales, 33. 

Dark -gray, argillaceous shale, with talcy luster, 39. 



X. Oil we/lf Oorlna iooCsr 






• •« w^ « ss*» 



Dark greenish-gray shale, with talcy luster, containing acicular 
crystals of sulphate of alumina, formed by the decomposition of 

pyriies, 0.10 

Soft, black slate, 0. 8 

Massive, gray sandstone, 8. 

Soft, gray, argillaceous shale, 5. 6 

Massive, hard, gray sandstone, 25. 

Fine-grained, light-gray conglomerate, alternating with thin strata of 

black micaceous sandstone, 18. 

Fine-grained, dark gray, argillaceous shale, alternating with a hard, 

gray sandstone, interstratified with a black micaceous sandstone, 26. 
Massive, flinty, gray sandstone, alternating with yellowish-gray 

sandstone, showing false bedding, 17. 

Soft, gray shale, 1. 8 

Hard, gray sandstone, 1. 6 

Soft, gray shale, 1.6 

Soft, yellowish-gray shale, of a talcy luster, 1. 6 

Very hard, massive bluish-gray sandstone, with occasional seams of 

a lead-colored clay, 4. 

Hard, massive, gray sandstone, 18. 

Oray, slaty sandstone, 0.10 

Carbonaceous shale, 0. 6 

Gray shale, 0. 8 

Black coal slate, 0. 2 

Gray sand shale, 8. 4 

Black slate, 0. 4 

Hard, massive, gray sandstone, alternating with yellowish-gray, ar- 
gillaceous sand shales, 15. 

Xa. Lower Oreen Sandstone Oroup. 

Dark bluish-gray, slaty sandstone, alternating with a shale of close 
texture, 22. 

Alternating gray, green, and yellow shale, 25. 

Green shale, containing Cyj?ricar(lina and OrthiA, at the east end of 
Sideling Hill tunnel, 6. 

Partly concealed. Alternating as above, but softer, 25. 

Hard, coarse-grained, reddish-gray sandstone, alternating with soft, 
yellow, sandy shale, 165. 

Coarse-grained, yellow sandstone. Surfaces stained with iron, alter- 
nating with grayish-brown sandstone, 12. 

Alternating yellow, gray and green, shaly sandstone, 44. 

Soft, yellow, sandy shale, interstratifled with a gray, flaggy sand- 
stone, alternating with a brown sandstone, containing micaceous 
specks, ... 50. 

Flaggy, olive sandstone, alternating with a greenish-gray sandstone, 
containing iron concretions. Partly concealed, 42. 

Partly concealed. Soft, green and olive sandstone, alternating with 
soft, yellow, flaggy and hard, massive, gray sandstone, containing 
ferruginous specks, and having a distinct rhombobedral fracture,440. 


XI, X//. J/ujfCeOL andJGutcLkunJc. 


Nineteen (19) seams of coal were cat by tunnel, with an 
average individual thickness of only li inches. All put to- 
gether, increased by numerous mere streaks of coal not no- 
ticed in the section, would not make more than a coal bed four 
(4) feet thick. The following are their thicknesses (begin- 
ning at the top) and their distances apart (in parentheses): 
2i- (760 2 (li) 3 (41) 1 (2i) 1 (i) 1 (47) 1 (6) 3 (6) 1 (4) 3 (2) 
1 (1) 1 (37) 1 (5) 1 (1) 2 (i) 2 (17) 2 (28) 1 (5) V (25' black- 
slate plant bed). In all instances the intervals (given in 
parentheses) are of sandstone, except the 6' of ""^ fireclay and 
sandstone" between beds 6 and 7, and the 6" of ^' sandy 
fireclay^^ between beds 14 and 16 from the bottom. 

Grouping the coal beds which lie close together, we have 
the following series : 

Sandstone, top of the series, 29' 6'' 

One coal bed, 2| inches thick. 

Sandstone, mass of, 76' 3' 

Two coal beds, in 24 inches of space. 

Sandstone, mass of, 41' 4' 

Ttoo coal beds in 3' 3" of distance. 

Sandstone mass of, 47 1 ' 

Six coal beds in 19' 10" of distance, 

Sandstone mass of, 86' 8 

li'our coal beds in 6' 10" of distance. 

Sandstone mass of, 17' 0' 

One coal bed 2 inches thick. 

Sandstone mass of, 28' ' 

Two coal bede in 6' 2" of distance. 

The sandstone between the several seams has a great same- 
ness of character, and is very much broken up by false bed- 
ding and fractures ; in many cases it contains thin seams 
or partings of coal. The numbered seams and partings gen- 
erally lie parallel with the true bedding of the strata, al- 
though in many instances ihey are found along the planes 
of false bedding. The thicknesses are very variable, in 
places increasing from 1 and 2 inches up to 10 inches and 1 
foot ; and sometimes a seam will be very much broken up 
and separated by a mass of sandstone, which splits the bed 
for some distance, but afterwards disappears, permitting 
the several portions to unite again. 

The almost total absence of fireclays under the coal seams, 
and the occurrence of coarse sandstone in many places di- 




rectly above them seems to show that the coal has been de- 
rived from plants which may have grown at some distance 
from the locality and been afterwards floated and caaght 
in the falling sediment, forming ''drift beds." The period 
was undoubtedly one of continuous local current agitation 
as indicated by the coarseness and false bedding of many 
of the strata. 

Xft. Tlie lower part of the middle member is character- 
ized more particularly by its beds of conglomerate and con- 
glomeritic sandstone, both of which exhibit false bedding 
in a marked degree. At the top of it, directly under the coal 
seam, comes a bed 25 feet thick, composed of soft black 
shale containing plates of coal and impressions of minute 
plants, alternating with a fine-grained conglomerate which 
contains micaceous specks. The surfaces of the shale are 
very much stained with iron. Directly below these alter- 
nating beds occur (No. 156) 26 feet of a yellowish-gray ar- 
gillaceous shale also containing plates of coal and showing 
slickensides, giving evidence of some contortion and slip- 
l)ing of the strata. A massive sandstone 9 feet thick, is sepa- 
rated by 2 inches of black carbonaceous slate from 113 feet 
of hard, massive and conglomeritic sandstone showing a 
greater amount of false bedding than any other part of 
the section. One bed contains a few alternating beds of 
black slate, but is as a whole the hardest and most massive 
part of the Pocono series, and forms the crest of Sideling 
Hill, apparently throughout its whole extent. Below these 
harder and more massive strata are 82' of shale, with a few 
beds of sandstone; the whole underlaid again by 25 feet of 
hard, massive sandstone and 13 feet of tine-grained con- 
glomerate containing thin beds of black micaceous sand- 
stone. Then succeed in descending order, more shales and 

* The sandstones have a general sameness, and are falsebedded and frac- 
tured, often containing thin seams of coal, which usually lie parallel to and 
between the sandstone beds, but' in many instances follow the planes of 
false bedding^ showing them to be seams of drifted coal stuff and not true 
coal beds. They vary from 1 to 2 inches, but sometimes swell to 10" or a 
foot ; and sometimes a seam is broken up and separated by a wedge of sand- 
stone for some distance, and then becomes solid again. In the tunnel of 




The alternai ions of shales and sandstones in this subdi- 
vision of the formation may be thus grouped as measured 
feet, the shale groups being in parentheses (31) 122 (83) 38 
(26) 40 (5) 15, 380'.* 

Fossil plants, the broken remains of a land vegetation, 
are scattered more or less abundantly throughout the sand- 
stones and slates and shales of the top subdivision Xdy and 
the Coal series Xc under it. Lesquereux examined speci- 
mens collected from the debris at the west end of the tun- 
nel, and determined among them : — Sphenopteris flaccida, 
of the Upper Catskill of Belgium, not before found in 
America. — Ulodendron (near to U, majus)^ found in Sub- 
Cong, coal of Alabama, and also in and above the Con- 
glomerate. — Knorria aciculariSy Goeppert, new to Amer- 
ica. — Stiffmaria minuta, found in X at Mauch Chunk. — 
Stigmatocanna Volkmanniana^ bark destroyed. — A^Lepi- 
dodendron^ so distorted as to prevent the outlines of the 
scars from telling the species. 

Dark shales ; olive and reddish marlites, 30' 

Firmi thick-bedded dark shale, ) ^ ^qz 

Local coal bed, 12 inches thick, ) 

Firm, siliceous, rather coarse, bluish-gray sandstone, 
holding bits of lower rock, drifted stems and coal beds. 

White, pebbly, silicious sandstone, very persistent, con- 
cealing the underlying rocks, and having themselves a \ W 
thickness of at least, 

Interval of flaggy sandstones and inter-stratiAed shales, 
dingy yellow when freshly fractured, and weathering 
brown ; down to the red marls and sands of the Catskill 
formation Nu. IX, 



the South Pennsylvania Railroad through Sidding Hill, Mr. F. H. Lewis, 
Asst. Bug., reports cutting (at the west end) several coal beds, each about 
1' thick. These are the enlargements of the E. Broadtop Railroad tunnel 
coals of Ash burner's section, going south. In Carbon and Luzerne counties 
such ** coal smuts '* in the Nesquehoning and in the North mountains, in 
formation No. X, at numerous places have in past yeara led to much fruit- 
less digging. 

*ln studying the Wythe county mines of southern Virginia I found a 
dozen small unworkable coal beds in the Pocono rocks on the northwestern 
slope of Peak mountain. See my paper in the Proceedings of the American 
Philosophical Society of Philadelphia.— See also a much later and very in- 
teresting section of Pocono coal beds cut by the Lewis tunnel of the Ches- 
apeake and Ohio RR. through the Allegheny mountain, published by Prof. 
Fontaine in Silliman's Journal for 1877 :— 


54^ X/. ^\Ll>a)ruflomczate(Mountai/iiy^)*/:st: 

Hatorjriniis diyttb's, Batocrinus SaUcrinuS isohdacTu/t. 


aUtirorrnuiS Bl/riroeriruis nrroJits 
biJlatUS ch I 

i S I M.lh 

KfBKuK " irmtjto„r„ " ^arocrmus comparitis^ 



t-retniwrtnus prxgmvis 




Black sandy slates, 15 

Sandstone, 3* 

Coal, slaty, 6 inches thick. 

Fireclay containing rootlets, 5' 

Coal, 2 Inches thick. 

Fireclay, 1 inch thick. 

Gray sandstone, Avith films and streaks of coal (floated), 80' 

Black slate and coal, 12 inches thick. 

Brown flaggy sandstone, 8' 

Coal, 8 inches thick. 
Fireclay, 5 inches thick. 

Bluish-black sandy shales, 5' 

Gray flags, 50' 

Interval (?) feet thick. 

Olive sandstone, 20' 

Argillaceous thickly bedded sandstone, with thin films 
of coal and black shale, 40' 

All the fragments were twisted and coated with coal as 
hard graphite. S. flaccida and ^S^. minuta predominate and 
are abundant. Two years afterwards (1877) another larger 
collection submitted to Lesquereux mostly represented one 
species, >& p7i€nopteris{Hym€7iophylliles)furcata, Brongt. 
found by him (1851) in No. X at Mauch Chunk, and not 
rare in the Lower Carboniferous. The tunnel however fur- 
nished better specimens than he had ever seen, ''large stems, 
branches and even roots." 

Analyses of these coals yielded to Mr. McCreath: — 
Water, 34, 35, 47;— Volatile matter, 13.66, 16.29, 21.34;— 
Fixed carbon, 53.29, 61.78, 51.97 ;— Sulphur, 46, 7.18, 1.03;— 
Ash, 32.24, 14.39, 25.18. The red ash of the second speci- 
men gave : — Iron 6.25 ; — Sulphur taken up by the iron, 
7.145. — It is evident that such ashy beds, with no fireclay 
floors, must have been drift deposits, and not marsh or peat- 
bog coal beds, like those of the true Coal Measures which 
lie far above them geologically, and are mined by the Rock- 
hill I. & C. Co. at the terminus of the line. 

The lower sub-division Xa resembles the upper Xd ; 
but the sandstone beds are not as massive, nor as siliceous ; 
they are softer, coarser in grain, stained with iron, and 
specked with red and yellow spots. The shales of both 
kinds, argillaceous and silicious, alternate more frequently 
with the sandstone beds. Both sandstones and shales are 
gray, yellow, olive and green. Iron concretions are fre- 




y/o.Xt ^ocono,or^&u^e/r ^a/rhoTuferoUA jfcmili : 

PorbaaiocnDiw communlft. 

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fid ^ Pfi* 

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ZeftcriBiM patera na. Hall 

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^ iOhio Vol.11 mUII. 
Ott\> \m michalina : nor. btxrilagtononals. Hail 

Pal OfneJ.M 

BhyneboncllA aJl«K«ala~ Q S William* 

.Stv \i\6i \ ■• 


quently found in them. The horizon between the Catskill 
IX and Pocono X is not distinctly marked, but in a general 
way the first is more red and the second more gray ; while 
the upper beds of IX are more argillaceous than the lower 
beds of X. 

Pocono coals on Tipton run. 

The upper escarpment of the Allegheny mountain, its 
whole length, is a bold outcrop of the Pocono formation, 
dipping gently northwest beneath the great Bituminous 
coal fields of western Pennsylvania. This outcrop is cut 
through by the numerous ravines that descend from the 
general upland. Between each ravine projects a lofty spur of 
Pocono sandstone ; as shown by Lehmann's noble pictures 
for the First Survey, two of which are reproduced on a re- 
duced scale in plates CCXIII (B) and CCXVII (C) on pages 
1648, 1650, above ; one taken from the hills at HoUidays- 
burg in Blair county ; the other from Jersey Shore at the 
mouth of Pine creek in Lycoming county. A hundred 
other striking views of the same character might be made 
from points high and low along the line of a hundred miles 
from the Maryland line to Muncy. 

In many of these ravines traces of the outcrops of thin 
seams of Pocono coal have, from time to time in the 
last fifty years, been discovered, many of which have been 
dug into in the vain expectation of opening workable coal 
mines. In one of them only has a measure of success re- 
warded the explorers. This is the ravine of Tipton run, a 
few miles northeast of Altoona. Here actual mining ope- 
rations have been carried on, a branch road laid from the 
Pennsylvania Railroad at Tipton station, and thousands of 
tons of good coal put out and sent to market. It is the 
only case with a history similar to that of the Tom's Run 
mines in Wythe county, Va. * 

♦Although the geology of the place was made out by a careful survey 
nearly forty year? ago, at the first unsuccessful opening of two small coal 
beds, the knowledge was lost ; so that when operations of a more serious 
character were undertaken a few years ago, the wild idea was entertained 
that the coal beds were those of the true coal measures of Cambria and 
Clearfield counties thrown down nearly a thousand leet by an assumed fault 

IfiSi^.i^a, tiKOLOOiCAi- i^L'iiv>,Y OF r; 


y^.lC, ^^ocano,.^. Gcurb.jh^ilA.cmtltnue^ 



The Tipton mines are in coal beds lying about 700 feet 
beneath the Conglomerate No. XII which crops out in the 
spars at the top of the monntain, with a dip of only one or 
two degrees (/. e. nearly horizontal) towards the west ; and 
immediately under it lies the Mauch Chunk Red Shale for- 
mation No. XI, 250' thick. Under this lie the current 
bedded Pocono sandstones, No. X, down to the coal beds ; 
which therefore occupy precisely the position of the Side- 
ling Hill Tunnel coal series (Xc) as abovft described ; only, 
that in Huntingdon county the interval from the bottom of 
XI down to the coal series (Xc) is 610', while in Blair county 
it is somewhat less ; which agrees with the general thinning 
of all the formations westward.* 

running along the face of the mountain. As some of the layers of the 
Pocono formation are coarse and even conglomeratic, like those of the lower 
coal measures, and as some of the x)lant remains are of species which sub- 
sisted into a later age, and are found in beds of the true Coal Measures, the 
notion of a fault was supported by even one good geologist, and has been dis- 
pelled only by experience. It was not considered that had such a down- 
throw fault really existed it would unmistakably have manifested its pres- 
ence, by not only doubling the coal beds, but doubling the mountain and all 
its spurs, besides producing a Hagrant deflection of the valley at its foot • 
making such a bold topographical mark upon the State Map as would have 
arrested the attention of the Assistants on the First Survey, and been 
studied until its explanation had been made sure. — In 1886, Mr. Ashburner, 
who had reported in such detail on the Pocono coals of Sideling Hill in 
Huntingdon county, at the E. Broad Top RR. Tunnel, as above described, 
was ordered to make a careful special study of the Tipton coals, and hia 
elaborate report will be found in the Annual Report of Survey for 1885 
(1886), pages 250 to 268, from which the condensed statement is made in the 
text above. 

*Mr. Sanders' section along the Pa. RR. from the Tunnel down to Altoona, 
reads: XIII, Allegheny Coal Series, 345'; XII, Pottsville Conglomerate, 
223' ; XI, Mauch Chunk, 283' ; X, Pocono, 1241' ; IX, Catskill 266(y ; 
VIII, Chemung, etc 6519'. The dip (westward) is at the Tunnel, the top of 
the section, only lO; gradually increasing to 18^ at the Kittanning Point 
horseshoe curve, and to 32^ at the base of the mountain. Bear Pen Point, 
the top of the mountain at the head of Tipton Run, is 2382' above tide, and 
the Loop Run (Tipton) coal mine, a mile further east. Is 1370' A. T. At 
Bear Pen Point the westward dip is about lO; at the coal mine it has grad- 
ually risen to 12^ (with a local variation at one point of 310) and in the re- 
maining nine miles down Tipton -Run to the railway station gradually to 
60O.— On the west side of Loop Run above the Saw Mill dam, the first open- 
ing (1335' A. T.) shows thin coal seams scattered through six feet of sand- 
stone, the largest coal bench measuring 2 feet. At the next opening up the 
run two seams of coal are separated by sandstone, the lower bench 2' thick. 


I *.l-^AAK VIM 


Five coal beds are reported by Mr. C. S. d' Invilliers at 
the Tipton mines : Bed C (Loop Run opening) 3' 6" ; in- 
terval 25' ; B, 2' 4" ; interval 25' ; A, 3'; interval 30' ; No. 
2, 1' 6" ; interval 20'; No. 1 (largest bench of it), 1' 6".* 

The Tipton coals are semi -bituminous, or rather low bitu- 
minous. Two analyses by McCreath, give : — Water at 212"^, 
0.700, 0.584 ; Volatile matter, 26.79, 29.43 ; Fixed carbon, 
66.88, 58.04; Sulphur, 0.80, 3.16; Ash, 4.83, 8.79. **The 
sulphur exists principally in thin partings throughout the 
coal.'" These beds are certainly persistent regular coal 
beds and bear no resemblance to the drift-coals of forma- 
tion X. Like the South Virginia Tom's Run coal beds they 
are true coal beds produced by genuine local coal swamps 
at the beginning of the great Coal Age. 

Their minable qualities have been actually tested by the 
building of a branch railway for their use, the shipping of 
the coal to market, and its use on locomotives burning 
freely, being fine and light, not coking well, making it diffi- 
cult to rebuild a bad fire, but keeping steam pressure up 
above 118 lbs. (Report of trial by S. Porcher ; page 266.) 

At the third opening, **3' solid coal with a regular underclay.'' All three 
openings about the same elevation. At the fourth opening (1350' A. T.) 
"coal 2' 4", with heavy Are clay floor." 

*Mr. Ashburner^s survey of the Loop Run drill (see his map on p. 260, 
An. Rt 1886, reproduced half size on page plate GGXIII (A) on pa^e 1646 
above) 700S and cross heading 250', in Bed O, found a top bench 2' 7" ; slate 
2" ; bottom bench 1' 11 '. Bed B, 30' underneath, showed a top bench 2', 
slate 1", bottom bench 11'. A tunnel on the west bank of the run, 350' 
long (Aug.. 1885), cut a coal bed, 800' higher in the series than the Loop 
Run opening bed, so much like the latter as to be confounded with it. This 
upper bed is probably the one mined by the Gates drift on the east bank of 
the run ; a section reading : top bench 2 6" ; bony slate 1" ; bottom bench 
1' 3". North of the Gates and 25' over it, is a 2' coal ; 40' over this a 2' 8 " 
«oal ; 45 over this a 3' coal. 

Mr. Piatt in 1879 examined two old openings \ mile north of the Gates 
drift, and found in one 3' of coal (6" bony) with a crumbly roof of shale 
and floor of fire clay (6") on sandstone. The other bed is about 15' beneath 
the former, if there be no fault in the intermediate 500 . This was aban- 
doned because pinched out. In fact one of the larger beds, 4' thick, pinched 
out to nothing in a gangway 1000 ' long. Pocono coals seem to be subject 
to this form of irregularity. 


J^. XI .fu/uv^lcnieiaU (JHoimtttin^lirmeJtbne 1 


Product of Tipton mines. 

The output of the mines (Tipton) in 1886, 1887 was 20,105 
net tons. The following years 51,402; 19,921; 28,176; 
29,582 ; 34,760 ; and from July 1, 1892, to December 31. 
19,074. This large quantity of coal sent to market con- 
tinuously i6 a suflBcient proof of the workability of the beds 
and the value of the fuel.* 

TTie Fault at the Tipton mines. 

It has been said above that the notion of a northeast- 
southwest fault or down-throw of 1000 feet, throwing down 
one of the Kittanning coal beds of the Clearfield- Cambria 
coal measures to the Tipton Run Mines was an inadmissible 
supposition, contradicted by all we know of the escarpment 
of the Allegheny Mountains, by the topography of the 
locality and by the stratigraphy. It is now to be shown 
that a fault really exists, but of a wholly different charac- 
ter, being of comparatively small size and running in an ex- 
actly transverse direction, viz : northwest and southeast. 
This fault has unusual interest because its character is to a 
large extent made out by the underground workings ; and 
especially because it falls into the series of faults in middle 
Pennsylvania which have this northwest-southeast direc- 
tion ; viz : the faults at Three Springs and Orbisonia in 
southern Huntingdon ; the two faults cutting the Bald 
Eagle Mountain in northern Huntingdon, and the two faults 
throwing the Osceola and Houtzville coals in Clearfield 
county. There are no doubt thousands of such down- 
throws of smaller extent scattered about Central Pennsyl- 
vania, produced by the side strains set up when the anti- 

♦This is the company's statement taken from the books.— In the report on 
the mineral resources of the United States by Commissioner Day, Washing- 
ton, 1892, page 2i)9, there is given a table of the coal product of Blair county, 
Pa., from 1884 to 1890:— 208,541 ; 205,075; 305,695; 287,307; 314,013; 215,410; 
298,196 short tons. This can be understood only as including the output of 
the Bennington, Bell's Gap and other mines at the top of the mountain on 
the border of Cambria county. The annual reports of the mine inspector 
for the district gives tlie following figures of Tipton output for 1886 to 1891 : 
12,450; 30,000; 49,340; 10,948; 33,205; 25,174. The discrepancies between re- 
ports of this kind are always difficult to explain. 



clinal and synclinal waves were made. The demonstration 
of the correctness of such a supposition is to be found in 
the numerous small down- throws encountered in the gang- 
ways and headings of the Rock Hill Iron Mines in Black 
Log Mountain. 

The fault at Tipton, so far as it has been made out under 
ground, resembles the north end of the Three Springs fault 
in Huntingdon, its two lips gradually coming together at 
its northwest end. A description of the Tipton workings 
as they are at date of writing (March, 1893) will be found 
in the subjoined foot note.* There are three principal 

* ** The Loc^p Run Country Bank Drift Tvas driven in a general course of N. 
150 E. about 760 feet to a fault running about N. 49<^ W. The Loop Run 
Slope was opened at a point 460 feet S. 67^ \v. from the mouth of the county 
bank and driven N. 37© 14 feet W. At the depth of about 700 feet from the 
mouth of the slope struck a small fault running a little west of north. At 
about 800 feet struck a larger fault, which has never been explored, and its 
extent is unknow^n. As the dip of the coal in the Loop Run Slope was only 
12 feet in 100 feet, and the dip in the Tipton Run Sloj^e was 22 feet in 100 feet, 
it was concluded that the fault between the tw^o slopes would soon die out, 
and the whole field could be worked to the best advantage from the Tipton 
Run Slope, from the Rock tunnel; hence further exploration in the Loop 
Run Slope was abandoned. In driving the Rock tunnel to Tipton Run 
Slope, at the distance of 63 feet from the first timbers we cut one seam of 
coal about 3 feet thick. At the distance of 281 feet from the first set of tim- 
bers we cut a second seam of coal which proved to be ** Lenticular '' running 
from a few inches in thickness to more than six feet. At the distance of 506 
feet from the first timbers we cut the slope seam which runs of nearly uni- 
form thickness of about 3 feet 8 inches, and sometimes up to 4 feet thick, 
with good slate roof and fire clay bottom. This slope lias been driven some 
850 feet from the tunnel and more than that distance back to the easterly 

We reached a small fault some 750 feet down the slope. Some of the right 
headings have been driven about 1500 feet in good coal, which is now full 
thickness at all the faces of the workings. The headings to the lelt have 
not been driven far enough to reach the main fault between the two slopes, 
nor do we intend to extend them that far until we have passed the workings 
in the Loop Run Slope, nor until we pass the point where that fault should 
die out by the diflTerence in dip of the coal on the two sides of the main fault. 
The extent of the fault at the country bank on Loop Run is a little more 
than 200 feet, hence dying out at the rate of 10 ieet in 100 feet, it would die 
out about 2000 feet down the slope along the line of the fault The largest 
proportion of the coal mined trom the two sides of the main fault has been 
from the Tipton Run Slope and from the tunnel level, back to the crop at 
the point of the hill between the two slopes — the exact proportion cannot 
now be ascertained without referring to our mine maps and the engineer's 
calculation^. For the present, we propose to confine our main operations to 







i^ ^ 


.V"^, hiM J* 


(3^ .A 




*■ ® ® ii 

« „!-;",;, 


!^(ii..„ I'^.i^^fi 




Openings ; two on Looj) Run and one on Tipton Run. Loop 
Run comes into Tipton Run from the northwest. Tipton 
Run descends from the mountain top to the mouth of Loop 
Run in a direction about S. 10° E. The old Loop Run 
drift was driven on the level about N. 10° E. 760 feet to the 
fault. The new slope, Loop Run Slope, 450 feet S. 67° W. 
of the mouth of the Loop Run Drift was put down N. 37° 
W. 700 feet to a slight fault at 650, and 60 feet further a 
somewhat larger fault. Five breasts on the coal were 
headed oflF to the right northward 1500 feet. The fifth of 
these was driven 750 feet nearly due north, and then stopped, 
the regular northwest dip being slightly reversed. All 
these headings were in the direction of the great fault, 
which stopped the old Loop Run Drift, but did not reach 
it. The Fifth Drift was heading for the Tipton Slope to 
the north of it at a distance of about 1500 feet, and it is 
probable that if continued it would pass the northwest end 
of the large fault and join the workings of the Tipton Run 
Slope. It is evident that there is a large amount of unex- 
plored country between the two mines, and that there is no 
reason to doubt that the Tipton output will go on from year 
to year. 

Tipton Fossil Plants. 

Two collections of fossil plants have been made at the 
Tipton Mines ; the first, a small one, made by Prof. I. C. 

Tipton Run Slope and its headings, right and left, which are still being 
pushed forward with energy by the lessee of that mine. 

**In the foregoing memoranda it was estimated from the ditlerence in the 
dip of the coal seams on the two sides of the main fault running N. 49^ W. 
that the fault would die outand the two workings run into eacli other at the 
distance of 2000 feet down the fault from the country bank face on Loop 
Run. This estimate was afterwards modified by the fact that in driving the 
Afth right heading from Loop Run Slope a great change in the dip occurred, 
requiring a change in the general course of that heading from the four pre- 
vious headings. This fifth heading was started some 650 feet down the 
slope, nearly due north, the coal rising to the left. In driving this headmg 
750 feet it swung to the west some two degrees and still on the rise, so that 
it was estimated that the two workings would run into each other some 1400 
feet down the fault from the country bank heading. This fifth right heading 
was pulled in by the lessee contrary to the instructions of tlie company, and 
defeated further exploration in that direction."— A r. Shillingford, March, 



COruiiaxia. iutcrtexte 




White of Morgantown, West Va., was referred to Prof. 
Lesquereux, who determined the following genera and 
species : Cordaites gracilis, Lx., Stigmaria ficoides Bx. 
Lepidophyllum lanceolatum Bt., Neuropteris tenuefolia, 
Bt., Neuropteris loschii Bt. Alethopteris ambigna Lx. , 
Calamites allied to suckovii Bt. A species of Pecop- 
teris. Alethopteris allied to Pennsylvanica Lx. The 
plants are not abundant but although' the collection 
was so small and fragmentary, Prof. White concluded 
that the beds belonged to the Allegheny series, viz : Those 
mined on the Moshannon in Clearfield county, and along 
the Conemaugh in Cambria county. He even specified 
the bed from which the specimens came as identical with 
the lower Kittanning. Prof. Fontaine agreed with him in 
considering the specimens of tree coal measure age ; 
although he allows that Neuropteris tenuifolia and Sigi- 
laria mamillaris have been reported from the Pocono forma- 
tion, being long-lived forms, occurring at various intervals 
from the very bottom to nearly the top of the carboniferous 
system. (The age of the Tipton Run coal printed in the 
American Geologist for June 1889.) 

Another and much larger collection of these plants was 
subsequently made (1889), by Mr. Koch, one of the aids on 
the Survey, and submitted to the inspection of Mr. R. D. 
Lacoe, of Pittston, the learned collaborator of Leo Les- 
quereux ; and the list of his determinations of genera and 
species (May 10, 1890) was as follows : — 

Calamites suckovii, Brongt. ; Asterophyllites longifolius, 
Brongt. ; Annularia sphenophylloides, Zen^'.k. ; Sphenophyl- 
lum oblongifoliura. Germ.; Sphenophyllum schlotheimi, 
Brongt. ; Equisetites, sp ? Callipteridium, sp. ? Neurop- 
teris tenuifolia, Brongt.; N. loschi, Brongt.; N. plicata, 
Sternb. ; N. desori ; Lesqx. ; N. clarksoni, Lesqx. ; N. vermi- 
cularis, Lesqx.; Dictyopteris obliqua, Bunby; Alethop- 
teris, sp. ? Pseudopecopteris anceps, Lesqx.; P. nervosa, 
Brongt.; P. cordatoovata, Weiss ; P. speciosa, Lesqx. (?) ; 
P. sp J . (fructified); Pecopteris villosa, Brongt. ; Sphenop- 
teris aflBinis,Ll. and Hutt. ; Lepidodendron rimosum, Sternb. ; 
Sigillaria leveretti, Lesqx., S. sp. ? Stigmaria ficoides, 




JrO. aI. ouhttm^loineiate LMvmUain) limeslofies 

PtourotomarU ( iTurcA f««>ti« f ) eooula. . 


P l«ttrotomartA t riUneata U • 1 1 

Plcurotomarhi ooduIostrUu, 

Pleurotomaria plaaenstft 


PkarotomarU swaiiovana. 


Pleuroromarla aubgloboai. 


\y • 


Pleun'ionmriH wortheni. II rH, 



if- -4ft 

CcDocartlium caiinatum. 

Avtrulop<Tlon iyelM, Ui'vson. 

In*; i^'^j: 
Couocardlam acadiAnum. 

Conocardium cuaealum. (Ball 

^*i < [ ^' 

Jit* Ac^ c«^ m» 

Conoe&rditixn caiaat 

Conocnrdium mookaaam 


CoDOcardJum pmtUinanom. 

Cypiirardlnla infhunoiibiH i li >n 


hid tim ^' "v. -3', - p/ J^. 

Cyprlcardella nuclenta. 


Cypricardeila oblonga. Hall, 

Micradon olh|ntcu8. 

Edmondia f aubplaaa. 



Loda nasuta. ( A'ucu/a) 

Cypricardclla sureilipiica. 




Kaiadltoa, Da won; 

V>i «». 

r«. M 

Nacula shumardaaa. II il), Ir i,i^ \.b I 
XL, . ... 


Sphenotua rlgldus f Cy;5ri'ivir./(.i -i'/?),/.!. U'hilc dt Whil 

fulil, ISti^', ill pirt Snrtffuina 


PtoroQliea i»pt>rpi.-:. "r!«is. \\'\ v 
^^■^ Spathc'llu vrntricosa ( " •' 

Scrpuiitea bortonenata, and aiuiulatus //^,// I'al A// // •Tf.f 

(!»" ^' 

Spirorbls carbonarius. Di»*»<iri 


SpirorblB noduIcMins. 

Splrorbis annnlataa. 

XI ifiri 

'•■ SI 

J (f.fv; /(/■ 

; A, 



Brongt.; Carpolithes minimus, Sternb.; Cardieocarpus bi- 
cuspidatus, Sternb.; C. orbicularis, Newby ; C. (Samarop- 
flis)flui tans, Weiss; Trigonocarpus trilocularis, Hild., Xylo- 
mides Zomitae, Goepp. (?); Knorria SpJ; Lepidostrobus 
Sp.? Lepidophyllum Sp. ? Cordaites Sp. ? Carpolithes 
minutissimus (new species); Artisia Sp. ? 

This list is arranged by Mr. Lacoe in a table, which I 
cannot here republish, to show the relationship of the 
genera and species to those in other American and Euro- 
pean localities. His general conclusions are as follows : 

First The collection of Mr. Koch contains 26 determina- 
ble species, and 13 fragmentary or obscure of doubtful 
identity. Second. Of the 25 species determined, 18 have 
been found on both sides of the Atlantic, 13 of them both 
in the United States and Canada. The remaining 7 have 
been described as American species, but some of them may 
hereafter prove to be European. Sphenopteris affinis has 
not until this collection at Tipton been seen in America. 
Third. So far as known 13 of them made their first appear- 
ance in America at the horizon of the low coals of Arkansas, 
Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, etc., which Lesquereaux in 
his Coal Flora ''sub-conglomerate," adding in a footnote 
to page 636 that " the relation of Pennsylvania No. XI to 
this southern sub-conglomerate is not definite." Later, in 
Vol. Ill, he groups the conglomerate series of West Virginia 
with the above mentioned low coals ; but, later on, and with 
much additional and better materials from those States, for 
comparison with the flora of No. XII of Ohio and Pennsyl- 
vania, he expressed the conviction that the whole belonged 
to the conglomerate series No. XII. Fourth. Of these 13 
species, 5 have been found in the '* inter-conglomerate 
shale" at Campbell's ledge, Pittston Gap, Luzerne county, 
Pa., with 3 others, making 16 in all, of species under con- 
sideration which left their earliest remains in the shales of 
XI-XII. Of the remaining 9 species, 7 have been found in 
the lower coal measures near the top of XII. One species, 
before confined to the " Calciferous sandstone " of Scotland, 
is now for the firat time recorded from an American locality, 
and the last probably came up from the Devonian, but, be- 



ing of uncertain relation, it has little or no value here. 
Fifth. Of the 16 species which originated in XII or XI, 12 
of them passed up into the coal measures proper; all but 
one continuing to above the mammoth vein ; and 2 of them 
reaching the horizon of the Waynesburg coal in the upper 
productive coal measures. Of the 7 coal measure species, 
6 continued to live up to the base of the upper productive 
coal measures, and the remaining one as far as up to the 
Waynesburg coal Sixth. Of the 25 species from Tipton, 
all but 4 are common in the coal measures of North America. 
This gives a distinctly coal measure position to the collec- 
tion ; or at most in the low coal which I consider belongs 
to XII according to the Palseontological evidence as it now 
stands. Seventh. The wide geographical distribution of so 
many of the species in the coal period, with their specific 
characters so fixed and to be retained without variation 
throughout the vast period of their after existence, points 
to a much earlier origin than shown by the records where 
their remains have until now been found. Farther research 
in the shales of the pre-carboniferous and sub-carboniferous 
coals may show that many of what are now considered 
strictly carboniferous or late sub-carboniferous had reached 
maturity in earlier time, and were passing their declining 
years in the mild, moist climate of the carboniferous, while 
awaiting extinction. The Devonian type of the few Pocono 
plants described from Tipton gives them a much older as- 
pect than those of any other sub-carboniferous series, either 
in the United States or in Europe, so far as I know. I am 
informed that Professor Fontaine made additional collec- 
tions from Montgomery county, Virginia, last summer 
(1889) and will soon publish the result. (Letter of R. D. 
Lacoe, Pittston, May 10, 1890.) 

Pocono Formation in Cambria County. 

In southwestern Pennsylvania the Pocono formation sinks 
slowly from its outcrop along the Allegheny Mountains 
westward beneath the first bituminous coal basin and rises 
to the surface again at the viaduct anticlinal axis, which 
crosses the Conemaugh river a few miles above Johns- 




J/o. X/. JuhaJ1igl(/me/Utte(^Salca ilonifcrou/^^Me: 

DeHoptlchm* wachsmaUU Si Jaha 

>■ >UlT«  HIM f.C 



Oampsaeaoibu* typua (Si Jonn 

Orazajttkax rectus ,SUehn^HMii, 

Oracuntlniv •' obliqaus <r J.ri.r .«. \l or»h 

Or'h'^f'.turo'lus cnnrf-xu*, Sj l>t»n %tw1 lVonh«n 

-i^x^^ n!f,"inexi<flnui StJ. 

' .p'f^rjdt^i 



P-rir»«fr*r'^u« oompntMus Si John 4 Vl'jrih^n 

Ji -■ , .- '.^i; w'v -'f tea 

PhyttODvma* aUoui-uhu >; John A Worth«ti d^o Sar 



pBt«l'irLynrha» pMudoaaiciitAtuB. '^t. Joho. and W 




V /■- <r 

^ 1^ Cf9f.Sfl ¥*lt.fT 19 

Petalorhynthuehpatulnlus «« J..J,„ »„d Worth 

Petalorhynchus dintorius N j< W 

•" •»7r^ 


town. Its appearance here is interesting on account of the 
topographical aspect of the locality. The Conemaugh 
river descends obliquely through Cambria county, keep- 
ing its bed nearly level with the coal beds of the tunnel and 
Bennington. When these begin to rise gently on the west 
side of the basin, the conglomerate gets above the railroad 
and as the road aj^proaches the viaduct it is graded in the 
underlying Mauch Chunk red shale through a narrow neck 
of which the road bed has been cut and immediately spans 
the river on the viaduct. Approaching the cut, the river is 
about thirty feet below grade, passing through the cut the 
river is eighty feet below grade. The difference of water level 
is not produced by any cascade, but by the long course of the 
stream around a loop or horse-shoe bend to the south four 
miles in circuit. Consequently, in the course of one hun- 
dred yards the valley changes its character totally in the 
most picturesque manner. Above the viaduct, that is up 
stream to the east, nothing but coal measures are to be seen. 
At the viaduct the river is walled by continuous cliffs of 
horizontal Pocono false-bedded green sandstone. The trav- 
eler is transported in a few seconds from a gentle sided val- 
ley into a deep gorge ; and this continues westward until 
the lower coal beds of the Johnstown basin make their ap- 
pearance. * 

In Somerset county the Pocono formation rises in a broad, 
gentle, high arch at the Maryland line, called Negro Mount- 
ain. But as this anticlinal arch rises southward into Vir- 
ginia, and sinks rapidly northward toward Somerset, the 
top of the Pocono is several hundred feet under the bed of 
the Castlemati's river at Mineral Point; and there is no 
other exhibition of the formation, except at the above de- 
scribed viaduct, all the way to Clearfield county. 

The first long anticlinal mountain of western Pennsylva- 
nia is called Laurel Hill. It comes north from Virginia ; is 

*The false-bedded, or current-bedded, character of the Pocono formation 
is perhaps nowhere so flagrantly exhibited as in this gorge at the two ends 
of the viaduct Great rocks of many tons weight lie beneath the bridge 
with their layers an inch or two thick, weathered out in diagonal sets, form- 
ing the most curious and sometimes beautiful objects. 




j^.X/ Jiwc4m^lci)iGiaJte ti/tiiest&neflsJL. 

PhytoB«a«» «arin«ta« <i John * Wontoa, 



XI Qri in tf»tt 


Phyaostmat e&«M«r«BaU. 




PhjSOBMno* deprOMu*. 1i John « WortlMA. 

PhysoQomu* (Igma, Ngubvrrr «ii.l Wnith- 


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XI _-9 '5^- fir*/ 


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CfQijn imtm. 

Po«cilodus •tludoTlci. 8i John A Wortbvo. 

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Poecllodoa rarsovlensiA 

ir > • • •. • • * 

PottcUndoa worrhenl. 8t Ja»>n Geo Sor HI . Vol T. I68S 

XI ^^ /*« X^ 


Polyrhucodu* ilenutu*. 


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iCl ''u-.-e «• i*» 

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PolyrHlztviw pontlculua. Nowt» 


Polyrbl^.odua porosua. 

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Prist ui-ilodui bpiit£:^rrL St J.-.Ki A. Worifien. 



gapped by the Youghiogheny river near Ursina, and by the 
Conemaugh near Johnstown ; and continues north-north- 
eastward to the Susquehanna river in Clinton county. Its 
summit is that of a broad flat arch, with long gentle east 
and west slopes. Its structure is perfectly exposed in the 
two gaps before mentioned. In the center and at the bot- 
tom of the arch are seen the upper layers of VIII-IX (^Che- 
mung-Catskill). Over this is a grand arch of Pocono rocks. 
Near the top of the mountain is a broken thin arch of XI, 
Mauch Chunk red shale, with limestones and iron ore beds. 
Flanking the mountain on each side descend the lower coal 
beds, eastward toward Johnstown and westward into the 
Ligonier Valley. The conglomerate under the coal beds is 
eroded on both flanks of the mountain into ranges of spur 
knobs, between which descend the headwaters of Sandy 
Creek and Indian Creek on the east, and of the Loyal hanna 
River on the west. The red shale with its plate of iron 
ore rises in places nearly to the top of the mountain. Bui 
along most of its course the mountain crest is a broad and 
level plain of Pocono rocks. 

Chestnut Ridge on the west side of the Ligonier Valley 
runs parallel with Laurel Hill, is of almost exactly the same 
shape, height, breadth and structure, and needs no differ- 
ent description except in two essential particulars ; first, in 
that the axis of the arch is not so completely a straight 
line, but has what Prof. Stevenson calls oflf-sets, but which 
I consider merely slight local warps, as there is no fair evi- 
dence of any transverse faulting ; and true ofif-sets would 
argue a series of anticlinal rolls arranged en echelon^ their 
ends passing each other ; and of this also there is no clear 
proof ; it is therefore better to consider the irregular course 
of the axis of the anticlinal as due to warping ; and no se- 
rious warping is necessary to produce the effect ; besides 
which the steep dips of the east flank of the mountain are 
in testimony. 

The Pocono in Westmoreland and Fayette, 

The second point of difference between the two mount- 
ains is this abnormally steep dip to the east into the Ligo- 



J XI. ffiiiarfw/irmeui/ii limesti/ne Jiih t/xtJi 

■OlfSl^" 'Si < 



-JJ '^> 


19 s. ,-,ffik. SS'^ 




nier Valley south from the Conemaugh river for a number 
of miles; the conglomerate spur knobs showing dips a& 
higli as 80°; which is a remarkable phenomenon, unique in 
southwestern Pennsylvania ; and abnormal in its direction ^ 
because the universal rule is that dips toward the west from 
all the anticlinals that traverse that region are steeper than 
the dips towards the east. What haa produced this local 
exception has not been made out, and perhaps never will be. 

The general character of both mountains is plainly ex- 
hibited by the contour line topography on page plates 
CCXVII, &c., which are facsimile reproductions on one- 
half lineal scale of certain portions of my large manuscript 
map of 1853 (never yet published) made from my surveys 
for the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. Page plate CCXVII 
shows the Pack Saddle Gap of the Conemangh through 
Chestnut Ridge, between Bolivar and Blairsville. The 
lines of cliflf seen on the edges of the gap are the vertical 
walls of outcrop of the Pottsville conglomerate, under 
which is a narrow terrace of the soft Mauch Chunk red 
shale ; from which down nearly to the bed of the river ap- 
pear the arched strata of the Pocono. Page plate CCXIX 
shows the same descending outcrop cliflf wall of the con- 
glomerate at the western end of the great gap gorge of the 
Loyalhanna. On these page plates are seen the outcrop 
spur knobs of the conglomerate standing out from the east 
and west iianks of the mountain; and descending from 
these spur knobs, the slopes of lower coal measures reach- 
ing to the outcrop of the Pittsburg coal beds. 

The crest of Chestnut Ridge, like that of Laural Hill, is 
a nearly flat plain of Pocono, with a thin veneer of the red 
shale on which are left standing a few masses of the con- 
glomerate which once covered the whole mountain, which 
have been spared in the general erosion. Page plate 
CCXXXVII (on page 1712 above) gives my sketches of the 
most remarkable of these fragments, viz; the Cow Rock 
on top of the mountain south of the gap of the Youghio- 
gheny looking down upon Connellsville. Of this a de- 
scription will be given in a succeeding chapter on the Con- 


Iw. XI. milyconylome^ate i£tmestene {iih teeth. 


The long line of Chestnut Ridge is gapped at Connells- 
ville, at Latrobe and at Blairsville by the three rivers. The 
depth of the gorge from the top of the mountain to water 
level is in two instances about 1300 feet ; and the scenery- 
is very impressive. The geology of the three gaps is min- 
utely described in Prof. J. J. Stevenson's Reports K2 and 
K3, extracts from which will be given directly. The ridge 
further north is gapped again by Black Lick creek, Two 
Licks and Yellow creek, and in these gaps the Pocono arch 
can also be studied. Laural Hill is also gapped by the 
south and north branches of Black Lick, but these gaps ex- 
hibit the Pocono to a less degree. The Chestnut Ridge 
anticlinal axis dies down in Indiana county sufficiently to 
allow the coal measures to cover the ridge south of the 
Yellow Creek Gap. It is then off-set to the west about 3 
miles. It then runs on straight and unbroken to the north- 
east corner of Indiana county into Clearfield county, where 
it is again covered by patches of coal measures. The rest 
of its course into Elk county, the arch rises clear of coal 
measures and becomes what is called the Elk Mountain?, 
covered with conglomerate. In the tortuous gorges of the 
West Branch Susquehanna waters the Pocono formation, 
much thinner than along the Allegheny Mountains, out- 
crops in horizontal ranges of cliffs, capped by the red shale, 
the conglomerate and sometimes the lowest coal beds. 

This is the general condition of things throughout all the 
northern and northwestern counties of the state ; as will be 
described in Prof. White's discussion of the Pocono or 
Waverly Rocks in Crawford and Warren counties. 

Statenson^ s Section in the Conemaugh Oap. 

Prof. Stevenson in his first report KK on Westmoreland 
and Fayette counties gave the following section of the 
strata exhibited in the arch of Chestnut Ridge for 838 feet, 
as measured down from the mountain limestone at the top 
to the bed of the river. 

1. Umbral limestone (mountain limestone, silicious lime- 
stone) ; 2. Flaggy sandstone, 250 ; 3. Shale, 3 ; 4. Argilla- 
ceous sandstone, 40; 6. Shale, 10; 6. Sandstone, conglom- 



\,/Yo XI SuJram^lcmeiak &nestime -fishluth.l^ 


^^€%. iM 

^ mt 

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<2> "^8. ;':,«»' ^ 


erate toward the base, 140 ; 7. Shale and sandstone, 125 ; 
8. Sandstone with conglomerate layers, 20 ; 9. Sandy shale, 
100 ; 10. Concealed to the river, 150. 

In this section, the portion from No. 2 to No. 6 inclusive 
may be regarded as a single mass of sandstone, since the 
two layers of shale are very far from being constant. At 
other places they are found higher or lower in the section. 
The upper part of the mass is flaggy and cross-bedded 
throughout. No. 4 yields readily to the weather. No. 6 
is a good compact building stone, showing a shattered 
weather surface ; which has called for strong retaining walls 
along the railroad. The upper sandstone is fine grained, 
the lower one conglomeritic with layers containing large 
pebbles, no such being seen in the upper sandstone. 

Below this 450 feet of sandstone are a succession of shales 
and sandstones without character, and always more or less 

Below this comes a very curious conglomerate sandstone, 
never to be mistaken where exposed, of peculiar greenish 
tint, with pebbly layers, one near the middle a foot thick 
^nd. very persistent. Below this are red shales containing 
a few layers of reddish sandstone, which have always been 
considered the top strata of Catskill No. IX ; but Prof. 
Stevenson is inclined to fuse them with the Pocono. 

Rocks still. lower than any shown in the Conemaugh sec- 
tion were reached in a boring south of the National Road, 
where the limestone at the base of No. IX was passed 
through, 60 feet thick. Here on the National Koad the 
great sandstone is seen at the Turkey Nest, thin bedded, 
light grey, dipping very steeply ; under it the shale and 
sandstone of the Conemaugh ; the conglomerate and red 
5hale being also exposed. 

A coal bed reported 3 feet thick was bored through on a 
branch of Red Stone Creek by Mr. I. Hutchinson, near the 
top of the Pocono formation ; that is, 53 feet below the 
mountain limestone. But this coal bed is not visible at the 
Turkey Nest, being perhaps concealed by debris ; nor is any 
such coal bed visible in the gaps of the Conemaugh, Loyal- 


Wg^^5,j:^^\^" _.^cr 


hanna and Youghiogheny ; yet the record of the bore hole 
was kept with scrupulous accuracy.* 

* On Cheat river in W. Va. the Pocono section has the same character as io 
Pennsylvania. Its sandstones are seen in Tygart's Valley. At Lewisburg a 
coal bed four feet thick occurs in the middle of the group. Further gouth the 
group becomes indistinct, merged in the lower member of the great lime- 
stone series of Kentucky and Tennessee. In southern Ohio the Pocono is 
represented by the Waverly under the Maxville limestone. Many fossils 
fill pockets ; and similar pocketed fossils were found by Fontaine near the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad in Virginia. The species in both regions 
being identical or closely allied. 

Nothing of economical importance in the Pocono of Fayette and West- 
moreland has been certainly found. A lead-zinc vein in a secluded part of 
the mountain is reported, hand specimens of which were seen by Prof» 
Stevenson. The ore is said to occur in strings varying from ^ to ^ of an 
inch. One specimen when analyzed is said to have given a percentage of 
silver. It is significant that a silver lead ore is reported to have been dis* 
covered near Cheat river in West Virginia. All our knowledge of the for- 
mation over a wide region teaches that there is no hope of ever obtaining a 
valuable amount of precious ore anywhere in it 

Prof. Stevenson in his Report K3 on the Ligonier Valley repeats and en- 
larges his description of the formation. In the interval of 40 feet, between 
the two beds of shale 2&0 and 290 feet beneath the mountain limestone, and 
about midway between the shales, there is a bed of silicious limestone, 4 
inches thick, which seems to be the only limestone in the whole formation. 

The coal series of Sideling Hill and Tipton Run seem to be represented 
by occasional slaty layers, containing much vegetable matter, and even 
thin films of coal. Aside from these the whole series is devoid of both 
animal and vegitable remains. 

The top mass of sandstone is in thin lawyers, bluish-grey, containing 
much mica ; but the greater portion is exceedingly fine grained, and a good 
deal like quarzite, being cemented by soluble silica. In this respect it dif- 
fers from the mountain limestone at the top of the formation in which the 
cement is carbonate of lime ; hence the name given to the mountain lime- 
stone, silicious limestone. 

The lower conglomerate sandstone have their pebbles in all cases rounded 
and polished. There are shale layers in the formation, irregular in shape 
and containing carbonate of iron balls. On the Yough. river the pebbles of 
white quartz are numerous and many of them larger than a hen*s egg. 
Both in this and the Conemaugh Gap the layers of smaller pebbles are 
very definitely bedded. In the lower layers of pebbles they are flattened, 
and arranged in almost perfect linos according to their longer axis, the lay- 
ers being from \ inch to 2 inches apart This arrangement is characteris- 
tic of the horizon and bears no resemblance to the ordinary arrangement of 
pebbles in any other conglomerate rock, excepting one in the Devonian 
series underneath the Pocono. On the National road southeast of Connels- 
vllle great fragments from the conglomerate outcrops contain both tlie large 
pebbles and the flat pebbles in quantity ; and the rock itself reaches the 
summit of the mountain, where huge masses of the conglomerate layers lie 
thrown over the ground in the woods north of the Summit House. Just 


"~~ ~'~ ccWivT 

^0. XI. 'Jish //r/A, ^/uect wings. ^^ept/'Jejt 

i ): 

A A cm f! r '-'..'■ 

^ "' * 



X. Pocono Formation under iioutUwesttr a Pennsylvanicu 

Sloping westward from Chestnut Ridge at dips of 20° and 
30° beneath the third great bituminous coal basin the Po- 
cono formation is seen no more at the surface until it rises 
in a long line of outcrop extending southwest ward from 
Crawford county, Pa., across the States of Ohio and Ken- 
tucky in which it is known under the name of the Knob- 
stone formation, described in the reports of those states, 

beyond the house, the middle flaggy layers have been quarried for furnace 
Uning ; also at the Turkey Nest ; also handsomely exi>08ed at Old Center 
Furnace on Dunbar Creek. In West Virginia Prof. White makes the Po- 
cono on Cheat River 480 feet thick, with top and bottom conglomerate sub- 
divisions, separated by shales. It is noticeable that the Pocono ot Laurel 
Llill is less conglomerate, much more flaggy and quite wanting in shales 
and much whiter than onCnestnut Ridge, being in many places an almost 
pure white sand. 

Fossils are almost entirely unknown in the Pocono rocks of this region as 
in middle and eastern Pennsylvania ; but there are exceptional points of very 
great interest. For instance, in Victor Hollow, Fayette county, on a branch 
of George's Creek, there appear the following outcrops near the base of the 
Pocono formation : Grey sandstone, 1 ft 6 in. ; mottled gray sandstone, 10 
in.; grey sandstone, 1 ft. 2 in.; mottled, 1 ft; dark shale, Sin. ; clay and 
sandstone, 3 ft The sandstones are desperately hard like quartzlte. The 
two mottled lasers contain many fish spines ; the lower one also some indis- 
tinct small univalves. With the fish spines traces of zinc-blende and gal- 
ena; and these ores also appear in the lowest layer. 

These univalves are apparently pleurotomaria. Itis remarkable that the 
mountain limestones at tl^e top of the Pocono series should be so very fos- 
siliferouB, as shown by Prof. Stevenson's list in Report K3, page 311, and 
that the rocks near water level in the gaps should also be very fossiliferous, 
while the intermediate 600 or 600 feet of Pocono rocks should be almost ab- 
solutely non-fossfliferous everywhere. These lowest ** Devonian" rocks at 
river level are very rich in Chemung species, with which occur even some 
Upper Hamilton species. Collections can easily be made alongside of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad track in the Conemaugh Gap, and the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad in the Connelsville Gap. The first locality is less than 
2 miles above the Blairsville Intersection ; the other locality is a mile and a 
quarter below the mouth of Indian creek. Another excellent collection 
station is in the Laurel Hill Gap, less than 2miiesaboveOhiopyle Falls, the 
first rock cut above the Falls. Excellent collections of the same Devonian 
species can be made also on the National road on Chestnut Ridge. At all 
these localities specimens are abundant, and as well preserved as Chemung 
specimens usually are in New York State. The list given by Stevenson in 
K3, page 311, is as follows :— Lingula ; Discina grandis; Spirlt'er disjunctus ; 
Rhynchonella stephani ; Streptorhynchus chemungensis; Palseoneilo 
maxima ; Sanguinolites rigida ; Sanguinolites clavulus ; Sanguinolites ven- 

tncosa ; Mytilarca chemungenbis; Pteronites ; Pteronites ; Actlno. 

desma recta; Aetino tesma ; Orthoceras crotalum. 




"acks ofivorms- 

, ■■■■.•■ 1 


V%i \\ 

NQlin,,!,-, i^ ,-■ 

•5 •• 


and so-called originally by D. D. Owen on account of its 
topographical feature, producing, as it does, a belt of al- 
most isolated rounded hills or knobs. In Ohio it has al- 
ways gone under the name of the Waveriy formation, and 
is so known also in the State of Michigan. In Ohio, one of 
its sub-divisions is called the Berea grit, sub-divided into 
upper and lower, a rock recognized in most of the oil wells 
of Pennsylvania, as it must be passed in reaching the oil 
sands which lie beneath. 

In the gradual and general rise of all the formations north- 
ward so plainly visible to the observer ascending the Alle- 
gheny river from Pittsburg to the New York state line the 
Pocono rocks which at Pittsburg lie 1000 feet beneath the 
surface gradually reach the surface in Venango county, and 
produce along Oil creek steep slopes or cliflfs, the outcrops 
of what were in early oil times named the first, second and 
third mountain sand, as distinguished from the first, second 
and third oil sands beneath them. In the more southern 
counties all the wells had to go through these mountain 
sands to reach the oil sands ; but different names were ap- 
plied to them by the well diggers. For example ; the third 
mountain sand was called the first Butler oil sand, because 
it was originally mistaken for the first Venango oil sand, 
being the first sand which yielded oil in Butler county, 
when the oil development was proceeding southward. The 
most famous of these Pocono rocks has been in recent years 
called the " Big Injun," a rock which has recently yielded 
copiously in southern Greene county, on the West Virginia 
State line. Thousands of wells in western Pennsylvania 
have passed through the Pocono formation to reach the oil 
series underneath it ; and ite character everywhere has been 
thus made known as will be seen by reference to the well 
records published by Carll in his seven reports on oil and 
gas. One volume, his second report, I. 2, a book of 360 
pages, being entirely given to such oil well records with ex- 
planatory notes. Many other records are given in his other 
volumes. None of the formations, therefore, are better 
known than the Pocono, and few of them so well known, 
and that over an immense region, beneath which, had it not 



y^o. XII. '^oUsrille Gonqlomrrate outliepi 
wkich hure cscajjed eitosion.oTitAt cresi of 
GhestnutV^tdqe near^O!ine//sf/'//e,fayefff.^c 

ock 'i 



been for the oil and gas development, it would have remained 
concealed from geoloj^ists forever. It is impossible to give 
even a resume of this vast collection of stratigraphical data. 
It must be collated from a study of these seven remarkable 
reports, the like of which does not perhaps exist in the his- 
tory of our science. All that I can do here is to give what 
we learn from the record of the deep Pittsburg oil well, 
published in Report L, page 227 to 229. 

The Pocono in the BoycCs Hill Well at Pittsburg. 

The Boyd's Hill gas well is one of the most interesting 
and important bore holes ever drilled. It was started on 
Boyd's Hill at a height of about 100 feet above the main 
street of Pittsburg, and went down through the barren 
measures the lower productive coal measures, the Potts- 
ville conglomerate, the Mauch Chunk red shale, the moun- 
tain limestone, the Pocono sandstone, and the Catskill red 
rocks to and through the Venango oil sand group. Its re- 
cord is tolerably good down to 1700 feet, here the great flow 
of salt water took place and the remaining 600 feet are not 
recorded with all the certainty desirable. The derrick plat- 
form is 260 feet below the Pittsburg coal bed, at a depth of 
350 the Mahoning sandstone was gone through ; at 676 the 
ferriferous limestone ; at 729 the top of the Pottsville con- 
glomerate was struck ; at 789 one of the conglomerate coal 
beds ; at 889 the mountain limestone 25 feet thick ; at 914 
the top mass of the Pocono, a white sand rock, 80 feet thick ; 
under which 82 feet of black slate containing gas, under 
which 110 feet of fine-grained dove-colored mass of sand- 
stone, with no pebbles larger than a pin's head. Under 
this 154 feet of alternate layers of slate and flaggy sand ; 
then 35 feet of sharp white sandstone, massive and without 
pebbles ; then 30 feet of alternate shales and flag ; then 185 
feet of " black slate," darker at the top than at the bottom ; 
then 112 feet of white quartzite, probably representing the 
Berea grit. The greater part of this mass is more or less a 
conglomerate, having a strong fishy smell, and producing 
salt water 11° strong from the top to the bottom. Under 
this was found. 110 feet of a sandstone, composed of beauti- 
























^ -. 


















fully transparent quartz grains all of them angular, and of 
about the same size, that of a large pin's head. The speci- 
mens remind one of the glass sand of the Oriskany outcrops 
on the Juniata river; much tinted with an orange iron 
wash. Prom this remarkable rock issued and still flows a 
strong brine at the rate of 3000 to 4000 barrels per day ; 348 
gallons of whicli make one barrel (280 pounds) of salt and 
60 pounds of bittern; bromine, 0.31 per cent. (Dr. Otto). 
It is from this same layer in the well at Leechburg on the 
Gonemaugh in Armstrong county that the great flow of gas 
comes which is described in Report L, page 217. 

In the page plate, Report L, page 124, may be found the 
columnar column of the Boyd's Hill well record, a colum- 
nar section of the Leechburg well, and a columnar column 
of Prof. Stevenson's section in the Conemaugh gap through 
Chestnut Ridge, described above. The Pottsville conglom- 
erate in all three columns being connected horizontally, the 
diminution in thickness in formation XI Mauch Chunk red 
shale, that is, of the distance from the bottom of the Potts- 
ville conglomerate No. XII to the bottom of the mountain 
limestone, going westward from Blairsville to Pittsburg is 
strikingly exhibited. At the same time the opposite of this 
in regard to the Pocono formation is equally evident ; that 
is, the Pocono seems to be of almost exactly equal thick- 
ness in the Blairsville Gap, in the Leechburg well and in the 
well at Pittsburg. From 914 feet to 1700 feet, the bottom 
of the great salt rock, is 786 feet, which may be taken as 
the minimum thickness of the Pocono formation under 

*The new *^Big Injun*' oil belt of West Virginia ex tending already 25 miles 
from ML Morris in Greene county, Pa., south westward past Mannington in 
Marion county, West Virginia, has been described by T. C. White in the 
Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. Ill, page 187, April. 
1892, with important sections of well records at ML Morris, Mannington and 
Falrville Station. The Mt Morris well, 1005 feet deep, started in t!ie Dunk- 
ard creek coal measures, and went down through the mountain limestone 
56 feet thick into the **Big Inj un" oil sand, 101 feet thick. Tlie Mannington well 
19:i0 feet, found the mountain limestone 92 feet thick ; and the ^' Big Injun " 
sand thus composed : A, grey sand, with gas 37 feet; B, cream-colored lime- 
stone, 17 feet ; C, dark sand, 10 feet ; D, grey sand with oil at base, 8 feet ; 
K, bluish-grey sand, with more oil and some water. This represents the 
top of the Pocono formation. The Fairviewjwell, 1999 feet deep, found the 



X. Pocono Formation in the Northern Counties, 


Throughout northern Pennsylvania underlying the great 
upland between the Allegheny Mountains and the New 
York state line, the Pocono formation has been studied and 
reported upon by Prof. White in Wayne and Susquehanna ; 
by Mr. Sherwood and Mr. Franklin Piatt in Bradford, 
Tioga and Potter; by Mr. d'Invilliers and Dr. Chance in 
Clinton, Centre and Clearfield ; by Mr. Ashburner in Elk, 
Cameron, Forest and McKean ; by Mr. Carll in Venango 
and Warren ; by Dr. Chance in Clinton and northern But- 
ler, and by Prof. White in Crawford and Erie. 

Enough sections have already been published in Vol. II 
of this summary in connection with the sections of the 

mountaia limestone 70 feet thick ; and the **Big Injun" thus composed : A, 
grey sand, 05 ; B, limestone, 7 ; C, grey sand, some gas, 20 ; D, grey sand, 
heavy gas, 80 ; E, sandstone, oil show at bottom, 18 ; F, sand, 7 feet, slate to 
bottom of well, 6 feet. 

Thus we have here the great top sand sub-division of the Pocono 142 feet 
thick. Since the Mannington test well was drilled 200 others were put down 
along the belt previous to the reading of Prof. White's paper, opening up 
one of the largest and most valuable oil fields in the country, located at the 
top of the Pocono formation, not more than 6 per cent of the wells drilled 
within the defined limits proving totally dry. Any oil rock must be vari- 
able in porosity and hence in productiveness. Where the oil sand is a 
coarse gravel like that in the famous McDonald region of Washington 
county. Pa., or in the great Russian oil field, the oil production is only 
limited by the size of the bore hole ; where the rock is close and compact it 
can yield little oil. For instance, the famous Nf evey weU No. 1 at McDonald 
gushed 15,000 barrels daily ; another well, only 800 feet distant from it, 
drilled through the same fifth sand, was practically dry, the pebble rock 
having become close grained in that short distance. Thus the richest oil 
territory is really broken up into oil pools where the pebbles or gravel have 
been deposited instead of small sand. The top of the Pocono has furnished 
oil at other localities ; the Slippery Rock and manifold oil sands of Pennsyl- 
vania, the mica sand of Ohio, and the main sand of Burning Springs and 
Volcano, W. Ya., all belong to this horizon. The Kanawha valley natural 
gas, used 50 years ago, came from it. The Warfield gas wells of Kentucky 
are in it The asphalt deposits of Alabama come from it The oil and gas 
are not disseminated uniformly through it, but occur in layers at from 60 to 
135 feet below the top, the richest horizon being found at 80 to 110 feet The 
texture of the sand is not coarse and pebbly like the Venango oil sands, and 
therefore the beds do not gush ; but produce from 5 to 600 barrels daily after 
they have been flowing for 30 days, although some have been known to 
start with 50 barrels per hour. The oil is of a beautiful amber color, and 
compares favorably with the best of the "white sand" territory; gravity, 
48O^to60O (I. C. White.) 




Jw.a//. jnUr-cong/ometdU coaU of the northern 

Ttatteromwy. cQimtieS of the stfde of 


1 1 

? f » 



/M»tatfd lertfiiu of tmagitudinal Sevtton 

If '-H.'" ^ 



tff» "•. 

./jM »h.-tirjn fprr huittrrd 

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A t^O IVttft 


underlying Catskill in the northeastern counties. The 
Pocono outcrops, nearly horizontal but slightly waving, 
form lines of cliffs along the watera of the Loyalsock, Ly- 
coming, Pine creek, Kettle' creek, the Sinnemahoning, and 
in fact all the upper waters of the west branch Susque- 
hanna and all the waters of the Genesee and the upper Alle- 
gheny, especially as they flow toward and across the New 
York state line. In McKean county especially the forma- 
tion has been thoroughly studied, sectioned and described 
(see Report R). 

Everywhere the top of the formation is well defined by 
an overlying red or red and grey formation No. XI, until 
the doubtful country is reached in McKean and Warren 
counties where these shales have been suspected by Ash- 
burner not to be XI, but to be the uppermost nneroded 
member of X. Against this view I think there are serious 
objections ; and if it were adopted it would prevent our 
recognizing the deposit of the Mauch Chunk ]*ed shale No. 
XI in northwest Pennsylvania and Ohio, although if it 
i^xists in that great region it is undoubtedly very thin and 
of a changed character. 

In those northwestern counties there are two great con- 
glomerate formations, separated by a shale formation, say 
50 feet thick. The upper conglomerate called the Sharon 
conglomerate by White, the Garland conglomerate by 
Oarll, and the Olean conglomerate by Ashburner, is un- 
doubtedly the lowest subdivision of No. XII, and over it 
lies the Sharon coal bed well recognized everywhere in 
northwest Pennsylvania. 

The lower conglomerate, called by White the Shenango 
sandstone, by Carll the sub-Garland, or second mountain 
sand, and by Ashburner the sub-Olean conglomerate, with 
its splendid rock cities on the Allegheny river at the state 
line, is undoubtedly either the great top sandstone divi- 
sion of the Pocono, described by Stevenson in his Cone- 
maugh Gap section, or at least a great sand deposit near 
the top of the Pocono. I see no reason for not identifying 
it with the top Pocono sandstone, and thus identifying the 
intermediate shale formation between the sub-Olean and 
Olean as Mauch Chunk No. XL 



MX//. Sn^'Con^lom&iafe coal mefCAt/tf's 



UnjB iJlJr/limOrttStraMt. 



The characteristic distinction between the Olean and sub- 
Clean deposits was first recognized by Mr. Carll in Venango 
county (see his earliest reports). He described the Olean 
as a round pebble conglomerate, and generalized the fact 
that all the gravel rocks of No. XII above it and of the coal 
measures still higher contained round pebbles. He de- 
scribed the sub-Olean, on the contrary, as a flat pebble 
conglomerate, and generalized the fact that from it down- 
ward wherever formations X and IX contained pebbles they 
were not round but flat. This generalization may have 
been carried somewhat too far, as is shown in Prof. Steven- 
son's descriptions of the Pocono conglomerates in the Cone- 
maugh Gap near Blairsville ; but taken, in a broad sense, 
the distinction between the older flat pebble rocks and the 
later round pebble gravels is undoubtedly a true discovery 
and would be of very considerable importance if its cause 
were understood in reconstructing the condition of things 
in sub- carboniferous and carboniferous ages relative to the 
depth of water, the height of land and the currents of de- 

Pocono in the Allegheny Mountain Plateau. 

The upland of northern Pennsylvania varying in altitude 
from 2000 to 2700 feet above tide, may be said to be com- 
posed of combined Catskill and Pocono rocks, with shallow 
parallel basins of XI, XII and occasionally XIII or lower 
coal measures. This extensive highland of Wyoming, Sul- 
livan, Lycoming, Clinton and Potter counties is traversed by 
broad and shallow anticlinal waves, which toward the east 
lift the Chemung formation and thus break up the highland 
into long, narrow synclinal parallel Pocono mountains, 
the southermost of which extend the furthest eastward. 
Thus the first one representing the southern edge or true 
Allegheny mountain, runs on as the Elk mountain through 
Wyoming into Susquehanna county. Another is the To- 
wanda mountain, ending at the north branch Susquehanna 
in Bradford county. Another is the Blossburg mountain. 
Another is the Tioga mountain, ending a few miles east of 
the Tioga river at the Bradford county line. Another is 



the Crooked creek mountain, running to the northeast cor- 
ner of Tioga county, and a few miles into the State of New 
York. Two others cross Potter county diagonally, and end 
a few miles in the State of New York. 

The first point to be recognized as a distinctive feature of 
these mountains is their shallow synclinal character, and 
consequently their very curious internal drainage. In the 
case of anticlinal mountains innumerable ravines descend 
their two sides. In the case of these synclical mountains 
the ravines from their two opposite crests descend inward 
to a main stream which runs along their middle, and issues 
by some main gap upon the anticlinal Chemung valley 
which borders them. Tunkhannock creek is a striking il- 
lustration. Shrader's creek, which splits the Towanda 
Mountain, is another instance. 

The next feature to be considered is the decrease in the 
height of the mountains from south to north. This is 
owing mainly to the astonishing diminution of the forma- 
tion itself in that direction. We have seen that in tlie 
Mauch Chunk and Pottsville gaps the Pocono formation 
measures about 3000 feet in thickness. In the gaps of the 
Allegheny Mountain, at Lock Haven, for example, it meas- 
ures 1175 feet, and back of Altoona about the same. We 
have seen that in the Conemaugh gap at Blairsville it is 
much thinner. So in the northern counties .it becoineg thin- 
ner, and thinner until in Potter and McKean it meas- 
ures, little more than 300 feet. At Lock Haven it consist& 
of hard, massive grey sandstones, separated by beds of 
softer sandstone and shale. In one of it? upper bands a 
thin bed of bituminous slate, a kind of cannel coal, occurs, 
and just below its junction with the Mauch Chunk overlying 
red shale XI there is a thin layer of limestone. Dr. Chance 
remarks that its division into two members is not very 
plainly shown at Lock Haven ; but from Queen's run up 
the west branch Susquehanna these two subdivisions are 
always distinguishable by the red color of its lower half 
contrasted with the overlying grey beds. This makes it an 
important geological horizon, separating the Venango oil 
sand group below from the mountain sands above. In 


c/V2.A//. Gmyloinexnte cnal.i oj ^coining Go. 

iiK OaiSate aiOiriOnT'i-^ >» 



is%J' »»"'■'■' 


McKean and Elk the lower red subdivision is called red 
Catskill in Mr. Ashbumer's report R2. The characteris- 
tic feature of the upper or grey Pocono is its constant sandy 
character, nearly all hard and massive, but usually fine 
grained and laminated so as to give the appearance on 
weathered surfaces of a sandy slate. The grey color is 
usually greenish, but sometimes approaches a dark steel 
gray. The sand grains are rounded, rather dark, lustreless, 
and never sharp. About 60 to 80 per cent, of the mass is 
sandstone, the remainder sandy shale. From Emporium 
westward it becomes rapidly less sandy. The shaly bands 
thickening until in some places more than half the hard 
sandstone has become olive and grey shale. In the Ve- 
nango oil region the whole mass is noted for its softness, 
fast drilling time being always made between the conglom- 
erate or mountain sand and the oil sand ; the only persistent 
sandy horizon being the third mountain sand or Berea grit. 

The thickness of the grey Pocono was measured at many 
places on the Susquehanna waters ; for instance, at Queen's 
run, 433; Wetham, 400; Hyner, 390; Renovo, 400; 
Keating, 376 ; Sinnemahoning, 410 ; Sterling, 360 ; Cam- 
eron, 425 ; Rathburn, 390 ; Ridgeway, 407 ; Wilcox, 322 ; 
Kane, 350 ; in Clarion county, about 400 ; in Mercer county, 
about 400. The parallelism • thus shown is very remark- 
able ; but as Dr. Chance well remarks, no more wonderful 
than the parallelism exhibited by the coal measures over 
the great area of western Pennsylvania ; and he might 
have added no more wonderful than the constant thickness 
of the Venango oil sand group along a great stretch of the 
oil bed. 

It is the lower sub-division, or red Pocono, then, which 
makes the principal factor in the decline of the thickness 
of the whole Pocono formation going northward and west- 
ward. As has been said, along the front of the Allegheny 
Mountain no such distinction is observable. A trace of red 
shale occurs here and there throughout the formation, but 
it can hardly be said to be more prominent in the lower 
than in the upper. But going westward, the red bands 
rapidly increase in number and in Ihickness, until at Hy- 



M.Xfl. Qonglomerate coals oflf^ommtj Go 

^.— J"' " ■F''^' • ■'-*^i^ 'j^^--. ^^± 

m ff ,. S § g 

Senutr Sasct 

P- R P U. 



CT' ■&=  &«'" 


ner'8 Station, on the west branch Susquehanna, they aggre- 
gate one-tenth of the whole mass. The red color in any one 
strata is not constant, but repeatedly gives place to grey or 
olive, and that often abruptly ; but as a whole this lower 
subdivision has a distinct red character in all the country 
northwest from Wetham or Ritchie. The increase of red 
from east to west is illustrated by Dr. Chance in the form 
of a percentage of red, viz: Queen's run, 6; Furney's 
run, 10 (?); Hyiier, 86 ; Sinnemahoning, 42; Wilcox, 75. 
This might be continued, he says, westward by tables for 
the oil region ; but in that direction we are approaching a 
belt of variations along which the greatest irregularity pre- 
vails. It is certain, he thinks, that these reds with the ex- 
ception of the uppermost band, thin out between the oil 
sands of Venango, Clarion and Butler, and must be consid- 
ered as geologically synchronous with them. The heavy red 
band overlying the first oil sand extends far to the west ; 
and this is illustrated by the area of red rocks underground, 
exhibited in one of Mr. Carll's more recent maps. The 
reds are also found higher or closer to the conglomerate at 
Bradford and throughout the northern part of McKean 
than at points further south ; in fact, everything that can 
be seen throughout that part of the country goes to prove 
that the horizon at which the red color predominates con- 
stantly rises in a north and northwesterly direction. See 
the theoretical diagram illustrating the deposition of the 
Catskill and Pocono red beds given by Dr. Chance on page 
114, Report G4 on Clinton county, 1880. Mr. Ashburner 
observing the same facts draws a rather different conclu- 
sion, viz : Not a shifting of the horizon of the red color, but 
a non-confonnability between the lower red mass and the 
overlying grey mass ; consequently, speaking not of the 
Red Pocono but of the Red Catskill. 

Dr. Chance gives his measurements of this lower red sub- 
division of the Pocono, as he considers it to be, thus : *' At 
Queen's run, 742; at Hyner, 600; at Sinnemahoning, 
more than 450 ; at Sterling, about 450 ; at Cameron, 347 ; 
at Emporium, about 375 ; at Ridgeway, about 339 ; at Wil- 
cox, more than 290 ; at Kane, about 160 ; at Bradford, about 




260 ; in Mercer county, about 75." At Kinzua and at War- 
ren the group is almost, if not entirely, wanting. "These 
places," says Dr. Chance, '^ie west of the prolongation of 
the oil sand shore, which I take it ran a short distance east 
of them, east also of Stoneham, slightly west of Kane, and 
not far from Bradford." He adds that in some parts of 
Venango and Butler the thickness of the group is apparently 
augmented by bands of red rock coming in beneath the oil 
sands ; or it is possible that these niay be the wedge-shaped 
ends of the Red Catskill (see Dr. Chance's map of the edge 
of the Catskill basin as he understands it, on page 108, Gi). 

Mr. Ashburner in Report R, page 65, sub divides the 
Pocono in McKean county where it was studied with great 
care into three divisions ; upper shales and sandstone, 
middle sub-Olean conglomerate, lower shales and sand- 
stone. It has already been said that the upper shales and 
sandstones occupy the proper horizon of No. XI, Mauch 
Chunk red shale, but is entirely different in character from 
No. XI in other parts of the state ; and as No. XI runs out 
northwestward in a very short distance from Lock Haven 
to above Queen's run on the west branch, according to Dr. 
Chance, although it continues westward through Cameron 
and Elk counties, Mr. Ashburner has some reason for plac- 
ing these shales in the Pocono, and for considering No. XI 
as entirely absent. These shales occupy the interval be- 
tween the Olean conglomerate No. XII and the sub-Olean 
conglomerate No. X. Their thickness in northern McKean 
is 50 feet. They increase southward to 230 at Ridge way in 
Elk ; at Kane they are 90 ; at the Wilcox wells, 110. Their 
character is that of grey and yellow flaggy sandstones and 
clay shales. 

The middle member sub-Olean will be described hereafter. 

Ashburner' s lower Pocono shales and sandstones through- 
out McKean are like the upper member, but less massive 
and more flaggy, with more shales. Their thickness is 150 
feet at Bradford and 190 feet at the Wilcox wells. In 
southeastern McKean they are 300 feet. At the Bear creek 
and Silver creek wells, Elk county, they are 350. At Ridge- 
way they measure 413. 


:yY(>.XII. O^ottsyille (ronglomerutc cual beds 
iiiMcy&an Go.'S'eim. 

a^hji'^"" ^nm i'*''^ .«»»..^j,a».a:ig& j 


The Marvin creek limestone near the bottom of the Po- 
cono shales is a well-defined bed found in every exposure 
in the county ; as in southern Bradford township along 
Shepherd run it is seen as a hard, bluish-grey f ossiliferous 
limestone, 2 feet thick, overlaid by grey flaggy sandstone 
and shale 25 feet and underlaid by 50 feet of greenish- 
yellow sandy slate. On the west slope of Chappel Hill in 
northern Sergeant township it outcrops 2080 A. T. as a hard 
silicious and argillaceous limestone 5 feet thick, containing 
fragments of Chemung fossils. Above it 20 feet of green and 
brownish-grey flaggy and shaly sandstone. Below it 60 
feet of olive and grey shales and shaly sandstone. At 
other places fragments Of it strew the soil. The weathered 
stone is a mere silicious skeleton, the lime matrix being 
dissolved out. This limestone is mentioned in H. D. 
Rogers' Geology of Pennsylvania, Vol. II, page 548, as not 
many feet above the Catskill red shale and about 200 feet 
below the sub-Olean conglomerate near the New York state 
line, on the road from Potato creek to Bradford, and again 
6 miles north of Smethport where a copious lime spring 
covers the stones and grass with tufa ; and similar springs 
issue along the Warren road 6 miles west. On Bunker Hill 
on the Bellefonte turnpike a fossiliferous limestone under 
hard whitish Pocono sandstone dips 7^ S. S. E. The same 
bed under the same sandstone crops out 10 miles south of 
Smethport, 4 feet thick, exceedingly fossiliferous, very 
hard and sandy, being in reality a sandstone full of fossil 
shells. It is seen also on Bennett's Branch further south, 
and on Tuna creek to the northwest. 

Ashburner supposes it to be the same with the lower 
Meadville limestone in Crawford county, to be described 
hereafter. In the Benezette dry hole, Elk county, a bed of 
limestone, probably the same, is reported 7 feet thick at a 
depth of 123. Nowhere in the region has this limestone 
been found of economical importance. 

Taking all three of Ashburner' s divisions together, he 
shows the increasing thickness southward from Smethport 
to Sinnemahoning, Cameron county, thus: At Smethport, 
250; Norwich, 300; Keating, 400; Shippen, 460; Empor- 


~ T Piatt CCXUV/I.A 

TfoXII .Canalomeratc coals 


1. Onqr «nd bUok sUtM, . a 

a. Coal, 

%. Qi*y and brown Mudatona, 4 

4. i><v<M eoal, 

6. FIfmUt 

a. SonditoDe and date, 8' to V 

7. OfernwMK <f«rTV«r<m«> K>»M(one,4' la i 

8. Saodatons and aUM, • 

g. dermont eoati 

10. Ftreolay, ! 

JoHNaoM sun aAKiMTons, top mamb«r 
oonglomerate aeiita, - 

I. ShaloB, 

t. aray alate 

). i)affu«eoai (Coal-pit opening), . . . 

I. Fireclay, 

>. Sliale and aanilatone, 

}. Coal (Rock opening}, 

r. Fireclay 

i. Sliale and Rlate 

). Clfrmrmt coal (Charley and Taylor 

oponing), . 

). Fireclay 


i. Black elate, 

I. Alton Upper coal (Spring opening), 

I. Flrecla.y and sliale, 

j. Alton lUiddttroal, 

). Shale and undstone, 

'. Allon Lotctr eiial (llaralln opening), 
I. Fireclay, 

I. Marahburff Upper coal (Block open- 

*»ig), ■;■. 

:. Firecliiy, 



ium, 650 ; Cameron, 650 ; Driftwood, 700 ; Sinnemahoning, 
750 ; and he makes the important practical deduction from 
these measurements, that the Bradford oil rocks must 
necessarily sink deeper and deeper going southward to the 
extent of at least 500 feet ; therefore that bore holes to 
reach the Bradford oil in Cameron county should be put 
down at least 500 feet deeper than in northern Elk county ; 
and he explains the failure of many test holes in Cameron 
county to the ignorance of this fact by the oil well borers. 

The sub Olean conglomerate in McKean county may be 
taken as the top of the great Pocono sandstone formation 
No. X, of eastern and middle Pennsylvania, and consists 
sometimes of a single solid conglomerate or sandstone, 
sometimes of a series of alternations of sandstone and con- 
glomerate strata. The conglomerate is composed of a fer- 
ruginous, oi)en, angular, loosely cemented sand in which 
are embedded pebbles of various size, color and composi- 
tion, invariably water-rolled to a flat or cake-like form. 
The rock has a tendency to stratification, the layers of 
which vary from a few inches to 2' or 3'. The pebbles 
which separate readily from the matrix, have a hard, smooth 
surface, much more so than those found in the Olean con- 
glomerate above. The quartzite pebbles are more compact, 
harder, and more homogeneous than the pebbles of the Olean. 

The sandstone strata are hard, massive, fine-grained, fer- 
ruginous, often containing clay-iron-stone balls, and with a 
tendency to fracture like the conglomerate strata parallel 
to the bed planes ; in many places quite shaly ; and in 
many places separated by clay shale partings. The thick- 
ness of the sub-Olean is astonishingly persistent, say 40', 
not only throughout McKean but also in southern Bradford 

Fine exhibitions of the rock may be seen along the valley 
of Kinzua creek, near the Warren county line. A bold 
cliff overhangs Ludlow station immediately south of the 
P. & E. railroad. In the Cobum well, it shows a depth of 
178' as a 34' sandstone, reported to have made a show of 
oil ; the interval between its top and the bottom of the 
Olean above is here as much as 108'. In the Bear creek 


Jfo.Xll coal 6ecls, McLean a 

plate. CCXLVn.B. 

1. Gray aod black nlate, 20' 

a. Coat, .... 1' 

S> Hard llDe-grslDed gray uid brown 

aandatone, 40' 

4. Dagut coal, 2' 9" 

3. Fireclay, . . 2' 

6. SuidsUiae nnd slate, 10 

7. Cftrmont limealone, 8' 

B. Sandstone and t\Ua, 81' 6" 

9. Clermont coal, 3' 11" 

10. Fireclay. 2' 

11. JOKHBOH HUN SAItllSTOIIB, . . . ' 40' 

12. Alton Upper coal, 2' S" 

18. Fireclay, 2' 0" 

14. Bine and black alala, U' 

15. Alton Lower offil, 3' 6' 

16. Fireclay, 

IT. KlItSl-ACBBBIt BARnaTONE, . . 45' 

U. UaraUntrg Vjper coal and slate, . 6' 


20. Black alaie, (JSarihburg Lower 

root.) fi'tolO 

Clerwionl (Ferri/erou*) linteatone, 
(summits too low to uontaln 11,) . . . — 

L Banditnne, shale and aUle 37' 

2. Clfrmont (Clarion) coat, S'± 

8. Firpcliy 5'T 

4. Joaxnon rdk sa:«iisto:(e (pebiily), 

and slate, GO' 

5. Alton t'fiper etal, 2' 

«. Fireclay, (£) '. T 

7. Blue and blao : slate and sandstone, . 12' 

8. AlloniltddU t>af. (3i)rinorebenchei>,) i' 

9. Fireclay, sinda^ne and date, .... 10' 

10. Alton bottom eoalt, (sporadic,) .... 2' 

11. Ki-izUA CREEK BANDSTONE, conglom- 

erate and slate, 50' 

12. Slate and sand 'lono containing ifarab- 

barg V/'prr ;&(((, . . ..... 10' 

13. ObBAN Co^or.OMRRATE And sandstone 

witlioccaalonal slate beds, 55' 



well record it appears as Nos. 12, 13 and 14 ; in the Silver 
creek well record as Nos. 9 and 10. In the Ridgeway sec- 
tion, 20' above railroad grade, west of the station, it is ex- 
posed to the extent of 13'. It has been traced down the 
valley of the Clarion from Ridgeway southwest as far as 
Millstone, and to Tionesta, in Forest county (R. 67). 

The sub-Olean shales of McKean county, corresponding 
to White's Shenango shales on the Ohio line, occupy the 
proper place of the Mauch Chunk red shale formation No. 
XI, of eastern and middle Pennsylvania ; but doubt has 
been thrown upon it in McKean county because of the total 
absence of red shale except in the southeastern part of 
Norwich township, at the southeast corner of the county ; 
for which reason Mr. Ashburner concluded that formation 
No. XI had thinned away to nothing in McKean, and the 
shales under the Olean conglomerate were properly to be 
considered the uppermost strata of the Pocono sandstone 
formation No. X. It is a matter of small importance by 
wliich name these shales may be called, but I prefer to 
consider them No. XI because of the presence in them of 
the small Mansfield lower coal bed which can be nothing 
else than the westward prolongation of the Ralston sub- 
conglomerate coal bed on Pine creek, in Lycoming county. 

At the Wilcox wells, one mile north of the Elk-McKean 
county line, no exposures of red can be seen beneath the 
Olean ; but at the Bear creek well, eight and one-fourth 
miles south, the drill, after passing through the lower 25' 
of Olean conglomerate, pierced red rock, 16' ; blue slate, 
10' ; red rock, 20' ; total, 46'. At the Silver creek well, one 
mile distant, the same red shale was found directly beneath 
the Olean. Near Ridgeway, in Elk county, red shale and 
red soil are seen under the conglomerate. The interval of 
60' has been traced southeast through Cameron and the 
sections connected with those of Clinton county, where 
formation No. XI is well determined and exposed. At 
Marien, in Forest county, some thin red shale beds were 
found in an interval of 70' beneath the 70' sandstone, which 
is there considered to be the bottom member of the much 
expanded Olean formation. 



Through central and northern McKean, the interval is 
represented by 5' or 10' of ferruginous clay shale, or by 
black slate with occasional layers of cannel coal, or thin 
slaty coal, called, in Report R, the Marshburg lower coal. 
At Claremont, very cannelly black slate occurs. On the 
Boyer farm this slate has been dug into for a coal bed, 
which received at the time the sensational name of the 
Mammoth Bed, of course of no value. In the vicinity of 
Marshburg, Lafayette township, sixteen miles west of 
Smethport, a ppor, slaty coal bed was opened directly 
under the conglomorate. At Ridgeway, on the Clarion 
river, the same coal was found on the Gresh hill, north of 
the railroad station. 

The sub-Olean shale formation, say 50' thick, along the 
New York state line, in McKean county, increases south- 
ward to 230' at Ridgeway, in Elk county, but not regularly ; 
in fact, the greater part of the increase takes place between 
the southern line of McKean and Ridgeway ; for at Kane 
the thickness is 90', and at the Wilcox wells, 100' or 110'. 
Drawing an east and west line across the county through 
Claremont, the average thickness of the formation north of 
that line may be safely stated at 60'. The general charac- 
ter of the strata is a series of gray and yellow flaggy sand- 
stones and clay shales. 

The sub-Olean (Shenango) shales northwest of the Alle- 
gheny river, in Warren county, maintain quite a uniform 
thickness of about 50' with two or three exceptions ; but 
southeast of the river they thicken quite rapidly ; for at 
Sheffield they measure 100', and near Brookston, at the 
southeast corner of Warren county, 120' or more. At 
Kane, ten miles east northeast of Brookston, in McKean 
county; also in Highland township, Elk county, six miles 
south of Kane ; also at the Wilcox wells, six miles east 
southeast of Kane ; also at Ridgeway, fifteen miles south 
southeast of Kane, and so down the Clarion river, westward, 
in southern Forest county, at the mouth of Spring creek 
and at the mouth of Millstone creek. At all of these places 
the flat pebble sub-Olean is exhibited, and above it, in the 
same hillsides, the round pebble Olean conglomerate is ex- 



Scale 1900 feet to 1 inch 


posedi with from 100' to 150' of intermediate shales sepa- 
rating them ; so that there can be no doubt, whatever, re- 
specting the different characters and fixed relationship of 
these two formations to each other throughout an extensive 
region affording innumerable opportunities for examina- 

The exceptions northwest of the Allegheny river, men- 
tioned above, are in Elk, GFlade and Freehold townships, as 
follows : In Freehold township under Miller's cliff, no out- 
crop of it can be seen, nor anything in the soil to indicate 
its presence, which is one of the arguments in favor of mak- 
ing the Miller's Cliff rock itself sub Olean as described in 
the chapter on the Salamanca conglomerate. 

The sub-Olean conglomerate underlies the Pike's Rock 
Olean, spreading out like a lower terrace southeastward to 
the township line. It is a yellow, coarse-grained, iron- 
spotted sandstone separated from the Pike's Rock above by 
a few feet of sub-Olean shales. 

On the eastern side of Matthew's run another patch of 
sub-Olean remains. 

From Farmington and Pine Grove townships the sub- 
Olean has been removed, except on the Glade and Elk town- 
ship border. 

In Warren county, the sub-Olean conglomerate affords 
better opportunities for correct identification than most of 
thfe other formations in the region ; and yet, in spite of its 
numberless exposures and well-defined constitutional pecu- 
liarities, it is not always easy to keep it in hand from point 
to point beyond limited areas ; and this is especially true 
when it is overlaid by other rocks as in the southeastern 
townships and in McKean, Forest and Venango counties. 

Until late in the survey of the oil regions, confidence was 
felt in the parallelism of the Olean and sub-Olean con- 
glomerates as separated by a pretty constant interval of 
Shenango shales varying in thickness only between 30' and 
60', and consequently it was considered a matter of com- 
parative indifference whether at any given locality the one 
or the other was exposed. But of late Mr. Carll felt the 
necessity of being more cautious in the use of that formula 





MXII. Coal 6e£^ 
Snlm^rconslomerate. BtTRxuiWc«MD«smv.i 

li THiirn' rmiT roxront i ikvi s 


M' KK.\x rmxT Y 

*T CRULIMi: HMT tfn.Cff.M r SIT* 
R«*vi*^ti (it 



of measurement, and even suspected that there were 
areas over which the sub-Olean, after being deposited, had 
been removed together with the overlying shales, and then 
the Olean deposited in its place so as to occupy the geolog- 
ical horizon of the sub-Olean. According to another ex- 
planation, the sub-Olean at such points may not have been 
ever deposited at all, and on that account the Olean may 
be supposed to occupy a lower horizon in the column than 
is its due. One thing is certain that the intermediate shales 
do not maintain a constant thickness between them, so that 
in the southeast corner of Warren or along the McKean 
county line, the Olean and sub-Olean are more than 150' 
and even 200' apart. It is, however, possible that this ab- 
normal distance of the sub-Olean beneath the Olean may 
be otherwise explained, viz., by a lower sand rock being 
mistaken for the sub-Olean, as will be explained in discuss- 
ing the exposures in McKean county (I. 4, 190).* 

* If the sub-Olean be the top of the Pocono formation No. X and the sub- 
Olean shale be Mauch Chunk No. XI, the thickening of the shale southeast 
is to be expected, for along the Allegheny mountain No. XI, is 200' or 300' in 
thickness. The length of time represented by the interval between 01«an 
and Sub-Olean would seem to be short when regarded in northwestern 
Pennsylvania; but in fact it must have been immensely protracted, judg- 
ing from the fact that in the anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania tlie 
red shale No. XI is 3000' thick. There is no satisfactory explanation of the 
immense thickness of this shale in the east and its comparatively extraor- 
dinary thinness in the west; but the suggestion that during part of the time 
the western shales were out of water and subject to erosion is not supported 
by any solid evidence ; in fact, such a suggestion carries with it a supposi- 
tion that the sub-Olean shales were originally a thick formation also in the 
west ; but if that were so, erosion would exhibit itself not by planing off the 
formation to a uniform thinness, but by gouging it in all directions into 
deep valleys, into which the Olean gravel deposits would necessarily have 
been banked to an immense depth ; and no such phenomenon exhibits ' 
itself anywhere in western Pennsylvania. Some great change, however, in 
the sea currents, must have taken place, and consequently in the geogra- 
phical relations of land and water in that age. Otherwise there could not 
have been so essential a change in the character of the pebbles as to put a 
stop to the deposit of Hat sub-Olean pebbles, and to begin an era of exclu- 
sive Olean round pebbles. This distinction, held by Mr. Carll first as an 
hypothesis, was gradually confirmed as year after jear of his survey in the 
oil regions went on, and there seems to be now no doubt that a distinct line 
of demarcation between the two kinds or gravel has been established. The 
ILii pebble rocks, thinly bedded, current bedded, and weathering down into 
thm small blocks or plates, always lie below the shales ; the round pebble 



iMh.mi:Gonjlometaiia>a/s ofMc.Xaii (ao.\ 


The sub-Olean is by no means always a conglomerate, al- 
though when it is so, its pebbles are always flat. In its 
range across Warren county, it exhibits great variability in 
constitution. At Tidioute, on the Allegheny river, to the 
the south, it is a yellow, ferruginous sandstone, free from 
pebbles and identical in appearance with tlje Shenango 
sandstone of Crawford and Mercer counties. Further up 
the river, in northern Deerfield, it is much more shaly, 
but still resembles the Shenango sandstone. Further north, 
in Conewango, Glade and eastern Elk, it appears in the Al- 
legheny river hills as a conglomerate ; often a mass of finely 
assorted pebbles no larger than grains of wheat ; it is 
heavily charged with oxide of iron collected in irregular 

rooks, massive, compaot, and breaking up into irregular, cubical blocks, 
sometimes 40' thick, and of still greater lengtn and breadth, invariably lie 
above them. The shape of a pebble depends first on the nature of the frag- 
ment from which it has been made, and, secondly, by the kind of friction to 
which it has been subjected. Pieces of quartz, descending the bed of a 
river, will be rolled, all of them, round ; if moved forward and backward 
by gentle waves on a shore they will all of them be worn flat Mr. Carll 
cites two specimens from his cabinet in illustration ; one from a gravel bank 
at Warren, which had lain undisturbed in the drift from the time ot the re- 
treat of the ice ; the other from the shore of Lake Erie where it has been 
exposed to the waves for ages ; the material of both the same ; but the one 
irregularly oval, and the other flattened and polished. The flat pebble con- 
glomerates may, he thinks, be referred to distant shore deposits of round 
pebbles subjected for ages to a gentle trituration by waves, polisliing and 
flattening them and carrying them down slowly to the deeper water bed. 
In the following age, new shore lines with round pebbles might be supposed 
to overlie the older sea bottom areas. The theory is necessarily vague, and 
in our ignorance of where the shore lines were, both in the sub-Olean and 
older times and also in the Olean and later times, it is better to confess our 
inability to offer a satisfactory explanation of the facts. It must be remem- 
bered also that the quartz pebbles, both in the Olean and in the sub-Olean, 
must have been made out of fragments of quartz veins in some distant 
azoic country like Canada or New England ; and that thick veins of quartz 
would furnish large fragments capable of being rounded into an egg shape, 
while the thinner quartz veins could furnish only plate-like fragments 
which would necessarily be ground down flat. Therefore, instead of seek- 
ing the cause in any correlation of shore to sea in the region itself, we may 
be obliged to seek an explanation of an entirely different kind, viz., in two 
different countries, perhaps at a great distance, the rocks of one being tra- 
versed by large quartz veins ; the rocks of the other by small ones. But in 
this case, also, we must remain wholly in the dark respecting the location 
of such lands, their river systems, and the nature of the sea currents which 
brought the river detritus to northwestern Pennsylvania. 



seams or in balls, with a shell of iron filled with ochre. The 
rock weathers down in rough cahic fragments a few inches 
in size, covering the steep sides of pyramidal hills with a 
flat top, so peculiar in outline that a practiced eye can trace 
the sub-Olean formation from a distance across the country. 

This gradual increase of the conglomeritic character 
northeastward up the Allegheny river is well shown in Elk 
township, where the sub-Olean is a massive conglomerate, 
many of its pebbles being more than an inch in diameter ; 
uneven in structure on account of the irregular accre- 
tions of iron in the incoherent sandy matrix facilitating 
erosion, so that the outcrops crumble down and the cliffs 
are seldom seen. Near the northwest corner of Elk town- 
ship there is, however, a good sub-Olean rock city, and 
there are one or two more half a mile north of the State 
line, in New York, the rock being less charged with iron ; 
the sand weathered out of it being screened and used for 

The thickness of the sub-Olean wherever it appears along 
the Allegheny river above Warren is from 30' to 40'; in one 
massive stratum, current bedded, pebbly, and heavily 
seamed with iron, particularly toward its base ; perpendicu- 
lar escarpments from which ponderous blocks slip down 
into the valley ; after the fashion of the Olean conglome- 
rate, for which it has been, therefore, often mistaken, es- 
pecially before the peculiar flatness of its pebbles was rec- 
ognized. And this type of the formation extends south- 
eastward into McKean and Forest counties, while its dis- 
tance below the Olean increases in that direction. 

What was the character of the sub-Olean formation in 
northern Warren and western New York before its removal 
from the present surface of the region ? We can only answer 
this question by reference to the patch of it left at Millers 
Cliff, on the Little Brokenstraw, four miles from the New 
York Slate line, eight miles from the Erie county line (if this 
be, as I suppose, sub-Olean, although Mr.Carll reported upon 
it as Olean), and by the patches which remain of it in the 
southeastern corner of Erie county. These fragments pre- 
sent specimens of the formation in its massive conglome- 



". Gonijlometab coals ofJVCc'Mwi.Co. 


ritic form from 25' to 40' thick and traceable in a narrow 
belt southwest for about ten miles. Of course the massive 
pebbly character of the rock partly, and perhaps chiefly, 
accounts for the preservation of these fragments in Erie 
county, and it may be said that they represent a streak of 
pebble rock in the formation running northeast-southwest 
of no great width, resembling similar pebble streaks in the 
older Venango oil sand formation, or what are called the oil 
belts proper ; but it is more probable that the formation 
toward the north was pebbly, as it is now seen to be toward 
the east, whereas toward the south and west it is univer- 
sally a sand rock without pebbles and full of iron. 

The importance of the sub-Olean as a key rock or guide 
to well sinkers has never been properly appreciated by 
them. In the Butler county oil region the ferriferous lime- 
stone of the coal measures is universally known and ex- 
hibited as a guide ; is sought by every Butler county driller 
with care, and when found measurements are made from 
it downward to the oil sands. Now what the ferriferous 
limestone is in the lower Allegheny oil region, the sub-Olean 
ought to be in the Warren, Forest and McKean oil regions, 
viz : an accepted guide of measurement to the oil sands in 
the underground ; and yet no driller pays any attention to 
it, or troubles himself to note it in his record ; whether he 
goes through it in his well or whether it crops out on the hill- 
side above the well. In his drilling, he relies solely upon 
surface elevations above tide, and the supposed regularity 
and uniformity of dip over his special region ; the conse- 
quence is that very important mistakes are continually 
made in identifying the rocks pierced in one well with those 
pierced by another. If drillers could be brought to realize 
the facts that local dips vary in their rate and direction at 
every point of the region and in all the formations from 
the top to the bottom, while the distance from the top of 
the subOlean down to the Bradford oil sands, for example, 
remains a nearly constant quantity, they would certainly 
take more note of this remakable flat pebble conglomerate, 
and expend both time and trouble in tracing its outcrop or 
fixing its underground position everywhere. 



X, Pocono in Crawford county. 

As the Olean conglomerate is the bottom division of the 
great Pottsville conglomerate formation No. XII, and as No. 
XII has always been considered the bottom of the carbonif- 
erous system, the formations underlying the Olean have 
been called by many geologists sub carboniferous, and by 
others sub-conglomerate, down to the Venango oil sand 
group, a depth of, say 450'. 

These sub-conglomerate formations may be represented 
in a general and vague manner by the following columnar 
section given on page 66 of report Q4 : 

Sharon^ Olean Conglomerate. 

Shenango shale, 60 

Sbenango sandstone (sub-Olean), fish bed, 25 

MeadviUe upper shale, . . . ! 25 

Meadville upper limestone, fish bed, 1 

Meadvllle lower shale, 40 

Sharpsville upper flags, 50 

Meadville lower limestone, 2 

Sharpsvilie lower flag, 12 

Orangeville shale, 75 

Corry sandstone, 20 

Cussewago upper shales, 5 

Cusaewago limestone, 2 

Cussewago middle shales and flag, 80 

Cusse wago sandstone (first oil sand), .- 25 

Riceville shales, 80 

Venango oil sand group, 310 

The Shenango shale of Prof. White, lying between the 
Olean and sub-Olean conglomerates in Crawford and Erie 
counties, consists entirely of blue, gray and brown clay 
shales ; but here and there appear thin, flaggy sandstone 
layers ; and at one exposure, these merge into 10' of sand- 
stone. At the bottom is usually found an irregular layer 
of clay-iron-stone balls. 

The Shenango shale in this district was nowhere seen less 
than 36', nor more than 60' (near Sharon 47'; at Tidioute, 
60', etc.).* In Erie county, its bottom layers are left as a 

* Toward Jamestown, its thickness runs down from 35' to 15', and into 
Mercer county southward, at Sharon, to 7'; in the Brookfield tunnel, near 
Sharon, only 8', and yet keeping its typical character perfectly. 



thin covering to tlie sub-Olean conglomerate (Shenango 
sandstone) on the highest hilltops. 

Fossils are rare ; and all of sub-carboniferous types ; 
badly preserved ; Productus, AUorisma, StraparoUus, 

A carboniferous tree allied to Lepidodendron gaspianum 
has left its fragments abundantly in the upper layers of 
Shenango shale at Snodgrass quarry, near Jamestown ; and 
with it Lepidodendron veltheimianum. But this is' the 
only locality at which Prof. White found plants in these 
shales (Q4, 78).* 

The Shenango sandstone (the ferriferous sandstone of 
Q2 ; the sub-Garland conglomerate of the earlier oil region 
reports ; the sub-Olean conglomerate of the McKean county 
reports ; and the upper Pocono sandstone No. X, or Ves- 
pertine sandstone of H. D. Rogers) is in Crawford county 
always a tolerably coarse-grained, yellowish-brown, some- 
times dull gray sandstone ; crowded with iron balls from 
1" to 12'' in diameter, or ever larger; many small round 
pebbles of shale or fine hard sandstone ; not unfrequently 
small pebbles of ochre ; and often scattered through it in 
great numbers, fish bones, fish teeth, scales and spines ; 
usually badly broken and rubbed ; and often reduced to 
mere blotches of bluish white matter on the weathered sur- 

*In the State of Ohio, the strata between the sub-Oiean conglomerate and 
the Berea grit are called Cuyahoga shales. In Pennsylvania, a sandstone 
makes its appearance among these shales not far from tiieir top, and is trace- 
able from Sliaron, in Mercer county, ilorthwards along the Shenango valley 
to Jamestown, and across Crawford county eastward into Warren and Mc- 
Kean counties, where it becomes the important sub-Olean flat pebble con- 
glomerate. The great mass of shales below it, when followed from the Ohio 
line eastward, grows into the flaggy sandstones of the Pocono formation No. 
X. The small amount of shales above it ought to represent, on the Ohio 
line, the great Mauch Chunk red shale formation No. XI, of eastern and 
middle Pennsylvania ; but it is of course possible that these'upper shales 
may be a part of the Pocono formation, and the Mauch Chunk formation be 
considered as entirely absent The upper shale and sandstone form, in 
Prof. White's reports, the Shenango group ; but in view of the doubt thus 
expressed, the value of such a grouping seems very doubtful; the name 
Shenango shale, however, may bo retained for the shales above the Shenango 
sandstone; but the nameShenango sandstone has now been lost in the name 
sub-Olean conglomerate. 


I " CCLV. 

\XII. G>iy(omaafe coali in Cnuvfird Co. 


faces of the rock, so that neither specific nor generic char- 
acters can be recognized. 

Two plants, Lepidodendron gaspianum,* and, less com- 
monly, Lepidodendron veltheimianum, are present in frag- 
ments in almost all the exposed outcrops. 

Shells are occasionally found, but generally broken and 
unrecognizable; species of Orthis, Spirifera, Discina and 
Productus, apparently different from the species found in 
the Mauch Chunk or Umbral formation No. XI of eastern 

As a building stone it is valuable ; resisting weather 
better than the Olean conglomerate ; because it is nearly all 
pure quartz sand cemented by iron ; but the innumerable 
iron ore balls in it make dressing impossible, and it is used, 
therefore, almost only for bridge abutments and other 
heavy work ; but those of the old Beaver and Erie canal 
locks are as sound, and the chisel marks as sharp, as when 
laid sixty years ago. Jackson's quarry, between Atlantic 
and Evansburg, Sadsbury township, Crawford county, has 
furnished most of the bridge stone along the Atlantic and 
Great Western railroad. 

Its outcrop (marked by the outside edge of the red color 
on the Geological Map of Crawford county) encircles the 
hill on the Mercer county line between the Shenango river 
and Crooked creek, and the high land between Crooked 
creek and French creek ; the two high lands between French 
creek and Conneaut Lake creek ; the two high lands east 
and south of Meadville ; the long hill range between Little 
Sugar creek and Sugar Lake, extending from the State road 
south and southeast into Venango county ; the long high 
land ridge between Woodcock creek and Muddy creek, 
from New Richmond south into Venango county ; the hills 
around Troy Centre and down the west side of Oil creek 
into Venango county ; a high hill in Athens township, be- 
tween Little Cooley and Riceville ; two high hills in Sparta, 
southwest and southeast of Spartansburg ; one in Rome, 
east of Centerville, and another between Oil creek and 

:f Dawson. Figured in Pocono (Vespertine) formation No. X of eastern 
Pennsylvania in Geol. Penn., Vol. II, plate 21, by Lesquereux. 



Thompson's run ; the hill northeast of Titusville, two or 
three others on the Warren county line ; and similar isolated 
irregular outcrops around the highest hilltops eastward 
through Warren county into McKean, 

Its outcrop lies 250' above the level of Conneaut lake, 
runs at a height of 260' above water level of Crooked creek 
and of Conneaut Lake creek ; and 375' above the level of 
French creek at Meadville. 

Capping two or three isolated knobs in Concord town- 
ship, Erie county, near the Warren county line, at I860' A. 
T., it falls southwestward for forty-six miles, 670' to Snod- 
grass quarry, near Jamestown, on the Shenango, at the 
Mercer county line, where it is 1190' A. T. Consequently 
the rate of fall is 14^' per mile. 

Its finest exposure is in the cliffs at Greenwood, half a 
mile south of Glendale, eight miles due south of Meadville ; 
where a brook flowing north from the high lands makes a 
cascade of 25' in height, and then cuts a deep and narrow 
gorge through the underlying Cuyahoga shales. 

Olenville Section. 

Sandstone, massive, brown, visible 10' 

Sandstone, flaggy, 5' 

Shales, blue, 5' 

Iron ore, calcareous, .... 1' 

Shales, blue, 6' 

Shenango sandstone (sub-Olean, base 1270'), 28' 

Shales, blue, 30' 

Meadville upper limestone (a mass of fish and shells,) . 1' 6'' 

Sandstone, massive, 6' 

Sandstone flags in bluish shales, 40 

Sharpsville upper flaggy sandstone, 65' 

Meadville lower limestone, no fossils, 1' 

Sharpsville lower flaggy sandstone, 10' 

Grange ville shales, etc (concealed to level of Conneaut 

Lake creek), 65' 

Vertical cliffs enclose the deepening gorge for several 
hundred yards, huge fallen masses lying scattered at the 
bottom ; a coarse reddish-brown sandstone, many of its 
layers, especially near the bottom, a perfect mass of iron 
ore balls, as large as an ostrich egg, which have been 
weathered out from the face of the cliflf, leaving it all honey- 
combed in a Striking manner (Q4, 139). 



XII,XIII, Colamiutt. saiums in. JWetee^Co. -. \ 




Another fine exposure is at the chasm of Grassy run, a 
branch of Little Suger creek, in Wayne township, ten miles 
southeast of Meadville, enclosed between cliffs of Shenango 
sandstone (over which is a cascade of 35'), very massive, 
containing immense numbers of iron balls from 1" to 6", 
fish scales and bones (Q4, 126). Hundreds of other less 
striking natural outcrops might be enumerated. 

The Shenango sandstone (sub-Olean conglomerate), fol- 
lowed eastward, becomes coarser and more massive. At 
Meadville, its bottom layers begin to be pebbly. At Gar- 
land, in Warren county, its bottom layers are quite pebbly. 
At Warren it is a pebble rock throughout, 40' to 45' thick. 
At Franklin, 120' above French creek water, it is exten- 
sively quarried. At Tidioute, 60' beneath Triumph Hill 
(Olean) conglomerate, it lies 500' above the Allegheny river. 
At Kinzua, 540'. 

Everywhere all its pebbles have a marked peculiarity, 
fii-st noticed by Mr. Carll, of being fiat or fiattish, not round 
as in the Olean conglomerate higher up. 

Meadville Oroup of Prof. White, 

This group, lying between the sub-Olean conglomerate 
above and the Pithole grit of Venango county (Berea grit 
of Ohio ; Carll's Third Mountain sand) below, is thus sub- 
divided by Prof. White : 

Meadville upper shales. 

Meadville upper limestone. 

Meadville lower shales. 

Sharpsville upper sandstone. 

Meadville lower limestone. 

Sharpsville lower sandstone. 

Orangeville shales. 
The Meadville upper shales are bluish-gray or ashen- 
gray, clay shales at the top, sandy shales lower down, 
sometimes flaggy, never massive ; thickness, where well 
exposed at the head of Cemetery branch of Mill run, near 
Meadville, 16' ; one mile east, 30' ; Grassy run, Wayne, 
36^' ; Glendale, 30' ; Jamestown, 25' ; Dutch Hill, Union, 
40'; Unger's run. East Fallowfield, 15' ; Fmnklin, Venango 



){IIXIII. 7raiferoui ^Meieei limatoneA If ores 
■-" ^tjunaice'eownty. 

i mWdt^ dt. QZ. 




SirutgrMi'C- — ~ 

ffotnecovod. S. 


> ilHi^ MercetXeurvt C. 

Cmneconessina iwitcr sandstoM 

-- C(,a. 


coonty, 20', etc. — ^^Seaweed impressions (Fucoids) numer- 
ous (Q4, 83). 

The Meadnlle upper limestone is a key to the geology of 
Crawford county ; frequently exposed ; seen at Franklin 
20' beneath sub-Olean ; thickness never more than 18" ; 
often not 6". 

Fish scales, teeth, bones, plates and spines are so crowded 
in it that at many places it might be called a fish-bone con- 
glomerate, in which it is difficult to detect any other ma- 
terials. The most abundant scales are of Palaeoniscus ; 
hundreds covering every slab. Cladodus, Orodus, Lamb- 
dodus, Mesodmodus, Stemmatodus, and others, are of fre- 
quent occurrence ; also the spines named Gtenacanthus, 
Drepanocanthus, and Batacanthus (one specimen appar- 
ently identical with Batacanthus baculiformis of St. J. and 
W.) Shells abound in it in many places ; Spirifera, Strep- 
torhynchus, Orthis, Productus, Discina, Rhynchonella, 
Conularia and Orthoceras ; apparently undescribed species ; 
but the fades is most nearly like that of the Kinderhook 
fauna of the Mississippi valley ; some few resemble Keoknk 
and Burlington types.* 

Water- worn pebbles of shale and fine sandstone are nearly 
always to be found in the formation ; usually dark ; de- 
rived from some older formation ; in some places immensely 
numerous ; usually flat, sometimes oval and tapering to a 
blunt point. The lime matrix is not pure ; contains much 

*Fro[n an inspection of a coUection sent to Prof. Worthen, Springfield, 
111., he opposed this opinion ; was inclined to regard the tlsh as rather of 
Ohester limestone aspect Prof. St John, of Topeka, to whom Prof. Worthen 
submitted at first a small collection, also recognized a Chester faciesy but 
noticed some Kinderhook affinities ; but on receiving a larger and better 
collection, expressed an opinion in favor of the lower horizon. Prof. White 
is inclined to identify it with the lower Keokuk, or upper Burlington, fish 
beds in preference to the Kinderhook. There are certainly many novelties 
in this Meadville upper limestone ; the materials for its study being abund- 
ant and accessible. The best places to study and collect are : The gorge 
south of Glendale; the ravines east of Meadville, up Mill run ; ravines of 
Woodcock creek, two and a half miles east of Meadville ; a very fine locality 
on Grassy run, Wayne township ; French creek bluffs at Franklin ; ravines 
at Jamestown on the Crawford-Mercer line ; andatMcElhenny's, two miles 
north of Jamestown. Good exposures also on small streams descending to 
Adamsville. Fish remains can be found almost any where on all the lines of 



XII, XIII, CMaimed m .^auttmee Co. . \ 

• •' 'Slepar/r.Q2. 





"— " 1' - 



^cuilinfion C 

«•—  11 « 

du&anni'ng C. 

,^, « 



ra^ ' "m-^rr: btot^ 1 

-_..... 1 \ 


, J  

• « 



1 ;E=;::::. 





o !^s;-^ 








I. J 

■=--^4 -J 


' '  


silica ; often resembles a weathered sandstone ; broken sur- 
face covered witli small, elliptical, sparkling spots due to 
semi-crystallization and not to minute shells (Q4, 83). 

The Meadville lower shales, under the fish-bone conglom- 
erate, resemble the shales above it ; alternating with sandy 
flags increasing toward the bottom. Thickness in some 
places as much as 60', but usually less. 

Seaweeds numerous as in the upper shale. Shells badly 
preserved ; evidently Spirifera, Productus, AUorisma, etc. 
(Q4, 86). 

The Sharpsville sandstone is divided into an upper and a 
lower series of flags, varying in thickness from six inches 
to 24''; the division between the two being merely the Mead- 
ville lower limestone ; which, when absent, allows the two 
subdivisions of the Sharpsville sandstone to come together 
and form a single mass ; its relation to the rocks above it 
being shown by Prof. White's section, three miles north of 
Orangeville, Vernon township, Ohio, thus : * 

Olean (Sharon) conglomerate, very pebbly, 25 

Shenango, j ^hale, 60' 

< Sandstone (Read's upper Berea), 15' 

MeadviUe shales, ." 80' 

Sharpsville sandstone (Read's lower Berea), 60' 

Down to Pymatunlng creek, 110^ 

The Sharpsville upper sandstone in Crawford county is a 
50' mass of fine bluish-gray or grayish-brown flagstone 
layers (1' to 2' thick) parted. by grayish shales ; the shale 
rarely making one- third of the mass ; often so little of it 
that the flags are an almost solid series ; quarried for cellar 
walls and rough work where better stone cannot be got ; but 
yielding good building stone from a 36' layer just south of 
Atlantic station ; also near Jamestown at the Mercer county 
line; also at Miller's, two miles northwest. Only a few 
isolated knobs in the southeast corner of Erie county hold 

*Prof. White, after proving the persistency of the Meadville lower lime- 
stone in the body of the Sharpsville sandstone, subdividing it into upper 
and lower, traced the whole sandstone into Trumbull county, Ohio, and 
identified it with Mr. Read's lower Berea grit. This is not, however, the 
original Berea grit of the counties in Ohio further south, Medina, Lorraine, 
Ashland, Richland ; this lies 270' to 800' beneath the Olean conglomerate 
and is therefore the equivalent of the Corry (Cussewago) sandstone, Pithole 
grit or Third Mountain Sand of Carll's reports. 


XII, ^otUvii/e Gonqlomexatt 4u6deyi.uom 





Fij. UO K^. MB 



it. Fossil shells, Rhynchonella, Allorisma, Spirifera and 
Productus, poorly preserved, are generally found in its ex- 
posures. One large fish spine, Ctenacanthus, was found in 
it in Mercer county. 

The Meadville lower limestone, lying between the Sharps- 
ville upper and lower sandstone subdivisions, crops out 236' 
above the level of the canal at Meadville (as described by 
Hodge in 1837, third annual report, page 111) ; outcrop fol- 
lowed vTith difficulty because weathering like the sandstones 
above and concealed by the fallen fragments ; persistent 
through the district ; seldom more than 2', often only i ' 
thick; very hard and flinty, breaking in nearly square 
masses ; angles more or less rounded, showing the ready 
solution of its lime ; iron-stained ; quarrying a brown sili- 
ceous crust ; running, when burned for lime, into a slag.* 
But in exceptional localities in Crawford county a very 
good and nearly pure white lime has been made from it ; 
for example, on Deckard's run, at Shuey's old quarry, it 
made plastering lime ; but as flux for Liberty furnaces it 
was a failure, t 

Non-fossiliferous as a rule in Crawford county, and thus 
differing strikingly from the Meadville upper limestone as 
a general thing, a few fish scales and linguloid shells were 
found in it at one or two places. But at Garland, in War- 
ren county, and at Tidioute, in Venango county, it resem- 
bles the upper limestone in being a perfect mass of broken 
shells, misshapen Spirifers and unrecognizable other forms ; 
Spirifera disjuncta(orsome allied species) is most common. 

This remarkable limestone may be traced in outcrop in 
Mercer county, along the Shenango valley, twenty-one 
miles to where it passes beneath water level (dipping south- 
ward) near Sharon. On the Allegheny river it rises from 
water level between Franklin and Oil City ; crops out all 

*So described by Hodge. 

t'The silica looks usually to be not more than twenty ^per cent of the 
whole ; but an analysis by Dr. Geuth for Mr. Carll yielded carbonate of iron, 
8.62 ; carbonate of manganese, 0.31 ; carbonate of magnesium, 1.70 ; carbon- 
ate of calcium, 27.61 ; alumina, 4.24 ; silica, 60.43 ; water, L 74 (99.65). At 
Tidioute, the rock is bleached white, and the people of the neighborhood 
have mistaken it for quartz. 



XII ,§^ottSri/le Gon^/omezate SitSc&mSlcmA 
on tkeviecmer TYWt/. 

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along the west bank of Oil creek ; at Tidioute, lies 375' 
above the Allegheny river bed ; seems to furnish fragments 
at Garland on the Brokenstraw, Warren county, 135' be- 
neath the sub-Olean. In Crawford county it underlies the 
Olean conglomerate never less than 190' ; at Tidioute, 210'; 
at Warren, Dr. Randall places a corresponding limestone 
at 200' ; at Smithport, in Potter county, I made, in 1840, a 
limestone lie 200' below the base of the conglomerate (Geol. 
Penn. 1858, vol. II, page 548-9). 

Its outcrop is marked in many places by little cascades 
in the beds of the brooks descending the hill slopes ; and 
occasionally a brook will flow for a considerable distance 
above such a cascade over the top of the limestone stratum, 
on account of its hardness compared with the enclosing 
strata of shale. Excellent outcrops for study and collection 
may be found in Crawford county, near Jamestown, in the 
hollow down from the bridge below Snodgrass quarry ; 
near Meadville, in the cemetery grounds at the hydraulic 
ram on Mill run ; at Geneva, Greenwood, bed of run just 
west of railroad station ; in Hayfield, west branch of Cus- 
sewago creek, heads of ravines. Good outcrops in Mercer 
county are those opposite Sharpsville, in the banks of the 
Shenango. A good outcrop in Venango county is in the 
bluflfs opposite Oil City. A good outcrop in Warren coun ty 
is along the north slopes of the Allegheny river at and be- 
low Tidioute (Q4, 89). 

The Sharpsville lower sandstone is a series of flags 6" to 
24" thick, exactly like those above the limestone ; amount- 
ing usually to only 10' or 12' ; but in one place 30'. 

The Orangeville shales are the bottom deposits of the 
Cuyahoga formation of Ohio ; 120' thick on the Shenaniro 
at Sharon ; 120' on Cussewago creek in Crawford county , 
but usually 100' throughout Crawford county ; in a few 
places less than 60'; generally dark bluish shales with a 
few thin sand layers ; often holding small lenticular nodules 
of clay -iron- stone ; more commonly weathering brown be- 
cause the iron is disturbed. 

These shales may be observed in the ravines of Hayfield 
township, Crawford county, right bank of Cussewago creiek ; 



XII, Kill, Goalb m.^adejf-andmeafe^ 

Jrceport 5roup 
"'" yCUtanmny Qroup. 

J'enxfvroaS limes&ne 
C/ario7t coal 
^rookville co/fl. 

Tite/rur coah ^h'ma. 

Ccnruconessina Sana. 

Shu/ron cx>al htcL 
Sha ton, (Oleai^ conaiom , 

OheMercet coal led. 

with yaria^& roa/rack' 

ajzd almormal floor shale 




in the ravines of Mead and East Fairfield townships, left 
bank of French creek ; and in the banks of the Shenango 
at Jamestown, where the Gibson well starts at the top of 
these shales. It is frequently well exposed in the common 
road cuttings of Richmond, Rand9lph, Woodcock, Vernon, 
Sadsbury, Summit and Summit Hill townships. At War- 
ren, in Trumbull county, Ohio, these shales are darker and 
have even some thin bituminous layers ; a fact which sup- 
ports Prof. Orton's identification of them with Andrews' 
Waverley black slate of southeast Ohio. 

The fossils collected by Prof. White in his district were 
none of them ever noticed by him in any of the underlying 
formations. There are great numbers of Lingula melia 
(Hall), Lingula membranacea (Winchell), Discina pleurites 
(Meek), Discina newberryi (Hall); species of the Cuyahoga 
formation in Ohio. These shells are distributed from the 
top to the bottom of the formation, but more abundantly 
toward the bottom. With the shells are occasionally found 
a few fish f lagments. These are the only fossils seen in the 
formation. The Lingula common in the underlying Corry 
sandstone is another very different species from the two 
found in these shales. 

At Tidioute, on the Allegheny, in Warren county, these 
shells are very rare ; the formation being chiefly made up 
of sandy flagstones with only 22' of the characteristic shales 
in the whole interval. At Warren, in Trumbull county, 
Ohio, these fossils are even more numerous than at the best 
collecting points in Crawford county. 

Oil Creek Lake Oroup ( White). 

This group may be considered the lowest part of the 
Pocono sandstone No. X, of eastern and middle Pennsyl- 
vania ; and corresponds to the Berea group of the State of 
Ohio. It consists of the Corry sandstone (Berea grit ; Pit- 
hole grit ; Third Mountain Sand of Venango county ; 
Carll) at the top ; under which Cussewago limestone ; under 
which Cussewago shales ; under which Cussewago sand- 

This group is at Oil Creek Lake fourteen miles north- 


XII,XIII, Glijfi and^ewaai at9'a,rke/v. 


west of Titusville, 130' thick (see Q4, 75, columnar sections 
10-11). The limestone and shales in the middle of it are 
not persistent throughout western Pennsylvania. Going 
southwest to Jamestown, on the Mercer-Crawford county 
line, we find, in the Gibson well, sandstone, fine, blue, 30' ; 
concealed, blue, 65' ; sandstone, coarse, light-colored at the 
bottom, making up 100' and more.* In Mercer county, 
eighteen miles further south, the Sharon well records sand- 
stone, white, sharp, 75' t In Lawrence county, thirty 
miles further south, a well boring records sandstone, peb- 
bly throughout, 120'. :j: In Beaver county, three miles 
further south, the Beaver Falls well records one solid sand- 
stone, pebbly, 124' thick. § In Ohio, at Cleveland, sixty- 
five miles due west of Jamestown, Dr. Newberry's section 
gives what is supposed to be the same sandstone, 103'-f 
thick. T In Ashland county, Ohio, fifty miles southwest 
of Cleveland, Mr. Read's section gives Waverley conglom- 
erate, 130' thick (under 270' of Cuyahoga shales) ;** and in 
the adjoining county Richland, Waverly conglomerate from 
100' to 190' thick, tt 

In Warren county, at Tidioute, twenty-two miles east 
southeast of Oil Creek Lake, sandstone at this horizon, ac- 
cording to White, predominates through 76' ; but the char- 
acter of the formation and its identity under other names 
given by other geologists will be discussed in coneection 
with the Mountain Sand group of Carll. 

The Garry sandstone is quarried extensively in Craw- 
ford county and at the east end of Erie county, and every- 

* Q3, 201. 

t Q2,78. 

tQ2, 257. 

§ Q4, 70. 

1 GeoL Ohio, vol. 1, 197, Q4, 82, fig. 11 ; 92. Dr. Newberry's section reads : 
— Berea grit, exposed for 30' ; Red shale SS^ ; blue shale 15' ; blue {Cuase- 
wago ?) sandstone 20' ; Cleveland black shale 55' ; Erie shale to level of 
lake Erie 132'. 

** Geol. Ohio, vol. 3, 523. 

ft Geol. Ohio, vol. 3, 316. Beneath coma argillaceous and sandy shales, 
sometimes bituminous, 65'; then shales with bands of flaggy sandstone, 
235'; then Berea sandstone (White). See also general section of Knox 
county, just south of Richland. Geol. O'.iio, vol. 3, 335. 



\)(lll.Mlealieom &al S&iieA in ^(cdt, €0. 


where presents similar features. The two quarries on the 
hilltop one mile south of Corry and 300' above the town 
(1740' A. T.) ; Colegrove's on the east and Heath's on the 
west side of the road, are the most extensive in this region. 
The formation has been swept away from the country leav- 
ing on this hilltop only 8' of its lower layers, 4' too much 
shattered for use ; lowest 4' only quarried ; hard, yellowish^ 
brown sandstone, in layers from 2" to 12" thick ; contain- 
ing a few ill-preserved fossils. 

The Corry sandstone is usually in this district 10' or 15/ 
thick, and nowhere more than 30'; fine-grained, compact, 
yellowish-white or buff-gray, it is easily distinguished from 
the higher sandstones of the country. Pebbles are seen in 
it at only one or two places. Pebbles of jasper^ with other 
pebbles dark and green, and small fragments of white quartz 
are noticeable at Concord, Erie county. 

Large springs of water issue from the base of the outcrop 
generally, and it is the fountain horizon of the whole region, 
its place being thus recognizable even where the rock is con- 
cealed beneath the soil. 

It rises, near Titusville, from the bed of Oil creek; is 
finely exposed along Pine creek ; and has been identified 
by Mr. Carll along Thompson's run with the Third Mount- 
ain sand of the Venango county oil wells. In Warren, 
east of the county line, on the road to Enterprise, it is finely 
exposed, 20' thick, massive, very fossiliferous near its base. 

North of Titusville, two and one-half miles, just below 
Kerr's mill-dam, on Thompson's run, is a massive ledge of 
it. From here, northwestward up both sides of Oil creek, 
it can be followed and studied at Hydetown, Centerville, 
Riceville and Dobbin's quarry on Oil Creek Lake. 

Along French creek, it shows itself in many ravines and 
was once quarried in the bluff opposite Meadville. 

On Cussewago creek considerable quarries have been 
worked at Little's Corners and on the next run a mile above. 
On theConneaut creek, at Montgomery's extensive quarries, 
two and one-half miles east of Conneautville, it is 10' thick. 

On the Shenango river in Pine township, just north of 
Linesville railroad station, and also in the hills one mile 



east, are quarries from which much thin stone has been 
taken for wall work. Near the northwest corner of North 
Shenango township, the outcrop passes into Ohio towards 
Newberry's Berea grit outcrop. 

In Erie county it is caught only in a few of the highest 
hilltops in southern Concord, Union and LeBoeuf town- 

Fossil shells are abundant at the fine exposure east of the 
Warren county line, on the road to Enterprise mentioned 
above ; and here Mr. Hatch discovered and collected many 
fine specimens of Syringothyris typa, Spirifera alta, Stra- 
paroUus, Platyceras (all very numerous), and other shells. 

The Cussewago limestone greatly resembles the Mead- 
ville upper and lower limestones, with the same glassy frac- 
ture, but a better limestone. It underlies the Meadville 
lower limestone 120' or 130^ It is exposed in several 
ravines opening on the Cussewago valley ; is finely exposed 
at Line's, one and one-half miles below Little's Corners, 
Haytield township; and at Bartholomew's quarry above 
Little's Corners; also in Kleckner's ravine, Venango town- 
ship, one mile west of Venango village on French creek. 
Here it is 2' thick ; blocks of it strewn along the run ; 20' 
below the top of the Corry sandstone; makes tolerably 
good lime. 

In Erie county, the only. observed exposure of it is in 
Matterson's ravine at the center of Concord township ; V 
thick ; pute ; 25' beneath the top of the Corry sandstone ; 
elevation, 1675' A. T. 

No fossils have been seen in this limestone in Crawford 
or Erie counties ; but it may be represented by the Garland 
Spirifer bed in Warren county, exposed in the railroad cut 
1' thick, a mass of shells, 350' beneath the Clean conglom- 
erate. It was not described by Hodge in 1837 in connection 
with the calcareous shales at this horizon of his Meadville 

The Cussewago shales, 35' thick, more or less ; bluish or 
ashen-gray, correspond to Hodge's Meadville calcareous 
shales of 1837 ; but it is a very variable deposit ; for the in- 
terval between the Corry sandstone above and the Cusse- 




Sections cdona /Ae 0: 


Uttvu^ tlw Ali«<h«ttr Mountain 3675 feet 

f iXED 

*   * 


*• •" '■■ 


n Mt.i. 



- — L_a L 



-T- f  *■ 



-, i 1 f 

i --4 

I • 
. »— —  

4 1  < — — • «. 1- 

r  '  ^ 

J- 1 


wage sandstone below is frequently filled with sandy flags 
without limestone or lime shales ; and this accounts for the 
great thickness of the sandstone mass recorded by oil wells 
in Mercer, Lawrence and Beaver counties. 

Red and gray shale 4' thick is reported by Hodge in his 
Meadville section of 1837 ; but Prof. White could find no 
red shales in his survey of the district, yet he considered 
these shales as representing the Bedford red shale forma- 
tion of Ohio. A discussion of the Big Red (Bedford 1 ) 
formation over the first oil sand and the belt of country to 
which it is confined is given in Mr. Carll's report, 1.3, 1880. 

The Cussewago sandstone is a very peculiar, quite coarse, 
in many places pebbly, commonly buflSsh-brown sandstone, 
exposed along the Cussewago valley in Crawford county. 
Seemingly massive, its grains cohere so loosely that they 
weather down into beds of loose sand. Near Summit sta- 
tion, on the Pittsburg and Erie railroad, it can be shoveled 
like beach sand, and might easily be mistaken for part of 
the northern drift were it not for shale and sandstone lay- 
ers overlying it in place.* 

Prom French creek to the Ohio line, the Cussewago sand- 
stone can be traced by the decomposed sand along its 
various outcrops. At Meadville it lies in the hillsides 140' 
above French creek. Prom French creek eastward, the 
rock becomes harder and more compact. On Oil creek it 
is a very hard sandstone 30' thick. Its color is not always 
a buffish-brown, but occasionally dark green and greenish- 

Plat quartz pebbles are seen in it at many localities. 

Fragments of wood are embedded in it at Bartholomew's 
in Hayfield township, and elsewhere. 

Oxide of manganese (wad) fills the crevices of the rock 

*The rapid and complete weathering of this apparently massive and solid 
sand rock is illustrated by a story told of a Mr. W., who had a quarry of 
flinty Sharpsville lower sandstone at the top of his hill ; but wishing to find 
stone less costly for the cellar walls of his new house, he opened in the ravine 
below on the outcrop of the Cussewago sandstone. The fresh stone seemed 
sound enough, and the house was built ; but the frosts of the first winter 
following sufficed to crumble the foundation and the dwelling fell down. 


} 76' 


where exposed just west of Little's Corners ; and is proba- 
bly what blackens the top of the formation elsewhere.* 

The Riceville shale of Prof. White, 80' thick, overlies 
the Venango first oil sand in a good exposure in the bluff 
on Oil creek, just west of Riceville, twelve miles northwest 
of Titusville ; a mass of very fossiliferous, drab, bluish and 
gray sandy shales, turning in places into shaly sandstone. 

On French creek, two miles below Meadville, these shales 
present the following section : 

Cussewago sandstone. 

Flaggy sandstone, 12 

Fossil bed, blue, sandy, with many Prodnctella boydii, 
Spiriferadisjuncta, asmall Orthoceras, etc., 1' 

Concealed, 5' 
Shales, blue, sandy, 5' 

Concealed, 5' 
Sandstone, hard, flaggy, dark- bluish, 5' 

Concealed, 12' 
Sandstone flags, interstrati fled with bluish shales, ... 25' 
Shales, pale-blue, 5' 

Venango first oil sand. 

The fossil shells of Chemung type mentioned in the sec- 
tion are abundant at many places in Crawford county about 
15' beneath the outcrop of the Cussewago sandstone.f 

No black shales have been seen in Crawford county here 
except at one place on Cussewago creek in a ravine just 
south of Little's Corners, Hay field township, where a few 
thin layers of bituminous slate lie scattered through 2' or 
3' of shale, 25' beneath the bottom (60' beneath the top) of 
the Cussewago sandstone. They were supposed to be can- 
nel coal and were opened for mining. They would flame, 
but remained as solid ash ; and the layers never came to- 
gether to form a bed. This is the only indication we have 
that this Riceville shale deposit can represent the black 
Cleveland shale of the Ohio geology. 

* Tunnels have been foolishly driven into this exposure in search of coal. 

f Prof. Whitens identification of them as Chemung fossils was confirmed 
by Mr. Whitfield of the Museum of Natural History in New York. They 
carry the Cliemung age tlirough and above the \^enango oil sand deposits 
into what should be Cutskill, if the Catskill formation No. IX extended this 
far westward, and in case it does not, as is most probable, into the succeed- 
ing and overlying Pocono formation No. X. 





No red layers are seen in the Riceville shale of Crawford 
county ; but an abundance of red beds occupy the same 
position over the Venango first oil sand in Venango county, 
BS described by Mr. Carll in 1880. (I. 3.) The identifi- 
cation, therefore, of the Riceville shale with any part of 
the Bedford red shale of the State of Ohio (overlying the 
Cleveland shale) cannot be made in that way. 

Waterly Rocks and Fossils. 

The difliculty encountered in the early years of the sur- 
vey in identifying the flat-lying formations in western 
Pennsylvania and in Ohio, made it so hazardous to use the 
Ohio nomenclature that a new one was invented, which was 
not intended to take the place of the Ohio names, but 
merely to serve as a provisional convenience. But this plan 
being necessarily pursued by each assistant geologist on the 
Pennsylvania Survey in reporting the rocks of his own dis- 
trict, gave rise to a number of synonyms, some of which 
have been already rejected in the later reports, and all of 
them will be in course of time, when the questions of iden- 
tity which still remain open shall be settled. 

The Waverly formation of southern Ohio occupies the 
same general horizon as the sub-conglomerate formations of 
western Pennsylvania ; and that is all that can be said of 
it. Its use by the geologists of the United States has pro- 
duced considerable confusion, and the name Waverly has 
been systematically, on that account, kept out of the re- 
ports of the Pennsylvania Survey. Several readjustments 
of the divisions of the Waverley have been made ; and one 
readjustment by Prof. Edward Orton, State Geologist of 
Ohio, will be found in the American Journal of Scienceiov 
August, 1879, page 139. The disputes between the Wav- 
erley of Ohio and the Chemung of New York are well 
known. They became far more complicated than they were 
at first by the impossibility of certainly tracing the Cats- 
kill and Pocono and Mauch Chunk formations of eastern 
Pennsylvania to Lake Erie, since these formations wedge in 
that direction to sharp edges between the well-recognized 
Chemung of New York below and the perfectly fixed Olean 


^IW.AIUglieny SetUi in, Gamiria. &o. 




 likmi Jlli \ ! iiiii J V, 


ililil Nil I ni; I iln; 
'fSlfiiStillllt 4 ? 


conglomerate above. The chief difficulty arose from two 
facts, first, that the Chemung fossils going west seemed to 
live on past the true Chemung age into subsequent ages, 
leaving their remains in the overlying formations ; and, 
secondly, the peculiar character of the Waverley fossils 
which appear in northwestern Pennsylvania in the sub- 
Olean strata, but apparently mixed with Chemung fossils 
at a lower horizon. It is, however, impossible to exclude 
from such discussions the great law of the local distribu- 
tion of fossils in the same age ; and it is quite possible for 
the Waverley, with its special fauna, to be contemporane- 
ous with any of the sub-conglomerate formations elsewhere 
which do not hold Waverley fossils, the animals that lived 
in one area of the water basin not living in an adjoining 
area ; and where the two areas met, the fossil fauna of both 
being intermingled. It must be remembered, however, that 
a general statement of this sort is not exact science ; and, 
while it relieves the mind of the present weight of a diffi- 
cult identification, lends little or no aid to its final resolu- 
tion. The phenomenon also is always on so grand a scale 
that no imagination, however sharp or expert, is capable 
of seizing all its features, and of regarding it as a whole 
with a vision sufficiently clear to produce anything that 
deserves the name of definite, useful knowledge. We have 
been drilled by thousands of detailed observations in the 
painful experience that even a single, persistent deposit, 
although traceable beyond the possibility of doubt from 
area to area over a large extent of country, is so infinitely 
variable in its constitution, in its thickness, color, topogra- 
phical power, and in the quality and quantity of its fossil- 
ized forms, that the greatest modesty must be observed in 
describing it. How much more difficult must be in all cases 
the description of a series of such deposits, the tracing of 
such a large formation from region to region, and its cer- 
tain identification with other similar and more or less ap- 
parently contemporaneous series of deposits or formations 
at a distance. 

The Catskill formation. No. IX, which is so thick in east- 
em New York and eastern and middle Pennsylvania, thins 



away westward toward Lake Erie with such a change of 
aspect that its presence between the Waverly and Chemung 
cannot be asserted. In like manner, the Mauch Chunk red 
shale, No. XI, 8,000' thick in eastern Pennsylvania, thins 
away toward Lake Erie so completely that its presence im- 
mediately under the Olean conglomerate on the Ohio line 
cannot be asserted, and, therefore, no identification of it with 
any part of the Waverly is possible. The intermediate 
great Pocono sandstone formation, several thousand feet 
thick between the Hudson and Delaware, also thins toward 
Lake Erie, but can be distinctly recognized through west- 
ern Pennsylvania, passing into Ohio between the Conglom- 
erate and the Chemung, and is consequently identifiable with 
very considerable certaintj^ with the Waverly. If, then, 
the term Waverly were to be used in Pennsylvania 
it could only be used as a synonym for the whole or some 
part of the Pocono ; but the Pocono formation is developed 
in Pennsylvania in so superior a manner that it would be 
vain to expect any advantage from the substitution of the 
term Waverly for Pocono. The term Pocono was adopted 
in place of the term Vespertine, used by Prof. Henry D. 
Rogers in the early Pennsylvania survey and by Prof. 
William B. Rogers in the early Virginia survey, because 
the peculiar nomenclature of which it was a single term, 
applied to the whole pala)ozoic column by those geologists, 
based on the fanciful resemblance of the palaeozoic ages to 
the dawn, the morning, noon, afternoon, and evening of a 
common solar day, was never accepted by American geolo- 
gists, and only appears in the final report of H. D. Rogers 
on the geology of Pennsylvania, published in 1868, and in 
the collected annual reports of William B. Rogers on the 
geology of Virginia. In spite, however, of this general 
repudiation by American geologists of the poetic nomen- 
clature, three of the names have curiously enough become 
fixed in the popular phraseology of the bituminous coal 
regions. Local geologists, prospectors, and miners along 
the whole range of the Allegheny mountain use habitually 
the terms Vespertine sandstone, Umbral red shale, and Serai 
conglomerate ; and it is doubtful whether the correspond- 



iag terms Pocoiio sandstone, Mauch Chunk red shale, and 
Pottsville conglomerate will ever supplant those earlier and 
more poetical names from popular use in that mining 

It is equally probable that the geological phraseology of 
the northwestern counties of Pennsylvania will never be 
used along the Allegheny mountain or the east and south 
of it. The names Homewood sandstone, Connoconnessing 
sandstone, Sharon (Garland-Olean) conglomerate, given 
along the Ohio line counties to the great or Pottsville con- 
glomerate, are quite inapplicable to the outcrops along and 
east of the Allegheny mountain. In like manner such 
names as Shenango shales and conglomerate, sub-Olean, 
Meadville, Cussewago, Corry, will always be confined to the 
special district in which they were at first applied ; because 
the sub-divisions of the sub-conglomerate formations can- 
not be very nicely recognized along the Allegheny moun- 
tain. In a word, the geological nomenclature of Erie, Craw- 
ford, Warren, and the State line counties to the south and 
to the east of them, must remain isolated and peculiar, as 
the deposits which they represent are in that district differ- 
ent in kind and arrangement and contents from deposits of 
the same age elsewhere.* 

The Waverly group was so named in 1838 by Mr. Briggs, 
of the Ohio survey from the town of Waverly, in Ohio, 
where it consists of fine grained sandstone 300 feet thick, 
overlying black clay slate 200 or 300 feet thick, and under- 

*Tbe same thing must be said ot the northeastern corner of Pennsylva- 
nia, where an equally peculiar geological nomenclature had to bo adopted 
for isolated deposits and series of deposits or formations which could not 
be certainly recognized in tlie west. But the subsequent history of this 
northeastern geological nomenclature has been different; inasmuch us it 
was found possible to carry these names from the upper Delaware river west- 
ward or» rather, southwestward from Susquehanna, Wayne and Pike coun- 
ties, through Lackawanna and Luzerne into Columbia, Monlourand North- 
umberland and througii Carbon. It was found, in fact, possible to ai)ply 
several of the names of the northeast to outcrops west of the Susquehanna 
in the Juniata river country. But while these identities tions in northeast- 
ern Pennsylvania were being made, the survey of Perry county, on the 
lower Juniata, produced again a different and isolated geological nomencla- 
ture, only parts of which can bo applied to the geology of the upper Juniata 



XIII. lAUeakenu^e/riei, &am6ria 60  


lying from 40 to 80 feet of what was known as the Ohio 
conglomerate, which seems to be the equivalent of the Olean 
conglomerate or Sharon conglomerate of Bradford county, 
Pa. It is broadly exposed at Portsmouth, Piketown and 
Chillecope and in Licking and Fairfield counties. Soon 
afterward Dr. Owen identified the formation in Kentucky (as 
the Knobstone formation) and in Indiana and Illinois, at 
New Albany, referring its rocks to the base of the so-called 
sub- carboniferous system. Other western geologists ac- 
cepted the name, and in 1841 Hubbard recognized it in the 
Michigan survey. The eastern geologists considered it 
Devonian. On the Mississippi river, where it consists of 
five great limestones, it received the general name of Kin- 
derhook. Prof. Alexander Winchell, describing the Mar- 
shall group of Michigan, proved its identity with the Wa- 
verly, the Kinderhook, the Yellow sandstone of Iowa, the 
Choteau limestone, Vermicular sandstone and shale, and 
the Lithographic limestone of Missouri. 

In Ohio the Waverly forms a belt 10 or 20 miles wide 
from the mouth of the Scioto northeast toward Cleveland, 
where on Lake Erie it is more than 40 miles wide. In In- 
diana it crosses the Ohio at New Albany. Its Rockford 
mottled limestone at the bottom of the group is famous for 
its Goniotites. In Indiana the group is 600, in Kentucky 
200 and in Michigan 160 feet thick, consisting of reddish, 
yellowish and greenish sandstone ; the Napoleon sandstone 
being 123 feet thick. 

The Waverly, like the Pocono in Pennsylvania, furnishes 
large quantities of brine ; contains also gypsum ; and fur- 
nishes in many places celebrated building stone. The 
Lithographic limestone of Missouri, 55 feet thick, is char- 
acterized by the crinoid Pentremites roemeri. The ver- 
micular sandstone, 75 feet thick, is fqll of worm burrows. 
The Choteau limestone is 100 feet thick. The Burlington 
shales and sandstones, 76 feet thick, are capped by a 4-f()ot 
bed of oolite. 

The Waverly fossils are on the whole of carboniferous 
aspect. Many of the shells passing upward. Its genera 
of fish-remains are also carboniferous. Some of its most 


XU\.6^Ue^lienijS^&1iet>. 6ambnaGo 



widely distributed characteristic species are Productella 
coTicentr ica^ Productus coojyerensis^ Spirifera carteri^ S. 
extenuata^ 8. peculiar is ^ Syringothyris hdlll^ Athyrishan- 
nibalensis, Mhynchonella liubbardi,, R, mis sour iensis^ 
Centronella allii^ Bellerophon cyrtolites^ Chammysia han- 
nibalensis, Orthoceras india^iense, Ooniatites oweiiiy G. 
marshallensis and Phillipsia dmis (N, A. Geol. and Pal. 
by S. A. Miller, 1889, page 68). 

Chapter CXIV. 

X-XL Mountain Limestones, 

This insignificant deposit in Pennsylvania would hardly 
deserve to receive a name, were it not for the fact of grave 
geological importance that it is the representative not only 
of the great Mountain limestone, or Scaur limestone forma- 
tion of Great Britain and Belgium, but also of the large 
and important limestone formations of the southern and 
western states in America. In Pennsylvania it appears as 
a few thin layers at or near the top of the Pocono forma- 
tion in Trough valley, Huntingdon county ; at one or two 
places along the upper escarpment of the Allegheny moun- 
tain in Blair county ; at the top of the Pocono in the gaps 
of Chestnut Ridge, Westmoreland and Fayette counties, 
and in the oil wells at Pittsburgh and elsewhere in south- 
western Pennsylvania, where it is bored through and shows 
from 40 to 80 feet of solid rock. Its existence in northern 
Pennsylvania was only conjectural until the extensive pri- 
vate explorations of a geologist of Cogan House, in Lycom- 
ing county, Mr. Abram Meyer, who proved its extensive out- 
spread as isolated plates underneath the patches of Mauch 
Chunk red shale No. XI preserved, from the general ero- 
sion of the highlands between the waters of Larry's creek, 
Pine creek, Lycoming creek and the Loyalsock. Plate 



Xlil S^lleakenu SerieA , Qaml>ria Go 


CCXX(E) is a reduced copy of a part of Mr. Meyers' map of 
Lycoming county, showing by black lines the circular out- 
crops of this mountain limestone around the patches of 
red shale. Here the formation is much subdivided, exhib- 
iting good and bad layers, but promising an important con- 
tribution to the agricultural resources of that region, the 
only one in the state where it is of practical importance. 

In the northeastern counties it is represented by one or 
more calcareous beds in the upper Pocono, described by 
Prof. White in his reports on Susquehanna, Wayne, Pike 
and other counties in that region. It is not known to exist 
in the State of New York. Followed south across the 
West Virginia State line it increases rapidly in magnitude, 
and appears on Cheat river waters and the Kanawha waters 
as a large limestone formation 500 and even 700 feet thick ; 
and from this southward to the end of the Cumberland 
mountain range in Alabama it plays a principal role in the 
surface geologj\ On the Mississippi above the mouth of the 
Ohio it is subdivided into five groups, the lowest of which, 
the Burlington limestone, varies from 100 to 500 feet. 
Over this the Keokuk group has a thickness in southern 
Kentucky of 200 feet. Over this the Warsaw group in St. 
Genevieve county, Missouri, is 100 feet thick. Over this the 
St. Louis limestone has a maximum thickness of 250 feet, 
making bluffs between St. Louis and Carondelet 175 feet 
high. Over this the Kaskaskia limestone (called also Ches- 
ter) is on the Mississippi 200 feet thick ; at Huntsville, 
Ala., 635 feet : on the southern line of Tennessee 720 feet ; 
at the northern line 400, and in Indiana 300, making a com- 
plete circular outcrop belt around the whole of the Illinois 
and Indiana coal basin (A. S. Miller). 

It will be seen in the next chapter, describing the Mauch 
Chunk red shale formation No. XI, that these five great 
southern and western limestone groups cannot properly be 
considered as representing the insignificant Silicious or 
mountain limestone of Pennsylvania alone ; but that they 
are as a whole the co- temporary representatives of No. XI 
red shale^as a whole. For, as the red shale here is capped 
by the great conglomerate No. XII, so the Kaskaskia or 


x^'Si.^no. Cambria, &>. 


Chester limestone is capped by the basal coal measure con- 
glomerate on the Mississippi. In different parts of the Ap- 
palachian sea different deposits were being made during 
the same age, large deposits of red shale in middle 
Pennsylvania, and large deposits of calcareous shales 
and solid limestones in the southern and western regions. 
Thisis but another representation and repetition of what has 
occurred in all ages, setting at defiance all the attempts of 
geologists to formulate a general section of the Paleozoic 
column of formations which shall be applicable to the 
numerous separate regions of the sea, and making it impos- 
sible to carry successfully the rock names of one State over 
into the geological areas of even neighboring States. Even 
along the face of the Allegheny or Cumberland mountain, 
extending in an unbroken line from Pennsylvania to Ala- 
bama, the essential change of sediments is sufficiently to 
give the most opposite aspects to the mountain. In middle 
Pennsylvania we have the mountain walls built up of hori- 
zontal outcrops which are so exclusively sandstone and 
shale that only this single stratum of tbe Silicious limestone 
at the top of the Pocono can be observed. In eastern 
Tennessee and Alabama, on the contrary, the same moun- 
tain wall, differing very little in general appearance, is 
made up, as to its upper half at least, of outcrops which 
are almost exclusively horizontal layers of solid limestone, 
separated by lime shales ; and it is only by a continuous 
sectioning of the pile of outcrops from north to south that 
the continuity and contemporaneousness of the formations 
become evident. 

It is useless to inquire very strictly whether a deposit of 
limestone which separates two perfectly distinct formations 
should be considered as part of the one or of the other. This 
is especially the case with the Mountain limestone. It has 
been called the Umbral limestone, as if it was either the 
bottom or near the bottom of the red shale No. XI, and is 
so classified in the sections by Ashburner, Stevenson and 
White. But on the other hand it is called very justly the 
Silicious limestone, being in fact a deposit of grains of sand 
cemented by lime, and as it caps the Pocono section of Stev- 


^Ill.Jilletfhenii <Seriei. Gavil'i'ict Go 



evenson in the gaps of Westmoreland it belongs more to 
the Pocono than to the Mauch Chunk. Its typical locality 
is in the Conemaugh Gap, where it is 30 feet thick, subdi- 
vided into a variable upper conglomerate sandstone in which 
are great numbers of more or less angular fragments of 
Silicious limestone, passing down imperceptibly into a lower 
division, the Silicious limestone proper, which in its turn 
passes down without break into the upper Pocono sand 
stone. The fragments of limestone in the conglomerate 
upper portion are so free in most cases from traces of 
water action that one is inclined to imagine them to have 
been broken from some surface that was above water and 
deposited in neighboring soundings. The limestone itself 
is exceedingly fine grained, of a delicate blue and showing 
no lines of bedding on the fresh surface. It has a flint-like 
fracture and no definite cleavage ; but on a long exposed 
surface the color is a dull brown, and the rock a loose sand- 
stone, exhibiting a curious cross-bedding, the characteris- 
tic feature of the Pocono sandstones. At first glance the 
rock would not be taken for a limestone, and silica predom- 
inates at all localities. Yet the percentage of lime is con- 
siderable, and the rock when burned becomes snow white, 
slakes readily, and makes mortar without the addition of 
sand. As a formation, it increases in thickness northward 
and thins away southward. On the Conemaugh it is 40 
and 50 feet in both gaps, as well as in the gaps of the Loy- 
alhanna and Youghiogheny, but dwindles to about 18 feet 
on the National road, and to barely 4 feet at the State line. 
On the Cheat river it has disappeared. (K.3, page 62).* 

•The Silicious limestone is used in Pittsburg to some extent as a paving 
stone. On weathered blocks before being laid much of the lime cement is 
already separated so as to give a distinct scale to the surface. The upper con- 
glomerate is 3 feet thick, and contains large fragments of the lower limestone 
imbedded in fine limestone as a matrix. This top conglomerate is absent 
from all exposures south of the Youghiogheny river. On the Conemaugh 
its presence or absence is unknown because the place Is concealed. On the 
Loyalhanna there are two layers of this conglomerate, one 25 feet ;ibove the 
Silicious limestone and the other 35 feet scill higher ; both of them quite 
thin and almost as silicious as the great mass below, but much stained with 
iron, weathering down into reddish sand ; containing some fossils of the 
more common species ; associated with deep red shales and hematite iron 


)^l[l Allegheny coalseiity, G/ea^e&L 60. 




The limestone struck in the Thayer and other Washington 
county gas wells at a depth of 1480 feet, and 80 feet 
thick, strikingly resembles the Silicious limestone described 
by Prof. Stevenson in K2 p. 98 and K3, p. 52, where it 
crops out at the base of the Mauch Chunk red shale for- 
mation No. XI in the gaps of Laurel hill and Chestnut 
ridge^ between Johnstown and Blairsville, and between 
Ursina and Connellsville.* 

The upper part of the mass at Washington is a purer 
limestone and the lower part more pebbly than specimens 
obtained from Bolivar and Connellsville, but the resem- 
blance of color, composition and structure is complete. 
Microscopic sections of the drillings show much of the lime 
in the form of little round grains, the largest of the size of 
a mustard seed. Mingled with these are quartz grains, 
equal in number, more or less rounded. Viewed through 
a magnifying glass the mass looks oolitic or micro-con- 
glomerate. The Bolivar slices show this structure less 
plainly, the lime grains appearing elongated, many of them 
apparently fragments of crinoids. Sections of the chip- 
pings from the top of the limestone in the Washington 
wells show numerous fossil fragments resembling crinoids. 

No enlargements by secondary crystalization of the quartz 
grains was noticed ; although slices made from the Pied- 
mont (No. XII) sandstone, lying higher up in the wells, and 
charged with brine, look under the microscope very por- 
ous, and the heads of crystals of quartz can be seen jutting 
into the pores from their side walls. 

ore. On Jacob's creek 40 feet of Silicious limestone is exposed under the 
arch ; fossiliferous throughout ; top layers very pure, yielding the best white 
lime ; middle layers thin clay beds extremely rich in fossils of many spe- 
cies; visible bottom 2 feet ; main mass of Silicious limestone probably un- 
derground. The above described exposed rocks on Jacob's creek are what 
Stevenson calls the fossiliferous layers of the Umbral, separated from and 
lying above the true Silicious limestone. They are no doubt the lime- 
stone layers of Trough creek in Huntingdon county, next to be described 
in the text, where the Silicious limestone itself is apparently absent They 
lie only from 10 to 25 feet above the Silicious limestone and, therefore, can 
hardly be considered as a separate formation. (K. K. page 100). 

*Lietter of Prof. AlonzoLinn, Wash. A Jeff. Coll., Washington, Pa., Jan. 
28, 1885. He pursued the investigation with Rev. Linton, Prof. Geol., in the 
same college. See Annual Report for 1886, pp. 656, 765. 



The Silicious limestone is struck by all the wells, and its 
chamcter is so well marked that tlie tiniest fragment of it 
under a lens can be identified. It is quite unlike any other 
limestone in the series of well borings. 

It was struck in 1877, in the Boyd's Hill well at Pitts- 
burg at a depth of 889 to 914 feet, and seems to be there 25 
feet thick (See Report L p. 227.) 

Mountain Limestone on Trough Creek. 

At the top of thePocono, at the inside base of the Ter- 
race mountain slope both White in his Report T3, page 73, 
and Ashburner in his Report F, page 200, describe lime- 
stone beds quarried and of considerable value to the farm- 
ers on the red shale soil of Trough Creek Valley. They 
must not be confounded with the brecciated limestone beds 
in the upper part of the red shale formation. These will be 
described later on. 

The following sections will show the character of the 
group. Taylor's quarry : — red lime shales, 10 ft. ; red 
limestone, 4 ft.; red lime shales, 16 ft.; grey limestone, 2^ 
ft.; red slate, 3 ft.; grey-green limestone, 4 ft ; total 39^. 
Pocono sandstone beds immediately underlie the grey-green 

Another section just below Trough Creek Church reads : — 
red lime shales, 25 ; reddish grey limestone, 1 ; red lime 
shales, 5 ; grey limestone, 3 ; red lime shales, 4 ; greenish 
sandy limestone, 3 ; total, 41, overlying sandstone. This 
lowest stratum may without much forced conjecture repre- 
sent the siliceous limestone of the Conemaugh gaps. 

There are many other exposures of these beds along 
Trough creek; as at the quarries of Mrs. Swope, and in 
both which quarries a greenish-grey limestone 3 or 4 feet 
thick overlies the Pocono limestone. Mrs. Garrett has a 
large quarry. Where these limestones rise on the slope of 
Sideling Hill they are too sandy to burn ; and this is 
another evidence that we are dealing with the silicious 
limestone of the Conemaugh gaps. The change of charac- 
ter however is often striking and rapid ; as at Paradise Fur- 
nace, where the upper red limestone makes a cliff, thus : 


%.\\\.mllecihcnti CoalSe/dejt inSncUana. Co, 





IsllHi >'^4l(;1 I 




Red shale ; red variagated massive limestone, 25 feet ; red 
shaly limestone, 4 feet ; grey limestone, 3 feet ; red lime 
shales, 7 feet. The lower grey bed is here wanting and imme- 
diately underneath comes the Pocono sandstone. Thus we 
have here 39 feet of continuous lime rocks, but without the 
silicious limestone. 

On analysis the lowest red limestone gave 62 carbonate of 
lime and 43 silica. The grey limestone gave 91 carbonate 
of lime, 6 silica ; and looks exactly like the silicious lime- 
stone of the Conemaugh gaps. 

Fossils are rare, except in the form of ground up shells ; 
but at Baker's quarry a species of Straparollus was recog- 
nized in a red brecciated limestone 30 feet up in the group. 
The general redness of these limestones show their affinity 
to the iron ore bearing lime beds over the silicious lime- 
stone of the Conemaugh gaps. 

Manganese-iron ore deposits derived apparently from the 
dissolution of the limestone group occur at several places 
in Trough Creek Valley ; nodules and nuggets of various 
sizes being scattered through a considerable mass of clay 
and trash. But the limestone beds themselves are not vis- 
ible at any place where the ore clays have been opened, as 
at the large mines of Paradise Furnace, making good cast- 
ings. McCreath's analysis of a sample of 110 pieces showed 
metallic iron 23.65 and metallic manganese 19.68 ; phos- 
phorus 0.458. In all cases the ore clays lie directly on the 
Pocono sandstones at the foot of the mountain, (T3, page 

Silicious Limestone in Lycoming county. 

In Lycoming county the silicious limestone at the base 
of the Red Shale XI and top of the Pocono X has been 

♦Mr. John Fulton reports two layers of oj;u^' of manganctie (60 %) 18" and 
6" thick under a yellow swash clay, 2', under surface clay, 5', in Ground 
Hog valley, Huntingdon county, at Lowry and Eschelberger's quarry. The 
east side of the quarry is a slope of upper layers of Pocono sandstone No. 
X. The wostside is a face of 6' brown hematite iron ore mixed with man- 
ganic oxide ; over which lies a 3' red shale (Ma ich Chunk No. XT), and 
over this swash clay with a streak of manganese ore, 18" thick (see 
sketch). The whole ore bed is mixed with manganese. Analysis showed 
iron, 39.22, manganese 10.56; phosphorus 0.6; (personal letter, Feb. 7, 


Xf// Me^emy CoatSmje& mS^m 




traced by Mr. Abram Meyer, as already mentioned, for 
many miles over the highland, occupying isolated circular 
or elongated tracts of country, as shown by page map CCXX 
(E). The whole Mauch Chunk red shale formation he makes 
353 feet thick in three divisions. The upper shales from 10 
to 150 feet, the middle limestones from 60 to 75 and the lower 
shales from 80 to 120. His complete section on Hogeland 
run in 1886 will be given in the Chapter on No. XL Here 
I will only describe the silicious limestone which does not 
lie in this region directly upon well characterized Pocono 
rocks, but about 80 feet above them, or even moi'e. The 
limestone is divided into an upper oolitic mass of layers 
from 3 to 12 inches thick, aggregating 10 feet. The middle 
division is a single massive silicious limestone in one solid 
layer 15 or 20 feet thick. The lower division is made up of 
many flaggy layers of oolitic calcareous limestone, 1 to 3 
inches thick, aggregating 12 feet. 

On the main Hogeland run, about 6 miles N. W, from 
Cogan's Station, N. C. R R., 1600 feet A. T., and 500 feet 
above the stream, runs a bold ledge of rocks called Coogler's 
Point, formerly considered an outlier of the Monkey Ledge 
of the Blossburg coal basin by explorers for coal in this 
locality. Mr. Meyer finding nodules of very pure pearl- 
grey limestone was led to the discovery that the entire 
ledge was of limestone, and noticed 17 changes of rock in 
a thickness of 60 feet. He traced the horizontal outcrop 3 
miles, finding the top member made up of two solid layers, 
each one foot thick, and a third massive 10 foot bed of grey 
lime paste, containing concretions of fine or crystallized 
pearl-grey limestones, the nodules varying from one inch 
in diameter to masses 6 inches in diameter, and even 12 
inches long. In some places the structure is oolitic, a proof 
that it contains minute fragments of bryozoa. Under this 
is a series of calcareous and sometimes quite siliceous thin 
layers, one of them reddish and full of crystals of calcite, 
suggesting encrinal discs. Under this a more massive 
layer. Then a yellow ferruginous bed 15 inches to 2 feet, 
taking a very fine finish as a marble, being in places full of 
calcite encrinal discs. Below this the beds are greenish, 



massive and oolitic. One in 6 to 12 inch layers ; one of 15 to 
20 feet underlaid with oolitic flags IJ to 3 inches thick, 
some of them quite silicious. This whole limestone form- 
ation lies upon red shale, dipping 5° S. W. on Coal Run. 

Chapter CXV. 
XI. Mauch Chunk Bed Shale. 

The Umbral of H. D. Rogers' Geology of Pennsylvania 
1858, and formation No. XI of the various reports of the 
Second Geological Survey is certainly one of the most re- 
markable formations of Pennsylvania or, indeed, of any part 
of the world. Its color, its immense thickness to the south- 
east and its fading out to the northwest and west, the scar- 
city of remains of animal or vegetable life characterizing 
it, the presence of beds of limestone and iron ore, and even 
coal in districts of the State where it has but little thick- 
ness, and its apparent change into the great sub-carbonif- 
erons or rather lower carboniferous limestones of the South- 
ern and western States with a complete loss of its charac- 
teristic red color, are all features in its history claiming the 
admiring interest of the geologist. It is astonishing to see 
the great green and grey cross bedded sandstone of the 
Pocono age immediately followed by an equally great thick- 
ness of fine red and reddish muds deposited in layers some- 
times as thin as paper, sometimes mixed with fine red sand, 
and showing so extreme a shallowness of the water that the 
foot tracks of lizards, raindrops and shrinkage tracks pro- 
duced by the heat of the sun have been retained between 
the layers. This shallowing of the sea along what was un- 
doubtedly a broad and low-lying shore receives additional 



Xi;;,X/K QodMeoMM^.weAtof^MAiugh. 

fif?SpiM lower Jree/i^t Coal fi, 

EldienhsixrsCoalSed FearnS 

MM'' SBuUerCo. f^jgj^ 
Etdtenhaaa's Co. 



evidence from the occurrence of several small coal beds, 
and several small layers of iron ore at the top of the for- 
mation ; the coal layers sometimes being consolidated into 
a thin workable coal bed ; and the series of thin solid or 
nodular iron ore layers turning in places into solid beds of 
carbonate of iron, 4 feet thick, as at Ralston, Queen's Run, 
etc., or multiplied and made economically valuable for fur- 
nace use as on the west side of Chestnut Ridge in Fayette 

The surprise of the field geologists is renewed by observ- 
ing this great red shale formation immediately succeeded 
by the great basal conglomerate (Pottsville No. XII) of the 
lower productive coal measures. The transition from the 
finest red mud to the coarsest pudding stone, or gravel rock, 
is in all eastern Pennsylvania immediate and universal ; and 
yet there are none of the usual marks of non-conformabil- 
ity ; the sequence is perfectly parallel ; no disturbance from 
folding or uplifting of the red shale before the laying down 
or coming in of the conglomerate is anywhere visible ; and 
I can suggest, after many years of study, no explanation 
of the phenomenon. Others may be more successful ; but 
up to the present moment I look upon this as one of the 
many unsolved problems in our geology, waiting not so 
much for more facts as for a shrewder and more fortunate 
suggestion. I think no one can doubt that the red shale 
was deposited on a broad shore-bordered lowland near the 
sea level, and in regions of its wide extent occupied by 
marshes, pools and lagoons on which the first true coal veg- 
etation began to grow ; and that in connection with this 
vegetation considerable deposits of carbonate of iron, or of 
limonite afterwards carbonized, were formed. Of course 
the water under such circumstances must have been still 
water, without cutting currents, and fed by rivers eroding 
low countries at a great distance ; a state of things contrast- 
. ing strongly with that prevalent in the preceding Pocono 
age, where large quantities of sand were widely distributed 
in apparently deep water by powerful currents ; and still 
more flagrantly contrasted with the succeeding age in which 
vast quantities of rounded rocks, gravel^and pebbles rolled 


AJII,XIV, Mlegkaui Co. columMoJo ,iectums ,, 


9UbluiTyk ioiiM 

fc 1 



MUghenysem. Xlil I. ^ 'f^ ' 


in water, were spread over an area almost equal to that of 
the northern and southern States. 

The only case of non-conformability of XII upon XI 
which I ever saw was that of a notch about 2 feet wide with 
one vertical and the other sloping wall exposed on the bluff 
at the head of the second incline plane descending Solo- 
mon's Run, Luzerne county. Into the notch In the soft 
smooth red shale upper layer had collected a quantity of 
the first pebbles at the base of the conglomerate. It was a 
case of true but extremely local erosion. The complete 
cleanness of the exposed strata left no room to misinter- 
pret the facts, but it stands alone in my experience of 
many years of field work along the outcrops of No. XI in 
the anthracite region. 

Outcrop geography of the Mauch Chunk. 

The outcrops of the red shale surround the three anthra- 
cite coal fields. The sou thern field is not quite separated 
from the middle field by red shale, but nearly so. The east- 
ern middle is entirely separated fi'om the northern field ; 
and the northern field from the first bituminous coal basin 
on the north or Allegheny Mountain.^ 

The separate basins of the southern and middle fields have 
prongs of red shale running up between them to a greater 
or less distance both from the east and from the west. As 
the red shale formation is 2000 or 3000 feet thick on the 
south side of the southern field, and only 200 or 300 feet 
thick on the north side of the northern field, — and as the 
grand anticlinal throws the red shale into a vertical altitude 
on the south side of the southern field whereas the great 
anticlinal only elevates the red shale on a dip of 30^ or 40° 
along the north edge of the northern field, — it is easily seen 
that the geographical shape and topographical form of 
the circle of outcrops change gradually from south to north. 
Beginning at Mauch Chunk the red shale valley walled in 
between the straight Pocono second mountain and Potts- 
ville sharp mountain, runs with a depth of about 800 feet 
and a width of three-quarters of a mile perfectly smooth 
and straight from the Lehigh to the Little Schuylkill. Two 


Ml. y/rteportll.CoaL. yktiationi in&gutle^, 
^curer, andMlleghe/ny. 


 t ifc 

B )! 




small anticlinals here throw it to the south ; and then from 
the Devil's Hole it runs in a similar manner with vertical 
strata, smooth and straight, to the Schuylkill at Mount Car- 
bon. It keeps on straight across the West Branch to the 
Swatara where it is deflected a little toward the south, and 
still runs straight to the Susquehanna above Harrisburg, 
On the west side of the Susquehanna it fills the cove. Turn- 
ing the sharp western prong of the Sharp Mountain, it runs 
straight east northeast back to Tremont, and then bends 
sharply west again as the Wiconisco Valley to the Susque- 
hanna ; on the west side of which in Perry county it makes 
the Buffalo cove. Here it turns the west end of tlie Wico- 
nisco coal basin (or Bear Creek prong of the Pottsville fish 
tail) and runs E. N. E. to and up between the synclinal 
prongs of the Broad mountain coal basins. The north 
edge of which it borders for a good many miles east of Ash- 
land, separating thus the southern from the western middle 

From Ashland it forms westward the valley of Mahanoy 
creek, and at the Susquehanna again turns around the west- 
ern end of the Shamokin basin and runs east as a narrow 
deep red valley between the Big and Little mountains to 
the Catawissa. Here it enlarges into the Catawissa valley, 
and sends up small prongs between the coal basins of the 
eastern middle field. This wide expanse of the formation 
stretches east and west between the conglomerate and the 
Pocono Mountains on the west. The enlargement continues 
northward and eastward between the Nescopec mountain 
and the conglomerate mountains on the north edge of the 
eastern middle field. Isolated mountains of the conglom- 
erate stand up from the surface of this Conyngham red 
shale valley, as it is called. The red shale keeps on east- 
ward up the Lehigh headwaters and finally dies away on 
the upland. 

We have thus described three-quarters of the circuit of 
the red shale outcrop around the southern and middle 
fields. The eastern part remains to be described. At 
Mauch Chunk the red shale fills a cove east of the Lehigh 
similar to the cove in Perry county, known as the Ket- 



XIII. Mi^heny CoalSmti inJf.iQaaeJU 


^ S i S J 

II  i I i . I • '; 3 • 1 

i| 111 l\il\ J 
1 3 = J i i ! « I i I I ' ^ 


'li:3l |5 1-5 I ill*; 



tie. The red shale turns the eastern end of the southern 
field, the sharp pointed cliff known as Mt. Pisgah, and runs 
west between the Locust mountain and the Nesquehoning 
mountain to the Little Schuylkill. Here it broadens out 
and occupies the ^whole soil of Locust valley, sweeping 
around the west end of the Nesquehoning mountain and 
returning down tlie valley ot Quakake creek to the Lehigh 
river. Here it spreads out and occupies the low hill coun- 
try sending prongs up westward between the basins of the 
eastern middle field until it joins the east end of the Conyng- 
ham valley, and thus completes the circle of the two fields. 
Keeping in mind the boldly pronounced anticlinal and syn- 
clinal structure of the region and the great thickness of 
the formation it will not be surprising that on the crests of 
the larger and sharper anticlinal rolls No. XI should 
appear at the surface on the highlands between the 
several coal basins. The most striking case of this kind 
appears on the upland of the Broad mountain northeast of 
Pottsville, where a curious oval hole of great extent has 
been excavated through the conglomerate on one of the 
larger anticlinals, exposing in the flat bottom of the de- 
pression the upper beds of tue red shale ; a stream drains 
this hole into Mill creek, and advantage has been taken of 
the situation to make a high reservoir dam of considerable 

Having followed the outcrop of No. XI around the south- 
ern and middle anthracite fields where the formation is so 
thick as to make strong marks on the topography, I will 
now, before describing its outcrop around the northern field, 
give the measurements and descriptions of the formation 
along the Lehigh River where it can best be studied, and 
in order to show its relation to the overlying Pottsville 
conglomerate No. XII and to the underlying Pocono sand- 
stone No. X, these will be added to the section at least in 

XI at MaucJi Chunk. 

The following section was compiled by Mr. Winslow from 
measurements made from the summit of Mt. Pisgah along 


M.Meghmy QxdSeries trvjf. (Sutler (h 


hommood ?>&. 




/3r<mHvi//f C- 

Meieer C. 



the Lehigh Valley Railroad, and along the Lehigh and Sns- 
qnehanna Railroad to the Lehigh Canal : 

ML Pisg^h, Pottsville conglomerate and sandstone with 

shaly bands, 320 

Red shale in the body of the conglomerate, 500 

Lower oouglomerate, with a green matrix, large quartz 

pebbles, the base of the clilfs of Mt Pisgah, 120 

Na XI red shale and sandstone, 16G2 

Sandstone, yellow and friable, 83 

Red shale, 28 

Chocolate colored and grey hard sandstone, 28 

Shales, mostly concealed, 1000 ft south of the Mauch 

Chunk Railroad Station, 367 

Total thickness of No. XI, 2168 feet, 

Pocono Na X sandstone, hard and grey, 25 

Grey sandstone and conglomerate, partly concealed, . 309 

Gray sandstone, hard, 46 

Conglomerate with sandstone, 60 

Dark shale and slate, -*'.... 20 

The rest of this section has already been given. The 

whole thickness of No. X being, according to Mr. 

Winslow, 1253 feet 

Oeneral Description. 

On the opposite or eastern bank of the river along the 
Lehigh Valley Railroad, and on south dipping rocks, are 
seen the following section : Alternations hard and soft of 
red sandstone and shale along the river banks, measuring 
in all 1367 feet, under which partially concealed are red and 
green sandstones and shales as far as the Onoko tunnel, 
measuring 608 feet ; the total of No. XI here seen seems to 
be 1975 feet ; but the upper part of the formation has been 
eroded from that side of the river. The Pocono sandstone 
rises at the tunnel, grey, hard and silicious, 160 feet; then 
ith shale dark grey 118 feet ; then hard grey sandstone 
with quartz pebbles 305 feet ; and so on up the river with 
a total thickness of 1273 feet. 

Where the Quakake creek comes to the river the red 
shale dipping 30° north reappears, but only the bottom red 
shale 66 feet thick, containing a mottled green calcareous 
layer. This rests on the Pocono, green, hard shale, 20 feet ; 
then grey silicious sandstone, 16 feet ; then green shales, 20 
feet ; then greyish red sandstone, 10 feet ; then hard green- 



ish-grey sandstone, 40 feet ; then hard gray silicious sand- 
stone with pebbles, 146 feet, which is probably the Pocono 
conglomerate strata mentioned in the last section. 

From Stony Creek along the Lehigh Valley Railroad 
northward No. XI is not seen, the uppermost stratum of the 
next section being a grey silicious Pocono conglomerate 
and sandstone 120 feet thick. 

The same Pocono conglomerate, 126 feet, caps the next 
section from Drake's creek southward along the railroad. 

The lower part of XI appears below Leslie's run near 
the old canal lock, and the section reads : Red shale, 20 ; 
green fissile shale, 18 ; greenish-grey hard silicious sand- 
stone, 10; green shale, 3 ; hard red shale, 10; bluish-red 
shale, 2 ; red fissile shale, 27 ; greenish-grey shaly sand- 
stone, 25 ; yellowish-green shale, 10 ; red fissile shale, 15 ; 
green shale, 12i ; red and green variagated shale, 12, under- 
laid by purplish-yellow shale and so forth. This is an ex- 
ample of the way the formation is built up. 

From White Haven southward to the Lehigh Tannery a 
large thickness of No. XI dipping 10^ to 15° northward is 
well exposed, thus : Red shale and sandstone, 173 ; red 
shale, partly concealed, 107 ; red shale and sandstone, 630 ; 
grey-green sandstone and conglomerate layers charged with 
pebbles of red shale, 60 ; red shale, 78 ; coarse red sand- 
stone, with partings of green shale, 38 ; yellow ochery shale, 
18 : red shale, 19 ; red shale, much concealed, 70 ; lying on 
Pocono sandstone and conglomerate, grey and silicious, 
100. To these 1183 feet of No. XI must be added 400 feet 
of unexposed measures at the top to carry the section up 
to the base of the conglomerate. 

North of White Haven in Neleigh's cut are exhibited 
619 feet of No. XI, thus : Chocolate red hard sandstone 
with shale, 465 ; concealed, 119 ; greenish-grey hard sand- 
stone, 30 ; fine silicious rock containing red shale pebbles, 
under which appear hard white sandstone, at the middle of 
the big bend. The place of this section in the formation 
can only be suspected by the peculiar red shale pebble con- 
glomerate which may be the same as that mentioned in the 
last section. 



At Moose Head, Luzerne county, a section along the 
Lehigh Valley Railroad contains a similar rock, thus: — 
Grey silecious conglomerate, 20 ; grey sandstone, 4 ; con- 
glomerate, 6 ; sandstone, 3 ; conglomerate, 3 ; sandstone, 
7 ; grey sandstone with quartz pebbles and also red shale 
pebbles, 15 ; conglomerate containing slate pebbles and also 
large red shale fragments, 6 ; hard grey sandstone, 5 ; red 
shale with red ochre, 28 ; yellowish-green shale, 10 ; yellow 
ochre, 16 ; white ochre, 2. These two strata are mined at 
the anticlinal. The dip of all these rocks varies from 5® ta 
10° north. The total of the rocks here exposed is only 124 
feet, and the place in formation can be suspected from the 
red shale pebble conglomerate. The red shale large frag- 
ments are a remarkable phenomenon, lending additional 
support to the hypothesis that the water was shallow, and 
that part of the formation had already been elevated and 
become subject to erosion. But this must have been at a 
considerable distance ; might have been an island ; must 
have been swept by currents ; must have remained out of 
water long enough to have become consolidated and dried. 
At the same time there is no direct evidence of local erosion ; 
and it is no more necessary that such red shale fragments 
when imbedded had acquired the consistency of rock than 
in the case of rough chunks of clay or coal which are known 
to have been in some cases torn from swamps, transported 
and redeposited at a greater or less distance in deposits of 

The sections given above are not available for even esti- 
mating the decline of thickness of the formation from its 
outcrop at Mauch Chunk northward. But after it rises 
northward on the slope of the Nescopec mountain and 
rides high in the air above the great Wapwallopen anti- 
.clinal (Montour's Ridge anticlinal), it descends northward 
over the Wyoming mountain and plunges nearly vertical 
down beneath the south bed of the northern field in Solo- 
mon's Gap, and in fact along the whole range of the mount- 
ain, separating its crest from the bold terrace of conglom- 
erate half way down the slope ; and here Winslow made 
his first section from Ashley colliery southward across the 



monntain, getting the whole thickness of conglomerate No, 
XII 220 feet ; Mauch Chunk No. XI, 1002 feet ; Pooono 
No. X, 1177 feet, and 1656 feet of the underlying Catskill 
No. IX. I will give the upper part of this very satisfac- 
tory section, which commences at the top with the Red 
Ash coal bed, thus : 

Red Ash coal bed of the northern field, 10 feet 

Broken slate, 14 " 

No. XII sandstone hard, dark, compact, 14 ** 

Conglomerate, fine, silicious, 19 *' 

Slate, fissUe, 2 " 

Conglomerate, 24 " 

Slate in separate seams, 1 *' 

Conglomerate pretty silicious, 41 '* 

Conglomerate, coarsely silicious, 119 ** 

No. XI, red and green shale, with calcareous layers, . 246 <* 

Brick red shale, 120 " 

Sandstone, reddish-grey, with quartz pebbles and also 

red shale pebbles, 27 " 

Shale and sandstone, red and massive, t • . . 835 '< . 

Sandstone, reddish and greenish-grey, with fine quartz 

pebbles, 81 *« 

Brick red shale, 60 " 

Sandstone, fine, greenish-grey, which might be Just as 
I well made the top layer of the Pocono as the bottom 

layer of the Mauch Chunk, ' 188 " 

No. XI sandstone, white, coarse, silicious, 283 « 

Conglomerate, fine quartz pebbles, 3 " 

Sandstone, greenish-grey, hard, . . 3 *< 

Conglomerate, pinkish-white, small quartz pebbles, . 82 " I 

Sandstone, white made coarse with pebbles, 40 " 

Sandstone, yellowish-brown, fissile and friable, ... 88 " 

Sandstone, greenish, hard, 44 « I 

Sandstone, grey, hard, with pebbles, 57 *' 

Sandstone, greenish-grey, hard, with conglomerate 

layers, 256 " 

Sandstone, greenish, fractured and shaly, 143 <* 

Conglomerate, soft and slate with sandstone pebbles, • 8 " 
Sandstone, hard, greenish, much fractured, containing 

occasionally slate pebbles, ••••• 112 " 

Sandstone, greenish-grey 163 " 

Under this section come the bright red, green and grey 
shales and sandstones considered as the top of the Catskill 
series No. IX. One value of such a section is the proof it 
gives of the perfect conformability and essential homogen- 
eity of all these sub-carboniferous and Devonian forma- 
tions. Not a trace of non-conformability or evidence of 



X///i MLeyke/ny 0oal^&tie6 In €^Laram. Go. 

"■-^i- . -. ' s Clftrian, 

Jtaww'ra **" """^^ V'*r ^<'""^- 
rwpan UpptF ludilSH. ■«. if, VW. 


Uiagmm showing it)e Clarion Oal spill iBto inoSedl 


elevation and erosion anywhere in the immediate region of 
the section can be detected. All the dips are conformable, 
and the alternations of argillaceous and silicious layers, 
large and small, are really of the same order ; the principal 
feature of difference being the color; and the principal 
division planes being the coarser sandstone and conglome- 
rate layers. 

The feature of most interest in this section is the appear- 
ance of limestone at the top of the Mauch Chunk in the 
shape of calcareous bands in the 246 feet of red and green 
shales just under the conglomerate. Of this more will be 
said hereafter. 

Comparing this section with the one at Mauch Chunk, it 
is evident that No. XI has diminished in thickness north- 
ward more than one-half ; that is, from 2168 feet at Mauch 
Chunk to 1002 feet in the Wyoming mountain. We will 
see that this decrease goes on northward with accelerated 
speed, and that when the formation after passing beneath 
the northern coal field rises in the Shickshinny mountain 
it has diminished to 150'. See G 7, page 44. 

Mauch CJiunJc Red Shale around the Northern Field. 

Around the western half of the Wyoming Basin No. 
XI, retaining a considerable thickness, makes a topog- 
raphy somewhat similar to that of its outcrop around the 
middle and southern fields, but around the eastern half of 
the basin it has become so thin that it makes no distinct val- 
ley between the Pocono under it against which it leans, and 
the conglomerate over it, but merely a terrace by which its 
presence is marked, the outcrop of the conglomerate pro- 
jecting from the mountain in a low ridge cut through by 
the small affluents of the Lackawanna, the head waters of 
which affluents form small double ravines in the red shale 
before they break through the conglomerate down into the 
open valley, very much in the style of the double headed 
ravine of the Kishacoquillas Valley already described in the 
chapters on No. IV. In this case the conglomerate plays 
the part of the lower Medina sandstone with the important 
distinction that in this case the dip is towards th^ valley, 



XIII. MUgheny Serai in 6latSm, So. Ghaim. 


-Mercer Coall 
'MertetCuM-r .XII.. 

CanneeoTifisinsi SanifJ-^'Kff. 

%l\.;  SeetioDaAiwIng ^ 



and in the other case the dip is [away from the valley into 
the moantain, the Wyoming basin being a synclinal and 
the Kishacoquillas f^alley being an anticlinal. 

Prom Solomon's gap where No. XI is said by Rogers to 
be 669 feet thick westward to the Susquehanna Gfap below 
Shickshinny the terrace of XI gradually widens and 
deepens until it becomes a curious picturesque ravine, with 
vertical walls of red shale, gradually descending to the 
level of the river ; a place well worth the visit of the land- 
scape artist. On the opposite or northern side of the basin, 
the Susquehanna, which enters the valley through the gap 
at Pittston and then flows west through it past Wilks-Barre 
and Plymouth to Nanticoke, turns again, cuts through the 
conglomerate and then flows on west in the red shale which 
is at Nanticoke said by Rogers to be about 400 feet thick, 
so far as its middle and upper portions are visible, all soft, 
calcareous red shale and red sandstone with an upper divi- 
sion of thin-bedded grey sandstone, alternating with olive 
colored shales, capped by a sort of honestone beds. The 
lower division being concealed by the river, and the total 
thickness of the formation estimated at only about 400 
feet. This long straight, solitary, picturesque valley has 
for its south wall extremely steep cliflfs of red shale, 
capped by the conglomerate, all dipping gently southward 
beneath the basin. Prom the other or northern bank of the 
river rises the long rather gentle slope of the Shickshinny 
mountain, containing the Pocono rocks, which pass down 
southward beneath the red shale in the bed of the river* 
When the river reaches Shickshinny gap through which the 
Shickshinny creek enters it, and where the whole struc- 
ture of all three formations and their relation to each other 
is plainly visible, the river makes a right angle bend south- 
ward across the west end of the basin, leaving on its west- 
ern side a high outlying hill of the conglomerate, around 
which the red shale outcrops sweep, and ascend the narrow 
cove, long and sharp, but in all other respects exactly similar 
to the shorter and more rounded red shale coves in Perry 
county. In these two gaps, that of Shickshinny mountain 
and that of Wyoming mountain, the red shale makes good 


XIII. Allegheny GocJSeriett in Gkmion Go. 

111 fi..5=3ffl3i:ik±'_Mi 

III'".! V I = = I i->ci 

]| to r" . r -A^:: i.,: 


exposures, and has been measured with some degree of ac- 
curacy. But from this point onward the river across the 
Wapwallopen valley and down past Berwick, Bloomsburg, 
Danville, Sunbury and Selinsgrove, does not touch or 
cut the formation until it reaches the western end of the 
western field in southern Northumberland county. Prof. 
White in his report on this region G.7, page 44, says the 
red shales which characterize the Mauch Chunk thin out 
northeastward and disappear entirely along the northern 
rim of the Lackawanna >asin before reaching Pittston, 
leaving only 160 feet of greenish shales and flaggy sand- 
stone, which might with lithological propriety be consid- 
ered the top of the Pocono, for not a trace of red shale can 
be found in these 150 feet. He places them at the bottom 
of XI because where the red shales make their first appear- 
ance 3 or 4 miles southwest of Campbell's ledge in the 
Pittston gap they do not come in as a mass on the top of 
the green-grey beds, but interleave with them as knife 
edges, and many of the green layers change gradually into 
red layers as we observe them in the ravines and river cliffs 
on the way west to Shickshinny. Another reason is that 
the massive yellowish sandstone which underlies the green 
beds at Campbell's ledge appears as the top of the Pocono 
in the more eastern parts of the district. 

The green beds going east gradually diminish without a 
single red layer in them to a thickness of 75 feet only at 
Leggett's gap above Scranton. The same eastward thin- 
ning away of the formation is seen in the Wyoming mount- 
ain on the south side of the Lackawana basin, as he de- 
scribes in his Report G5. 

Going west from Campbell's ledge in the Pittston gap the 
red beds are seen coming in at the gaps of Abraham and 
Toby creeks in Kingston township. At the Nanticoke gap, 
14 miles west from the Pittston gap, he gives the following 
section : Pottsville conglomerate, massive ; shales, drab, 
sandy, 4 feet ; black slate and coaly shales, the fossilifer- 
ous formation under the rocks of Campbell's ledge, 10 feet ; 
whitish sandstone, the base of No. XII, 3 feet ; — No. XI, 
green shale, 10 ; sandstone, green, flaggy, 100 ; green shales, 


\Xlll. j4/Zy^«ty ofw/ftt mJeffrrson &> He. 

M. Mi. 

2hy>rt^>p,r 6cal. cS'ecA,^ ofU^ 

Pull ng nn olmnMamme^ 

4^^ 1^^ fS!^ inS^ferson €o, 

^retptrt^Xoteereca/^ ^^^ ,.„ ^,„ 

ijt^i|L |H^ ^u^g  I^H HH ^^H 

tBW rTe^ H^^ rS^^ F.H^' f^^^ l^^' 


Xatiinmm/MJJIe GbiU JSOanmnfJ^rC 
^;-o<*^«9fe &2/, Jferc« Keper e. in XII. 


sandy, interleaved with red, 100 ; red shale, sandy, 216 ; 
total, 425 ; No. X Pocono sandstone. 

The thickening of No. XI from Nanticoke to Shickshinny 
Gap, only 8 miles west of Nanticoke, is extraordinarily 
rapid, at a rate of nearly 100 feet to the mile. For on the 
sonth side of the basin in the gap of the Wyoming moun- 
tain the measured thickness is about 1200 feet ; thus :- — 
No. XII, base visible, 60 ; concealed, 60 ; sandstone, green^ 
pebbly, 40 ; sandstone, shaly ; green, reddish, ICO ; sand- 
stone, greenish-gray, pebbly, 40 ; red shale, 700 ; concealed, 
600 ; massive conglomerate, Pocono No. X, visible in the 
railroad cut 1 mile below Shickshinny, 160 ; The total of 
the strata considered as belonging to No. XI, beginning at 
the top somewhere in the concealed interval of 60 feet and 
ending somewhere in the middle of the concealed interval 
of 600 feet mast be somewhere between 1000 and 1200 feet 

The Pocono conglomerate visible in the railroad cut here 
1 mile below Shickshinny dips 66° N. 10 W., and the sec- 
tion is therefore easily measureable, but its thickness strikes 
one with surprise from the fact that on the north side of 
the basin not 2 miles distant in the Shickshinny Mountain 
No. XI is scarcely half so thick. The formation therefore 
not only thins away eastward but northward, with singular 
rapidity, and when it comes down again on the northern side 
of the great anticlinal into the North or Allegheny mount- 
ain in Wyoming county near its summit, it has dwindled 
to only 100 or 200 feet, and so continues exceedingly thin 
to the New York State line. It is no wonder, therefore, 
that from all northeastern Pennsylvania ; that is, Susque- 
hanna and Wayne, its erosion has been so easy as to be quite 
complete. But when we consider the great thickness at 
Mauch Chunk and in the Kettle it requires a strong imagi- 
nation to picture the removal of so great a mass from the 
uplands of Monroe and Pike counties ; although it is next 
to certain that the formation originally was also much thin- 
ner in the direction of the Catskill mountains of New York, 
from which it has entirely disappeared. The increase in 
thickness westward from the Lehigh at Mauch Chunk ta 


XlllMil'Alie^keny SertEA m.Seff&tsQn < 

, ..._Lfl. .iSi^. rf I *A s - jg.- .-g_ ' 



the Schuylkill at Pottsville is established by the careful 
measurements made by the first Survey in 1838, published 
in Rogers'Final Report 1858, Vol. I, page 144, and Vol. II, 
page 10, where its total thickness is given as 2950 feet, and 
where it reaches the Sus(3[uehanna as rather less.* 

* It is a little surprising that the First Survey should almost exactly agree 
with Winslow's recent measurements of the Pocono No. X at Mauch Chunk 
the one assigned the round number 1300 feet and the other the exactly meas- 
ured number 1253 feet; and yet that there should be such a discrepancy be- 
tween them respecting the Mauch Chunk formation No. XI. Rogers 
assigning a general thickness to it at Mauch Chunk of 3000 feet, more or less, 
while Winslow measures for it only 2168. Rut the fact is that there were 
nothing like the facilities for measuring XI at that time at Mauch Chunk, 
«nd the thickness assigned to it was an exceedingly rough estimate from the 
size of the valley; whereas on the Schuylkill the vertical attitude of the 
beds and the abundance of exposures of No. XI at Mount Carbon has 
always made its measurement comparatively easy. 

Rogers' description of the Umbral red shale, as he calls it, around the 
anthracite basin in Vol. I, page 9, is worth extracting, asthe formation was 
carefully studied by the First Survey. He says throughout the anthracite 
district the whole red shale formation is remarkable for great sameness 
of character, bearing a very close general resemblance to the main body of 
the Ponent (Catskill No. IX) red shales and sandstone ; both are char- 
acterized by the presence of only a very few organic remains, but with 
this difference that the fossils of No. IX are mostly bivalve shells and 
encrini ; whereas the few forms found in XI belong exclusively to plants 
but not to species or even genera identical in ith those of the coal measures. 
At the Schuylkill outcrop of XI the formation consists of very argillaceous 
red sandstones, alternating with red shales in nearly equal proportions ; but 
as we advance towards the Lehigh the sandstones predominate more and 
more. Everywhere the lower part of the formation contains more tough 
grey micaceous sandstone, and the middle and upper parts more soft red 
shale beds, with occasional partings of grey sandy shales. In all three 
there are alternations of red and grey soft sandstone. The red sandstones 
are of three varieties ; first a florid, red rock, rather soft ; second, a brown- 
ish-red rock, more common, and, third, a dull greyish-red rock, the hardest 
of the three. Many sandstone strata are delicately sub-divided by alternate 
bands ot different shades of color, imparting to the dressed surface a pleas- 
ing aspect, and may come to use in arcliitecture. Some of the grey silici- 
ous sandstone layers of the middle and lower parts of the formation, 
Although less pretty, would make a more durable building stone. The 
softer varieties of red shale frequently contain a small proportion of carbo- 
nate of lime, and in a few localities are seen one or two thin bands of a very 
argillaceous limestone, not pure enough to use. The greater part of the 
carbonate of lime appears as oval concretions, seldom half an inch long, 
looking lllte yellowish-white pebbles, which weather out and give the rock 
face a worm-eaten aspect Several such layers may be seen Just south of 
the Mt Carbon Hotel in the upper part of the formation ; but such layers 
are more frequent and usually thicker in the middle and lower divisions* 


ccLxxav. I 
XIII,XIV, ^aJ^&mani rivet^ Somerset 6o\ 

,'♦.*. . , A' i 


No. XI in the Broad Thp Coal Meld* 

In the Huntingdon and Bedford district this formation is 
found encircling the Broad Top Coal Fields and occupies 
the whole of the wedged shaped valley of Trough creek, 
rising on the inside slope of Terrace mountain. In Sidel- 
ing Hill tunnel Messrs. Ashburner and Billin measured it 
IjlOCy thick, divided in threje divisions: 

1. Upper shales and sandstones 910'; 2. Mountain lime- 
stone 49'; 3. Lower shales and sandstones 141'. 

Two bands of the Mountain Limestone division are quite 
fossiliferous. A layer of 4' of gray mottled carbonate of 
iron forms the top of the whole group, occurring imme- 
diately under the bottom of No. XII as at Ralston, Centre- 
ville, Aston ville and Mclntyre in the Lycoming district ; at 
the Barclay mines in Bradford Co., and at Queen's run and 
the Tangascootac in Clinton Co. The limestonef or middle 
member, thins away north and east and can scarcely be rec- 
ognized anywhere in the Anthracite Field. But it is ex- 
posed in Westmoreland and Payette and has been struck 
in many of the oil wells in the western part of the State. 

No. XI in North-western Pennsylvania. 

In Lycoming Co.^ the four vertical sections constructed 
in Mr. Sherwood all show the presence of this group of 
rocks. No. 1, on Cedar creek defines the series to be 271' 
thick, and at once indicates the remarkable shrinkage of 
this great formation going westward. No limestone beds 
are mentioned, the series being entirely shales, slates 
and sandstones, red and green predominating. No. 2, on 

Near Tamaqua on the Little SchuylklU, 12 distinct beds appear, one 6 feet 
thick, but in it the nodules are rather thinly scattered ; in another, 3 feet 
thick, they are abundant Around the Wyoming Basin there are greenish 
silidoua shale beds and grey calcareous sandstones. All that is here said 
serves to Illustrate the description of the calcareous shalesand limestones to 
be described next in Huntingdon and Westmoreland counties. 

*This and succeeding pages on the Mauch Chunk formation of the west- 
ern portion of the State have been compiled by Mr. E. V. d'Invilliera. 

f At Round Top, near Paradise Furnace, Huntingdon Co., the whole for- 
mation is nearly horizontal and the entire group is 1,050' thick. Brecciated 
limestone 2' thick, crops out on Shoup*s run 175' below Na XII, and 
another bed occurs on Round Top 500' below XII. 





i — ^^ >wy^ 

N BorKvft 


rs Ml MB. 

1 _ ad 


'01. w 


^ - 



^»A ^>u f 

* - 









/ * 



ir <h«»r«M« 







> ; ft> 


' F 

r «• 

/ -^ «• 




FkiNT Creek 

t « 



' Itock creek, gives the group 331'; but the upper part (100' 
thick) is concealed and may include part of XII. They 
show the same characteristics, but more largely red and 
gray sandstone. No. 3, on Trout run shows the group dwin- 
dled to 206', but still maintaining its sequence of thin 
bedded sandstone and shale without economic contents, 
while No. 4 shows a decided variation as follows : Top 
member black slate, traces of coal, roots of Sigrilaria and 
other plants 25'; interval 150'; reddish sandstone 30'; inter- 
val 75'; red, marly shale 25'; reddish false bedded sand- 
stone 45'; interval 40'; sandstone, reddish and false bedded, 
at bottom 26'; total 415'. The formation is confined entire- 
ly to the northern half of Lycoming Co., forming the rims 
of the several detached coal basins at Rocky Ridge east of 
the Loyalsock ; the Ralston-Mclntyre basin on both sides 
of Lj^coming creek ; the Pine creek basin between the two 
forks of Pine cj-eek and skirting the old turnpike along 
the Clinton Co. line. 

The above sections are disputed as being too general. 
Thus at Mclntyre the combined thickness of XII and XI 
is only 150'. At Ralston an important bed of iron ore was 
once mined beneath the Conglomerate, occurring in shale in 
irregular knotty lumps, and consisting of '* nearly a white 
crystalline protocarbonate of iron, somewhat resembling a 
fine grained sandstone."* 

The Mauch Chunk series is stated by the same authority 
to here show : Pottsville Conglomerate on top, then slaty 
clay 6" to 8" ; iron ore, in places 3' to 4' ; clay shale 40' ; 
balls of ore I'O" ; clay shale and black slate 10' ; sandstone 
3' ; sandstone measures 7' ; red ore balls (cold short) 2' ; 
greenish sandstone 10' to 14'; red shale or marl 40' to 60'; 
total exhibited 122'. 

At Astonville the same ore was mined and again at Car- 
tersville, where it was more argillaceous, 1' to 2'6". On 
Red run the same ore group is found underlying the Con- 
glomerate, but of greater thickness. At Mclntyre No. XI 
is divided into three groups of 20'-> 5' and 50', each contain- 

* Geology of Penna., Vol. II, page 513. 



XlV. ^itbbargh Series irvS.W.^ay 

i ! 



1 ' 1 } { 

I <<i <!l .' I s I'lU 






ing thin layers of carbonate iron ore, the rocks being red- 
dish and the principal deposit of iron ore being through 
the middle B' thick. 

Prof. Rogers expanded his Mauch Chunk formation to 
534' by including 450' of the Pocono Sandstone; but by 
confining the group to the narrow limits on Penn and Ly- 
coming creeks, the sections harmonize better with the re- 
ports on the whole West Branch of the Susquehanna, as 
well as to the south and west. It is evident that Nos. XI 
and X increase alternately, locally, at each other's expense 
in this district, making it difficult to limit exactly either 
formation. In the Bernice basin of Sullivan Co. No. XI 
is not believed to be over 25' thick. 

In Clinton Co. No. XI is shown merely by a red line on 
the geological map running around all the mountain sum- 
mits north of the Allegheny escarpment ; but sometimes 
no trace of this red band can be found on the ground. At 
Lock Haven the group is 100' thick, and is locally exhibited 
in a number of other places in the county, though but im- 
perfectly. It thins away to nothing 2 miles west of Lock 
Haven. On the Tangascootac no red shale has ever been 
found, but on the eastern face of the mountain near Re- 
villetown it is 50' to 100' thick. At Glen Union and Wetham 
it could not be detected ; nor at Keating, Sterling or Cam- 

At Sinnemahoning and Emporium, further up the river, 
a thin layer of red shale or clay occurs ; and sporadically 
at St. Mary's and Johnsonburg. West of the Johnsonbnrg 
(Elk Co.) Coal Basin it is not often seen and its western 
limit as a red shale may therefor be placed at the Sixl?i Bi- 
luminous Goal Basin. In other words this great formation 
of the Anthracite and Broad Top coal regions gradually 
fades away to nothing in the north-west corner of the State 
and totally loses its red color. 

The structure of the Bituminous coal area of the State, 
and the nearly constant tendency of all the basins to shoal 
upwards towards the north-east, have served to expose an 
enormous length of outcrop of the Mauch Chunk forma- 
tion throughout all north-western Pennsylvania ; but a 



XIV XV. V^i^tsttaqh 6edin Smnm^se^r Go; 

.,f > -.  i «/ \ ^. ^ 




*u.a« too 


# « 




W> •ou. I 



^/n i',i i ^ ^ 


glance at the State map ooloring will show that these rocks 
do not exist above drainage south of an east and west line 
through Clearfield and Newcastle, except alon^: the Alle- 
gheny escarpment and to a limited extent in Laurel Hill 
and Chestnut Ridge south of the Conemaugh and isolated 
spots in that region. But in the north the reported section 
of these rocks is so thin that they become of slight import- 
ance and cease to have any significance in the geology and 
economy of the great belt of country they overspread. 

In ilie Cameron and Elk Cos. district they are repre- 
sented by 40' to 60' of red and gray shales and thin bedded 
sandstones coming in immediately underneath the Olean 
conglomerate base of No. XII ; in some localities red 
colored shales, in others without red shale at all. At 
Scahonda streaks of coal have been found in the measures 
beneath the Conglomerate which, north of Ridgwny, be- 
come a bed of impure coal, opened in the Gresh mine. In 
the basin west of St. Marys and in the northern part of 
Benzinger Twp. the formation may be 50' thick, sometimes 
containing a thin and sporadic coal bed, and rarely red 

A number of outcrops are exposed in the Clarion valley 
in Jones Twp., Elk Co ; but the formation is indistinct and 
would not exceed 40'. It contains some little lean ore in 
Grove Twp., Cameron Co., and the same lithological char- 
acteristics prevail in many other parts of the district. But 
very little limestone is reported in the north-west sections 
and what remains of the great formation of eastern Penn- 
sylvania is confined to an interval of 30' to 50' between the 
base of the Olean-Garland Conglomerate No. XII ana the 
sub-Olean Conglomerate of No. X, largely known as the 
"Shenango Shales." In many parts of the religion, where 
the map coloring shows its presence, it is merely placed 
there by inference and can not be measured. 

Around the Barclay basin in Bradford Co. tlie upper 
red shale band of No. XI is reported 45' thick, the i ed 
color still predominating through this district. 

In McKean no red shale is found beneath No. XII, ex- 
cept in the southeast part of Norwich Twp.; but the 


Bear Creek well passed through a group of rocks 46' thick, 
representing No. XI, consisting of an upper band of red 
rock 15', blue slate IC and red rock 20'. Generally 
throughout central and northern McKean this formation is 
represented by 6' to 10' of ferriferous shale or biack slate 
sometimes containing cannelly layers or a thin slaty coal 
(Marshburg lower coal?). No limestone has ever been 
found in connection with it. 

In Jefferson Go. the map shows a double outcrop of red 
shale along the Clarion river and extending down 
almost to Clarion, and a small patch along the Red Bank 
east of Fairmount ; but there is an almost total lack of ex- 
posures. The same statement covers our knowledge of No. 
XI in all the counties west to the Ohio line. Its horizon is 
no doubt largely represented by some material lithologic- 
ally different from rocks above and below it ; but the inter- 
val they occupy is everywhere small and largely concealed, 
and rarely filled with red colored rocks. 

No. XI along the Allegheny Mountain. 

Returning again to the Allegheny escarpment, where the 
formation is several times thicker, the same uncertainties 
exist by reason of the concealment of these rocks through 
this wilderness. 

In Clearfield Co. the Mauch Chunk formation is above 
water level only along the Susquehanna river and the 
Moshannon and to some extent on some of the streams in 
the mountainous area north of Clearfield ; but there is no 
good opportunity presented for studying the character of 
these rocks, as they are largely covered by debris from the 
Conglomerate. Their thickness is considered to range from 
60' to 125'. Through all the southern half of this county 
these measures are entirelv below water level. 

In Centre Co. the map shows two separate and narrow 
l)elts of these red rocks, one passing up Beech creek from 
Clinton Co. into Snow Shoe and returning under the escarp- 
luf^nt of the Allegheny Mt. to Blair Co.; the other swing- 
in.LT up the Susquehanna river in the Second Basin to near 
Kai thaus and for several miles along the Moshannon creek, 


partially in Clearfield Co. The group will not exceed 160' 
in thickness anywhere, generally capped by a plate of 
carbonate iron ore, of variable thickness, but never exceed- 
ing 4', the sole I'epresentative of the Ralston ore and the 
upper Umbral ore group of Westmoreland and Fayette 
Cos. Bed colors predominate. 

In Blair Co, the formation is continuous along the Alle- 
gheny Mc. nearly to the Bedford line and being well dis- 
played through the cuts of the Penna. R. R. ease of the 
Gbllitzin tunnel, the carefully measured section made there 
by Mr. R. H. Sanders, may be taken as a standard for the 
characteristics of this group all along the Allegheny Mt. 
plateau. (See section page 13, Report T as follows): 

XI. Mauch\Chunk red shale. 

Shale, red, 110' 

Slate, gray, 40' 

Shale, red, 5' 

Slate, gray, 12' 

Slate, red, 2 

Sandstone, fine grained, 4 

Slate, red, 6' 

Slate, greenish gray, 4' 

Shale, red, 6 

Slate, gray, 2 

Sandstone, white and grayish white, coarse grained, .... 52' 

Slate, gray, 10 

Slate, red, 5 

Slate, gray, 5 

Sandstone, gray, 10' 

Shale, red, 10 


It will be noticed that the entire group Is a mass of red 
and gray slate and sandstone, without coal or iron ore and 
283' thick, of which 144' are red shale; 68' gray and 
greenish gray slate and 66' are sandstone layers, tine 
grained, ^ay and white. 

In Cambria Co. the strip of red shale just described forms 
the supporting belt for the Conglomerate Series marking 
the crest of the mountain. Three other small areas and 
partial exposures of these rocks are shown on the map, 
one under the Viaduct axis on the Conemaugh and i w 


under the arch of the Laarel Hill axis on Black Lick and 
in the Conemaagh gap west of Johnstown. The Siliceous 
limestone at the base of the groap appears in the latter sec* 
tion 50' thick, and in spite of its flinty appearance, bunui 
and slakes well, and makes a snow white mortar, needing 
little sand. The Viaduct arch is barely strong enough to 
elevate these rocks, the upper part of the group (100' thick) 
alone showing there, exposing thin layers of sandstone and 
red and olive shales, with a layer of siliceous limestone 1<K 
at water level. 

In Somerset Co.y owing to the increased strength of the 
several anticlinal axes going south-west from the Cone* 
maugh, there is a much wider exposure of the Maiieh 
Chunk rocks No. XL Thus, beginning on the east, one 
band encircles the oblong Salisbury coal basin in the ex- 
treme south-east corner of the county, to the east of the 
Allegheny Plateau proper; a second strip extends oat 
along the mountain crest, from Cambria Co. to the Mary- 
land line; two more areas show under the Negro Mt. axis, 
one on Shade creek above Roaring Fork and the other, 
several miles in length, from the Castleman river south- 
ward, while along the great Laurel Hill mountain, marking 
the Westmoreland and Fayette line, various detached areas 
of these measures appear at the heads of the small branches 
of Laurel run, and in the gap of the Youghiogheny river. 
The last area can be better studied in Westmoreland and 
Payette Cos., where it is described in subsequent pages of 
this report. 

The eastern flank of the Allegheny mountain has not yet 
yielded any evidence of the Umbral ores or coal, and there 
is no good exposure of these rocks anywhere in this part of 
the county. The same may be said of the limited ex- 
posures on Shade and Stony creeks, although the Siliceous 
limestone occurs in the vicinitv of Ashtola and has been 
quarried there, yielding a white lime, intermixed with sand. 

Above Listonville on White's creek, west of Negro 
mountain, the red shales are brouo:ht to daylight by the 
Viaduct axis, and at Waas' saw mill the Siliceous lime- 
stone near the base of the group is lifted high above water 


level and has been quarried on McCartney's land. That 
part of this deposit known as the *'fossiliferous band" is 
■quite pure, calcining readily and yielding a white lime, 
much used for plastering. The siliceous band, averaging 
6' thick, is streaked with numerous seams of calcite, and is 
overlaid by reddish siliceous limestone. In the Youghio- 
gheny gap through Laurel Hill, the same limestone crops 
in a bold cliff and is quarried by Mr. Hugus. As on 
White's creek, the fossiliferous band is burned for lime, 
while the siliceous bands (much more numerous) have been 
used for paving purposes. Thin streaks of marble occnr 
here also near the base, polishing well, and the same thia 
bands have been noted as occurring at Keystone junction, 
near the summit of the Allegheny mountain east of Mey- 
-ersdale. With these few exceptions, nothing is known of 
the constitution of the Mauch Chunk formation in this 
district ; but the same measures are greatly expanded and 
advantageously exposed in this southern part of the State, 
west of Laurel Hill, as will be next described. 

No. XI in Westmoreland and Fayette Cos.* 

Along Chestnut Ridge these rocks are exposed in the 

* This formation was extensively reported upon by Dr. J. J. Stevenson 
in Rep. K 8, where many exceedingly interesting facts may be found, ao- 
•companied by a number of valuable sections of the measures and included 
ore beds, now entirely abandoned by reason of the demand for the purer 
and richer Lake ores. In this report the Mauoh Chunk formation is de* 
scribed as the **Umbral Series," in explanation of which Dr. Stevenson 
writes : ** For the present it is best to retain the term TJmbral to designate 
the rocks immediately below the FottsvlUe conglomerate, as the series la 
large and no locality within the State of Pennsylvania so fully shows the 
characteristics as to Justify the application of Its name to the whole group. 
To the various portions of the series the names Upper Mauch Chunk shaleSf 
Mountain limestonet Lower Mauch Chunk shales and Siliceous limestone 
are applied in this report. 

If it be thought best to replace Umbral by a geographical term, the series 
might be callt^d the Oreenbrier series^ from the Greenbrier river of West 
Virginia. The name Mauch Chunk is objectionable, because at that locality 
only shales occur, a condition characterizing the series only in central and 
eastern Penna., while in all the rest of the enormous area in which this 
series is exposed there is a large proportion of limestone. In Pocahontas 
Co. of West Virginia along the Greenbrier river, as shown by the section 
given in the Virginia report, the conditions are a mean between the extreme^ 
of limestone and shale, so that the locality would be a fitting one from 
which to name the series. 


gap of the Conemaugh and in all the deeper hollows thence 
southward to the gap of the Youghiogheny river. In 
Westmoreland the exposures are not complete ; but owing 
to the hoist in the axis southward the entire group is dis- 
played towards the West Newton pike crossing. 

Along Laurel Hill the red shales and limestones of this 
series occupy rounded knobs on the crest of the mountain. 
Along the Youghiogheny the upper part of the group is 
certainly above water level, except at Ohiopyle Falls. The 
variations in No. XI are extreme ; but in the Conemaugh 
gaps through Chestnut Ridge and Laurel Hill the group 
shows : 

Shales, 82' 

Fossiliferous limeBtone, 6' 

Shale, ; SC 

Sandstone, 20' 

Blood red shale, W 

Calcareous shale, 3' 

Sandstone, 17' 

Concealed, 20' 

Silicious limestone, 80 

Total, 218' 

The thickness is similar in the gap made by the same 
river through Laurel ridge, and in the Loyalhanna gap 
through Chestnut ridge the thickness is less. 
I In the Youghiogheny gap on the west side of Chestnut 
ridge the thickness is not far from 325' and on the east side 
of the same ridge it is fully 360'. No direct measurement 
of the group could be obtained in the gap made throngh 
Laurel ridge by the Youghiogheny, but a partial section ob- 
tained at a little way south from the river shows it to be^ 
860' and another just north from the National road makes 
it 390'. Southward from the National road the base of the 
group is not exposed at any point along Laurel ridge. 

Along Chestnut ridge, south from the Youghioirheny, 
the series was found 350' thick on the Dunbar furnace 
property and on the eastern side of the arch near old Cen- 
ter furnace the interval between the base of the Siliceous 
limestone and that of the Pottsville conglomerate is 350' 
measured up a very sharp dip, so that the true thickness 


is probably nearer 400'. Thence southward the thick- 
ness seems to be quite uniform, for in the gap of Cheat 
river a few miles south from the State line, Prof. I. C. 
White has found the thickness to be 345'. 

The Umbral rocks may be regarded as quadruple,* 1st. 
A mass of shales and sandstones, including thin coal beds 
and some iron ores ; 2d. Shale and limestone ; 3d. Shale ; 
and 4th. The Siliceous limestone. 

Along the Chestnut ridge this first division (Mauch 
Chunk shales) shows great variation. On the Conemaugh 
it consists mostly of shales, there being but a very small 
proportion of sandstone. And the same conditions prevail 
on the Loyalhanna; but on Jacobus creek, flaggy sand- 
stone forms a very great part of the mass. On the Con- 
nellsville and Springfield pike only red shale occupies this 
interval. On the Youghiogheny, under the arch, the shale 
preponderates. On the National road, the sandstones are 
thick ; but in the Cheat river gap, there is little aside from 
shale. This upper division frequently contains a series of 
iron ore beds. 

Along the west slope of Laurel ridge the exposures are 
all incomplete, and few of them are fully satisfactory ^ but 
the variations are quite as marked there bs on Chestnut 

*Dr. Stevenson describes the first division as consisting of shales and 
sandstones and includes the Sharon group of r^oal beds, and gives the foU 
lowing section of them on the Youghiogheny : 

Shales and sandstone, 8<y 

Coal bed, 2' 

Shale, 3' 

Sandstone, 4(y 

Shale, 16 

Sandstone, 45' 

Shale 8' 

Coal bed, 1 

Shale, 25 

Sandstone, 26' 

Shale, 12' 

Sandstone, 25' 

Total, 231 

The coal bod No. 2 is thoroughly persistent and becomes workable at 
Ohiopyle Falls. No trace of limestone was noticed In the section and some 
of the sandstones are quite conglomeratic. 


ridge. A thin coal bed occurs at but a few feet below the 
conglomerate on the Laurel Hill furnace property, south- 
east from New Florence ; on the Fayette furnace property, 
in Springfield Twp. of Fayette Co., and on Laurel run, in 
Stewart Twp., of the same county. In Henry Clay Twp., 
of this county, a double coal bed was seen on the waters of 
Big Sandy belonging near the top of these shales. 

The second division (Mountain limestone) is more vari- 
able than any other except the Siliceous limestone. On 
the Conemaugh it shows a few feet of impure limestone; in 
Loyal hanna gap through Chestnut ridge, two thin layera 
of sandy limestone, separated by 35' of red shale ; on 
.lacob's creek nearly 40' of limestone, fossiliferous through- 
out, the middle part argillaceous. On the Youghiogheny 
not well exposed, but showing three bands of limestone, 
separated by red shale, as also on Dunbar creek. Fairly 
good exposures in southern Fayette show the top limestone 
to be very pure ; the. middle earthy and lower of good 
quality. On Wharton furnace property the middle one is 
nearly 20' thick and yields a superior lime ; on Cheat 90' 

The third division (Lower Mauch Chunk shales) contain 
little of interest. On the Conemaugh it shows much sand- 
stone, while on the Loyalhanna only [red shale. On the 
Youghiogheny largely shale, and sandstone again on the 
National road. In Cheat river gap the group measures 90'. 

The fourth division (Siliceous limestone) is a compound 
group, at the base of the Umbral formation. The upper 
portion is a conglomerate sandstone with variable thick- 
ness, containing angular fragments of the Siliceous lime- 
stone, passing down gradually into the Siliceous limestone 
proper. The limestone itself is an exceedingly line grained 
rock, with a delicate blue color and on the fresh surface it 
shows no lines of bedding. It has a flint-like fracture 
and no definite cleveage. On the long exposed surface, 
the color is dull brown and the rock resembles a loose 
sandstone. Under such circumstances the structure of the 
roclv is perfectly distinct and it shows curious cross-bed- 


At first glance this rock is hardly to be taken for a lime- 
stone and the silica evidently predominates at all localities. 
At the same time lime is present in considerable quantity, 
for when the rock is burned it becomes snow-white, slakes 
readily and forms a mortar without the addition of sand. 

Tiie Siliceous limestone is of greatest importance north- 
ward and dwindles southward. On the Conemaugh it is 
between 40' and 60' thick in both gaps. A similar thick- 
ness prevails in the gaps made by the Loyalhanna and the 
Youghiogheny ; but southward from the last the rock be- 
comes thinner, being only about 18' on the National road 
and barely 4' where last seen within the State. On Cheat 
river it has wholly disappeared. 

In the Ligonier Valley there is an extensive area of the 
Umbral rocks in Henry Clay Twp. on the main fork of 
Ben ver creek. The group is nearly 400' thick ; the siliceous 
limestone well exposed, but the mountain limestones are 
imperfect. The Upper Mauch Chunk interval is mqptly 
sandstone without traces of the iron ores germane to this 

On the Wharton furnace property however, these ores 
were once energetically mined, the section being as fol- 
lows : 

Pottsville conglomerate, 

Interval, 10' 

Little F'lag ore bed, 

Interval, 20* 

Little Honeycomb ore bed, 

Interval, 25' 

Big Flag ore bed, 

Interval, 6(y 

Big Honeycomb ore bed, 

Interval, 20' 

Huston ore bed, 

A Still lower bed known as the " Big Bottom " was once 
opened on this hill ; but the pit is now concealed. 

The Mountain limestone was quarried on this run. Only 
the middle and lower beds are now exposed, and they are 
separated by about 40' of shale : the upper 20' thick, com- 
pact and loaded with fossils. The ore bed is 8' thick, blue, 
free from clays, contains many fossils, and yields a beauti- 


fnl white lime. Between this and the Silicions limestone 
there is an alternation of shales and sandstones not shown 
in detail. One layer of sandstone is locally celebrated as 
the *^ Grindstone Rock," and it is much used for that pur- 
Along the pike and Big Sandy another section^shows : 

Pottsville conglomerate, 

Interyal, 80' 

Little Honeyoomb ore bed, 

Interval^ 22' 

Big Flag ore bed, 

Interval, 11 

Rock ore bed, 

Interval, 85' 

Big Honeycomb ore bed, 

Interval, , 27 

Huston ore bed, 

Interval, 15 

Big Bottom ore bed, 

The intervals are largely dull red shales ; the ore beds 
vary from 3" to 10'' thick and the percentage of metallic 
iron from 22 per cent, to 35 per cent. Naturally these ores 
have no longer any economical value. They are all car- 
bonate ore beds, oxidized at the outcrop. The same ore 
beds were once worked for the Coolspring furnace near the 
summit of the mountain. 

At Centre furnace the Umbral group is 360' thick, wholly 
concealed except its Siliceous limestone member. The 
Little Honeycomb bed here on Laurel run is a fine grained, 
bluish-gray, somewhat micaceous bed, made up of flattened 
nodules, 4" to 8" thick. The Big Honeycomb bed is double ; 
ore 4"; cl^y 10"; ore 6" to 8". The other ores belonging to 
this group are not exposed along the run. Nearer the 
furnace one of the layers of the Mountain limestone is ex- 
posed and from it the limestone was obtained for use at 
the furnace. 

At the Laurel furnace in Dunbar Twp. the same rocks 
occur, and still contain ore beds, formerly largely worked. 
A general section of the Umbral rocks in Springfield and 
Salt Lick Twps. is given in report K 3 page 100 as follows : 


Pottsville ooaglomerate, 

Shale, with coal bed, 40 

Sandstone, 40 

Shale, 15 

Sandstone, 45* 

Shale, 8 

Coal bed, 17 

Shale, 25 

Sandstone, 25 

Shale, 12' 

Sandstone, 25' 

Concealed, 60' 

Shale and limestone, 85' 

Concealed, 20 (?) 

Silicious limestone, seen, 15' 

Total, 856'7" 

On Bucks run the upper Mauch Chunk shales occur near 
Fayette furnace with a coal bed 20" thick, associated with 
them ; but no iron ores of the Umbral group occur here. 

In Westmoreland Co. some little iron ore has been found 
along Jacobs' creek, in Mt. Pleasant Twp., and the Big 
Bottom bed was reported 3' (?) thick as exposed by Mr. T. 
B. Mays ; but the ore was very lean. The coal above this 
bed also shows. The Mountain limestone shows in three 
benches 18', 20' and 2' thick, the middle argillaceous. The 
whole mass is fossiliferous, and the upper bench a first 
class limestone. 

In Cook Twp. on Powder Mill run the Mountain lime- 
stone has been exposed ; at one quarry a layer 7' thick has 
been worked, but at Shawley's quarry the limestone is in 
thin layers spread 'through 40' of shale. Also on Linn's 
run at Rbbbins mill, where the Rector quarry shows thin 
layers of pure stone, in all 16'' thick, interstratifled with 
calcareous shale. 

In the Conemaugh gap west of Bolivar a complete sec- 
tion shows : 

Mancb Chunk shales : 

Variegated shale, 60" | 

Compact gray shale, 12' r ^' 

Red shale, K/ j 

Fossiliferous limestone, 6 

Drab shale, ZXy 

Sandstone, 20' 


Deep red shale, 10- 

Caicareous shale, 3' 

Sandstone, IT 

Concealed, esU mated, 2ff 

Siliceous limestone, seen, 80' 

No iron ore seems to be associated with the Mauch 
Chunk upper shales in this section. The Fossiliferous 
limestone is impure, but well shown along the Penna. 
canal. The Siliceous limestone has been quarried to some 
extent, and shows its usual characteristics in color and 
structure. Beyond Nineveh, under the Pottsville con- 
glomerate 160', the following succession shows : Concealed^ 
100'; Mauch Chunk shales and sandstones, 93'; Conglom- 
erate sandstone, ^'; Siliceous limestone, 60^ 

West of Chestnut ridge, on the east flank of the Con- 
nellsville (Blairsville) basin, these same rocks are sparingly 
exposed in Westmoreland Co., but very satisfactory in 
Fayette Co., owing to their elevation by the increased 
strength of the axis. Towards the north the Mauch Chunk 
red sbale division on top is 80' thick, below which is 20' of 
blood red shale, but without iron ore. Then the Fossili- 
ferous limestone, 2'; blood red shale, 36'; Fossiliferous 
limestone, 1' 6"; dark red shale, 15'; calcareous sandstone 
and clay, 4'; red shale, 3'; conglomerate, 3', and Siliceous 
limestone, 40'. Towards the south the upper division con- 
tains iron ores, lying within the first 75' below the Con- 
glomerate No. XII ; and some thin coal beds, persistent Jis 
far north as Jacobs creek in Westmoreland Co. The inter- 
val between No. XII and the Bfg Honeycomb ore bed is 
60' to 80' in central Fayette Co.; but in Springhill Twp. 
only 30'. Again in Bullskin Twp. the Bfg Bottom ore bed 
lies directly beneath the Conglomerate No. XII while on 
Jacobs creek the interval is 70', and further up the creek 
40', with both Honeycomb beds missing and the first coal 
bed under No. XII resting on the Kidney ore, which is 
25' above the Big Bottom bed. Below the Big Bottom ore 
bed the section is also variable. Along the Loyalhanna it 
i s mostly red shale ; on the National Road flaggy sand- 


Tne Siliceous limestone member is everywhere compact, 
blue, conchoidal fracture and resembles quartzite, with a 
large proportion of sand, indeed essentially a sandstone 
whose cementing material is calcium carbonate. The little 
conglomerate bed above it contains large fragments of this 
limestone. It is absent south of the Youghiogheny ; but 
on the Loyalhanna there are two layers 36' apart, the lower 
one 26' above the limestone ; both quite thin and siliceous 
and stained with iron. 

On Jacobs creek the exposed limestone is 40' thick and 
yields a lime of superior whiteness and quality, the middle 
layer however being argillaceous ; but the Siliceous lime- 
stone is beneath the surface. This upper or Fossiliferons 
limestone is 10' thick on the Youghiogheny and contains 
many fossils, increasing in thickness southward, and sepa- 
rated by 10' to 26' of clayey sandstone from the bottom 
or Siliceous limestone, which dimini&hes in that direction. 
In this southern district there are often 4 or 5 small coal 
beds especially well seen in Dunbar Twp., coming in the 
upper division. These coals are largely associated with 
the ore beds,* affording a bearing-in for the miners, and 
formerly used for calcining the ore. 

Towards the south the interval between the Conglomer- 
ate No. XII and the Big Bottom ore bed near the l>ase is 
27'; on Shutes run, near Coolspring furnace 80'; at Leniont 
mines 70'; Dunbar 94'; Vernon Mines 3' and on Jacobs 
creek 36' to 80'. At the Vernon mines the entire upper 
portion of the section has disappeared and the Conglomer- 
ate rests on the Kidney (?) ore bed. 

The highest, known as the Little Honeycomh^ occurs 
about 20' below the Pottsville conglomerate and is seldom 
more than 4" thick, so that it is available only when the 
cover is thin enough to admit of stripping. 

 The Umbral ores have been extensively described in reports K 2 and 
K S; but they are no longer regarded as of much economical value. They 
are found mainly in Fayette Co., disappearing northward in Westmoreland 
aOout the middle of Mt. Pleasant Twp., and not seen on the Loyalhanna or 
Conemaugh. There are 4 persistent beds all less than 1' thick, except the 
Big Bottom bed, which varies from 1' to 3'. 


The Big Hoiteycomh is usually a compact flag, IC to 12" 
thick, aud at most localities shows little tendency to varia- 
tion. It is persistent to a considerable distance north from 
the Youghiogheny river, but seems to disappear before 
reaching the northern limit of Fayette Co. The ore is 
finegrained, smooth and has always been regarded as of 
excellent quality. Analyses by Mr. A. S. McCreath, as well 
as by other chemists, show that the percentage of metallic 
iron varies from 36 to 41 ; that of phosphorus from 0.03 to 
0.22 ; and that of sulphur varies little from 0.16 per cent. 

The Kidney ore is persistent from Jaoobs creek to the 
State line. It is usually a plate ore from 4" to 8" thick 
and is easily mined, as a small coal bed below it affords a 
good bearing-in for the digger. Analyses of this ore by 
Mr. McCreath and others show that the iron varies from 
81% to 41%, the phosphorus 0.10% to 0.20%, and the sul- 
phur from 0.08% to 0.40%. The bed is regular in most 

The Big Bottom is constantly present at all localities 
from Jacobs creek to the State line, and occurs in flags, 
with a total thickness varying from 10" to 3'. The per- 
centage of iron varies from 32 to 37 ; of phosphorus from 
a mere trace to 0.25. Selected specimens have shown 41 
per cent, of metallic iron. 

The Umhral Ore Oroup has by no means the same impor- 
tance within the Ligonier valley that it possesses on the 
west slope of Chestnut ridge within Payette county. In 
Westmoreland it is absent from Chestnut ridge and is 
poorly represented by. but a single bed on Laurel ridge near 
the Conemaugh river. Possibly other beds may be pres- 
ent on Laurel ridge, for the explorations made at Laurel 
Hill furnace were too limited to set the matter beyond 

Southward from Tub mill run along the eastern side of 
the valley there are no traces of tlie group, and where the 
Youghiogheny crosses the synclinal no ore occurs at this 
horizon aside from a few scattered lumps ; a similar condi- 
tion seems to prevail on the western side of the valley and 
north from the Youghiogheny river in Fayette county, for 


along that river the exposures are perfect for several miles 
and there are no regular ore beds within 100' below the 
Pottsville conglomerate. It may therefore be taken for 
granted, that to all intents and purposes the Umbral Series 
of ore-beds is absent from the Ligonier valley north from 
the Toughiogheny river. Whether or not the group is 
fairly represented along Laurel ridge south from the 
Toughiogheny river cannot be determined from the ex- 
posures with any degree of certainty. But on the east 
slope of Chestnut ridge south from the Toughiogheny it 
has already been shown that the group maintains the in- 
tegrity shown on the west slope, as at Wharton furnace 
there are not less than 9 beds, varying from 4'' to 1', all 
yielding a good carbonate ore. 

The palaeontology of this formation, "especially its lime- 
stone members, is illustrated by numerous diagrams on 

Formation No. XII, Pottsville Conglomerate. 

In the Anthracite Region. * 

Although the description in detail of No. XII in the an- 
thracite coal fields will be given in the *' Report on the 
Anthracite Region" to follow, a brief statement as to its 
general characteristics and thickness is now in order. 

No. XII in the anthracite region is a coarse, mainly 
quartzose mass, made up of gray conglomerates, white, 
gray and brownish sandstones, a few thin beds of dark, 
carbonaceous slate, and generally one or more usually thin 
beds of coal, which in the southwestern part of the region 
are large and valuable roal beds. The conglomerates form 
the largest and most characteristic portion of the mass. 

*6y A. D. W. Smith. The Pottsville conglomerate contains workable 
ooals in parts of the region. It is often the principal key to the identi- 
fication of the coal beds. The Anthracite Survey includes No. XII through- 
out the district; a local knowledge of it is frequently essential to success- 
ful mining operations ; for these and other reasons the closely connected 
description of the conglomerate with that of the coal measures, which will 
be given later in the anthracite chapters, seems highly desirable. 



The formation makes a solid base upon which the softer 
coal measures rest, and its outcrops form mountainous and 
protecting rims to the coal basins. 

The limits of XII are fixed at the top by the easily 
recognized Buck Mountain or Red Ash coal bed ; but at 
the bottom the limit is not so readily defined, as the transi- 
tion from the red shales of No. XI to the conglomerates of 
XII, although occasionally abrupt, is more often gradual, 
consisting of alternations of beds of reddish shales and 
sandstones with beds of greenish and grayish sandstones, 
shales and conglomerates. 

' One of the most noticeable features of XII in the district 
is its comparatively great thickness along its south- 
eastern outcrop in Carbon, Schuylkill, Lebanon and Dau- 
phin counties ; and its rapid diminution towards its final N. 
N. E. ou tcrop in Luzerne and Lackawanna counties. This re- 
duction in thickness is accompanied by a decrease in the 
coarseness of the materials of the formation. 

In the Southern field the Pottsville conglomerate has an 
average thickness of about 1200'; its conglomerate beds are 
massive and coarse ; the pebbles mainly range from hickory 
nut to egg size, and often much larger. The middle beds 
of the formation are as a rule the hardest, and usually form 
a mountain crest or ridge. Th« workable coal beds, some- 
times six in number, are found in the western half of the 
field and chiefly in the upper and lower divisions of the 
formation. In the Western Middle field the average thick- 
ness is about 850'. Two workable coal beds, near the west- 
ern end of the field, occur in the formation. In crossing the 
Eastern Middle field from the south towards the north- 
east. No. XII diminishes in thickness from 600' to about 
200'; it also shows a decrease in the size of materials com- 
posing it. The one coal bed found here in the conglomer- 
ate has locally a workable thickness. In the Northern 
field No. XII has an average thickness of about 226', but 
is thinner at either end than in the central portion of the 
field. The diminished coarseness of the materials is very 
marked, and towards the northeast end of the field the peb- 
bles in the conglomerate are much scattered and rarelj^ ex- 
ceed pea size. No coal beds of workable thickness are found. 


Prefatory Letter of E. V. cP Imilliers. 

In the preceding pages of this Summary Report the 
Archaen geological base of the State with its snperimpoged 
variegated Palaeozoic System of rocks has been described 
up to and including the base of the Carboniferous System 
by a master hand and mind in the person of the widely re- 
spected and able State Geologist, Prof. J. P. Lesley ; and 
while it will be my welcome task to present now a summary 
of the labors of my fellow geologists in the Bituminous 
Coal Fields of the Commonwealth, I cannot refrain from 
expressing here my deep sorrow and regret that a serious 
indisposition has prevented Prof. Lesley from completing 
his life work, and my own sense of unfitness to take up the 
pen he so reluctantly cast aside some months ago. No man 
living has the intimate knowledge of the geology of the State 
that he has, after practically devoting a long lifetime to its 
study and delineation. He alone remains of the band of de- 
voted enthusiasts, who under the leadership of the learned 
Henry D. Rogers, penetrated all cornersof the great State of 
Pennsylvania during the progress of the First Surrey, and 
laid that wonderfully accurate foundation of knowledge 
upon which the assistants of the Second Survey (1874 to 
1891) confidently built their superstructure without finding 
scarcely a flaw in the masonry of the building. Hence the 
absence of his poetic descriptions and lucid explanations ; 
of his terse and forcible arguments ; his characteristic and 
striking illustrations ; and above all his scholarly compar- 
isons will be keenly noticeable throughout the remaining 
pages of this work. The indulgent reader must therefore 
overlook the feeble attempts to take up the thread of this 
exhilarating geological story whose completion, in part, 
has been left to willing but inexperienced hands. 

There are no less than 30 large volumes of the Second Sur- 
vey devoted in whole or in part to a description of the Con- 
glomerate and the Bituminous Coal and Barren Measures^ 
prepared by a number of assistants and containing in the 
aggregate a wealth of valuable information to the student, 
expert or investor — the work of nearly 20 years of patient 
toil and study on their part. The work of merely sum- 


marizing all this data into a portion of one volume, and 
eliminating, as far as possible, the natural errors and mis- 
conceptions* made in describing portions of the large area 
covered where wholly or partially undeveloped, requires 
such an intimate knowledge of the Bituminous Coal Field 
as is possessed by few, if any, of the old assistants of the 
survey ; and realizing my own deficiencies in this respect 
to a very great degree, I have endeavored within the limits 
of my time and means, to visit during the past year many 
of the more recently developed fields, and availed myself 
freely of the courteous assistance and information ojBfered 
me by a large number of corporations, mining engineers 
and geologists, too many to warrant my extending to them 
individual credit. But to them generally, and to the large 
corps of assistants whose printed reports already testify to 
their ability and devotion, I wish here to make the heartiest 
acknowledgment, in submitting a report which may be 
considered their work jointly with my own; for I have 
made the fullest use of their material, as well as of Prof. 
Lesley's prefatory notices. 

Respectfully yours, 


*Un fortunately' aU the iUustrations up to and including plate 
GCLXXXVIII were printed and paged prior to the preparation of the 
Bituminous Coal report without regard to the order of description, and still 
retaining many errors of nomenclature of coal beds. The reader must care- 
fully bear this fact in mind in using them as references in the subsequent 
pages of the report In this way, all the illustrations referring to No. XII 
will be found in pages prior to this chapter. 



XII. Potts viLLE Conglomerate. 

The PoUsvUle Conglomerate JVb. XII {Rogers' Serai Con- 
glomerate)* was, with very good reason, regarded for many 

*Thi8, the twelfth distinct formation of the Palaeozoic age, everywhere in 
Pennsylvania marks the basal member of the true Carboniferous Seriesf 
and amongst the mining population is therefor most frequently referred to 
as the '* Farewell Rock" — because usually within it no true workable coal 
beds are found. But while, with rare exceptions, this is eminently true in 
Pennsylvania, the same formation, greatly amplified in thickness, becomes 
a very important repository of high grade steam and coking coals when fol~ 
lowed southward into the Virginias, Tennessee and Alabama, nowhere 
more strikingly illustrated than in the Flat Top Field of Virginia and West 
Virginia, from whose one great inter-conglomerate seam — ^the Pocahontas 
ooal bed — there was mined and marketed during 18d3 no less than three 
million tons of coal, to say nothing of the very large additional tonnage ex- 
tracted from this and other beds included in the same Conglomerate ^orm- 
ation in other parts of the Appalachian Coal Field of the Southern States. 

In Pennsylvania it has many local names. It is the <* Conglomerate " of 
the Allegheny escarpment in Sullivan, Lycoming, Clinton, Centre, Cam- 
bria and Somerset Cos.; the Sharon-Olean-Oarland Conglomerate ot the 
north-western counties of the State ; the Mountain Sandstone of Fayette 
and Westmoreland Cos., and the Serai Conglomerate of the First Survey. 

But its distinctive name of ^^Pottsville Conglomerate" No. XII, is now 
very generally adopted in this State, so called from its magnificent and 
characteristic development near the county seat of Schu\'lkill Co., where it 
exhibits a massive structure of conglomerate and sandstone, 1200' thick, 
making a distinct break in the lithology of that locality between the under- 
lying Mauch Chunk red shales and the overlying coal beds, sandstones and 
■hales of the Anthracite Basins. 

Much thicker in the eastern portion of the State than in the western, it is 
also more distinctly conglomerate in its character, exhibiting through a large 
portion of the Allegheny Mountain Coal Field, a close grained sandstone 
scarcely more conglomerate than the Mahoning sandstone, which forms the 
cap rock of the lowest productive (Allegheny) coal series, Just as the Con- 
glomerate forms the base of the same series. 

Along the western border of the State, south of the Ohio river, this forma- 
tion is deeply buried under the coal measures; but many gas and oil wells that 
have penetrated its layers prove it to be still merely a coarse grained sand- 
stone v/ith streaks of pebbly rock; while northward, along the New York 
State line, where the last vestiges of this formation are exhibited in isolated 
knobs and remnants, it again partakes of a distinct conglomerate character, 
generally referred to as the Clean (Garland) Conglomerate. 

Like the underlying Pocono (Vespertine) Sandstone No. X, already de- 
scribed in this volume, it varies in thickness within surprisingly short 
(geological) distances, with extremes of 60' and 1200', the latter however 
solely in the Anthracite district Absent from the mountains through all 


years as the base of the Coal Measures in Pennsylvania, 
especially as the study of it began in the eastern part of 
the State, where it is most grandly developed. 

The transition from the finest red mud deposits of the 
Mauch Chunk red shales No. XI to the coarsest pudding 
stone, or gravel rock of the Pottsville Conglomerate No. 
XII^ is in all eastern Pennsylvania immediate and uni- 
versal ; without evidence of non-conformability, ; with per- 
fectly regular sequence. In western Pennsylvania No. 
XII is quite as often a series of sandstone deposits as a 
conglomerate ; contains beds of ahale and groups of coal 
beds, several beds yielding an important supply of fuel, 
and yet the whole mass is reduced to one-fourth the thick- 
ness it shows in the east. 

But after 20 years of study we are gradually approach- 
ing a clearer understanding of the characteristics of this 
great pebble formation, so unmistakable in the eastern 
counties and so baffling and capricious in the western and 
northern counties, and a flood of light has been shed upon 
its commercial possibilities by the development of the great 
New River — Flat Top coal series of West Virginia, within 
the limits of this formation. 

In the east it rests upon nearly 3000' of red shales ; 
along the Allegheny mountain on only about 100' of red 
shale ; in Elk Co. on 40' of red shale ; in McKean Co. on 
only grey shales, as it does also in counties to the north- 
west. But nearly everywhere a bed of coal or a b^d of car- 
bonaceous black shale, accompanied by deposits of lean 
iron ore of XI, marks the junction plane of the Mauch 
Chunk red shale formation and the Pottsville Conglomerate. 

The result of the independent surveys and conclusions 
of a score of geologists at work through the extensive area 
bounded by the New York and Ohio State lines and the 
Allegheny Mountain has been two-fold : 

the central tier of counties, by reason of the enormous amount of erosion 
that highly plicated region has sufifered, it first appears marlcing the 
terraced crest of the Allegheny Mountain plateau with a thickness averaging 
about 250', scarcely if ever exceeding 300' in thiclcness. 


First: The sub-division of the round pehhU Pottsville 
Conglomerate No. XII into three members ; Upper^ Mid- 
dle and Lower. 

Second : The identification of the fiat pebble conglomer- 
ate with the coarse beds at or near the top of the Pocono 
Sandstone No. X. As an effect of these conclusions, three 
sets of names were applied to the sub-divisions of No. XII, 
which were iinally found to be synonyms, thus : 

No. XII. 

npper=Homewood SandstoneasJohnson Run Sand- 
MiddleaOonnoqnenessing (Upper and Lower) Sand- 

stonessKinsoa Sandstone. 
LowerBsSharon=OieanaK>arland Conglomerate. 

r iPooono Sandstone^Shenango SandstonesaSub-OleanMi 
No. X. \ I Sab-Garland Conglomerate. 

i.^Other lower sub-divisions of the Pooono. 

And as a direct result of this harmony the character and 
confusing nomenclature hitherto applied to the included 
coal groups within the Conglomerate formation likewise 
became straightened out and adjusted as follows : 

No. XII. 

HomewoodssJohnson Run sandstone. 

Meroer coals=Alton coals of McKean. 

Upper Connoquenessing sandstone. \ . 

Lower Connoquenessing sandstone. f q n 

Quakertown coals:ssporadic beds In McKean. J 

Sharon coal groupaaMarsbburg coals of Mc Kean. 

SbaronssQarlandasOlean Conglomerate. 
No. XI. Shenango shales=black slates of McKean county. 
No. X. Shenango sandstone=sSub-01ean Conglomerate. 

A vast amount of detailed information concerning the 
characteristics of these several rock and coal groups is 
given in the various county reports of the survey ; but for 
the general reader it is sufficient to say of the Pottsville 
Conglomerate formation as a whole, that through all of 
the Allegheny Mountain district, and to the east (with the 
exception of the Anthracite coal district) there are no coal 
beds in it of economical importance. In many places how- 
ever there are excellent beds of fire clay found associated 
with this group, especially at the horizon of the top of the 
Homewood Sandstone ; whereas in several of the western 
counties, one or more coal groups, within formation No* 


XII, furnish excellent coal to which special value is attached 
by reason of the geographical isolation of these districts 
from the other productive coal fields of the State. But 
even in the western counties each district seems to have its 
individual characteristics. 

In this part of the State, according to the many reports 
of the present survey, the Conglomerate Series is divisible 
into the following groups : 

Tionesta Sandstone 'l Clarion sandstone of Indiana Ca 
(name generally now aban- V Johnson Run sandstone of Mo- 
doned) ] Kean 

Mercer Coal Oroup. 

Connoquenessing Upper sandstone \ Massiilon sandstone of Ohia 
Quakertown Coal group > Kinzua Creek S. S. of Mo- 

Connoquenessing Lower sandstone J Kean Co. 

Sharon Coal Group. 

Ohio Conglomerate 

' Second Mountain Sand of Venango. 
Garland Conglomerate of Warren. 
^Olean Conglomerate of McKean. 

These four sandstone members are now well identified 
and traced over that extensive area of the State drained by 
Beaver and Shenango rivers, French creek and the Brock- 
enstraw, the upper Allegheny and Clarion rivers, and also 
in the anticlinal mountain gaps of Indiana, Westmoreland 
and Payette counties. 

It is doubtful if all four of these members may be recog- 
nized separately along the Allegheny Mountain counties 
and in the valley beds of the upper Susquehanna. What 
has been called No. XII there does not actually exceed 
200' in thickness ; but to this must be added the thickness 
of the sandstone measures intervening up to the first coal 
bed of the Lower Productive (Allegheny Mountain) Series^ 
increasing this measurement to an average of about 275' and 
thus bringing about a harmony with sections along the Al- 
legheny and Beaver rivers, 100 miles further west.* 

pi .111, I    M  - I I .m^ »-■■■! I  I II ■—■■■■     .  Ml . H M I   11 IM I  

♦Along the northern Now York border the vertical interval from the top 
of the Johnson Run sand-rock to the bottom of the Olean Conglomerate is 
but 160', and the tivo middle members seem to have united in one ; but in 
individual localities the upper member attains a thickness of 70' or 80 ; th® 


Its outspread in Pennsylvania is very great, for in addi- 
tion to forming a high buttress wall aroand all the Anthra- 
cite basins, and protecting the semi-bitaminous Broad Top 
field, it forms the Allegheny Mountain plateau and escarp- 
ment from New York to Maryland, cut up whilst encircling 
the several detached bituminous basins of Sullivan, Ly- 
coming, Tioga and Potter counties, where its flat dips 
cause it to spread over hundreds of square miles of uplands, 
creating a wild and uncultivated area. 

The great anticlinals of Laurel Hill and Chestnut Ridge 
hoist it above the surface from the Maryland- West Vir- 
ginia line north to the Pennsylvania railroad, while beyond 
it is exposed along these axes by Black Lick, Two Lick, 
Yellow creek and many branches of the Susquehanna. 
Deeply buried in all the south-west corner of the State, the 
steady rise of all the measures north eastward cause it to 
be exposed again above water level through a wide belt of 
country north of Lawrence, Butler and Armstrong coun- 
ties, whilst thousands of oil and gas wells have served to 
familiarize us with its section and character to the south of 
this latitude. 

The Olean Conglomerate, * or base rock of No. XII, received 

middle 50', and the lower 80', which with shale and coal beds between, 
woald make the whole Conglomerate Series about 250'. 

In this condition and with this total thickness it is reported to exhibit 
itself in Armstrong Co. along the Allegheny river. The expansion of this 
group to 1000' in thickness in Dauphin Co., with numerous coal beds, only 
tends to prove the propriety of regarding the sandstone Conglomerates of 
Western Pennsylvania as one series of which the "Conglomerate" of the 
Ohio Survey is the bottom (Olean Conglomerate) member. 

•In Mercer and Crawford counties, this deposit of sand and quartz peb- 
bles was reported upon by Prof. White under the name of Sharon conglom* 
erate. (Q3, andQ4). In Warren and Venango counties, by Mr. Carll 
under the name of Garland conglomerate. (I 1, I 2, I 3, and I 4). In Mc- 
Kean, Forest, Elk, Cameron, (Linton and Potter counties, by Mr. Ash- 
burner and Dr. Chance under the name of the Olean conglomerate. (R 1, 
R 2, G 3 and G 4). In Clarion, Butler, Lawrence and Beaver counties, the 
name Sharon conglomerate is frequently used by White and Chance. In 
the first development of the Oil Creek region, the drillers named it the 
"Second Mountain Sand," as its outcrop runs high above the valley bed 
from whicli their oil borings were sunk to the Firsts Second and Third Oil 
Sanda. In middle and eastern Pennsylvania it is represented by the lowest 
coarse beds of the Pottsville conglomerate. No. XII. For its relationships 
in Armstrong, Indiana, Westmoreland and Fayette, see preface to report 
H 5 on Armstrong Co. 


its name during the survey of McKean Co. from the magni- 
ficent fragment of it at the *'Rock City" north of the State 
Line and west of the town of Olean. It is the most important 
formation for the local geologist to recognize there, as it 
furnishes a key or horizontal plane for measurement down- 
wards to the older deposits below it, and especially to the 
valuable Oil Sands of the Bradford Oil Field, lying about 
1800' beneath it. 

Prior to 1876 it was continually confused with the Sub- 
Olean (Pocono) beneath it and the Johnson Run and Kinzua 
sandstones above it, with the inevitable result of false 
identification of the Clermont, Alton and Marshburg coal 
beds of that region. 

At Kane this rock is 60' thick ; at Marien in Forest Co. 
98' thick, whilst at Sharon, on the Ohio line, it is but 20' 
thick. Still, with all its local variations, this member of 
No. XII has been traced with patience and skill all through 
western Pennsylvania north of the Conemaugh, and east- 
ward even to its final outcrop along the crest of the Alle- 
gheny mountain. 

A brief review of the several reports of the Survey cover- 
ing the coal areas of the State permits the following state- 
ments : — 

No, XII In the Broad Top Basin : Huntingdon and Bed- 
ford Co.^s* 

This formation, forming the rim of the Broad Top plateau 
and the crest of the spurs which project from it northward 
into Trough valley: — Ray's hill, Rocky ridge, Shirley's 
knob. Round knob, Chilcoat's knob, Houck's knob, 
Boker's knob and Crum's knob — consists of three massive 
sand rocks, separated by two intervals of shale. A general 
compiled section would average as follows : — 

' Homewood sandstone, alightly pebbly, . . 50'"^ 

Mercer shale and coal bed, 20' to 30' 

XII. - Connoquenessing white pebbly sandstone, 60' ^ 160' 

Sharon shales and coal bed, 5' to 15' 

^Sharon pebbly sandstone, (Olean Congl.) . 25' 

♦See plates CCXI, CCXII, CCXIII. 


The Homewood sandstone (Piedmont or Johnson Run 
sandstone of western Pennsylvania) Mr. White assigns a 
thickness of 50' along Shonp's run; but Mr. Ashburner^a 
survey of East Broad Top gives it 160' (see plate), and 
hence increases the entire thickness of No. XII to 280'*. 

The Mercer coal bed (Alton coal of McKean Co.) can sel- 
dom be seen on account of the d6bris of its enclosing rocks. 
It crops on \filler's run above Powell coke works, over- 
lying 10' to 15' of impure fire clay. At Robertsdale it 
proved to be only 1' to 2' thick though reported 3' thick 
east from Broad Top city. 

The Connoqnenessing sandstone is harder and mord 
massive than the one above it and carries white quartz 
pebbles through it. It is finely exposed between Dudley 
and Powell stations and for a long distance up Miller's 
run, making bold cliflFs. 

The Sharon (Marshburg) coal bed^ with its fire clay floor, 
shows under the arch of conglomerate on the Dudley road 
above Powell station, IJ' to 2' thick and a 125' to 140' below 
No. XII. 

The Sharon Conglomerate is a hard grayish-white sand- 
stone capping Round Top knob near Paradise furnace, 
1000' above Trough creek, and makes conspicuous cliflfs on 
both sides of Shoup's run at Coalmont. In above men- 
tioned plate will be found Mr. Ashburner's measurement 
and description of the Conglomerate series in the long syn- 
clinal ridge of Ray's Hill and Rocky Ridge, in which he 
recognizes the same division but sub-divides the Home- 
wood sandstone, 160' thick, into three separate members. 

Beneath this he notes the Mt. Savage group, or middle 
member of the series 40' thick, with its sub-divisions, and 
finally the Conglomerate proper, a lower member 80' thick, 
consisting of two massive gray sandstone strata, the top 
one 10' thick and the bottom 70', consisting largely of Con- 

* Whether there really is in fact such a great variation in the thickness of 
this member in the two basins or some misidentitication of the members, it 
is impossible to say. It is well exposed where Miller^s run enters Shoup's 
run with layers 1' to 3' thick. 


In Bedford and Fulton Co?s Dr. Stevenson gives the 
group a thickness of 250' on Six Mile run.* He notes the 
presence of the Mt. Savage coal bed about 120' below the 
top of the Conglomerate, and from 2" to 10" thick. Im- 
perfect exposures of the lower division occur at many places 
along the southern edge of the coal area in these two coun- 
ties ; and though they afford few details their whole thick- 
ness appears to be not far from 125'. 

No, XII in Sullivan and Lycoming Counties. 

In Sullivan County the entire formation is from 100' to 
160' thick, although a section by Mr. Piatt (plate CCXLI) 
would seem to indicate that this formation is only 70' thick 
on the north side of the western end of the Bernice basin, 
whilst elsewhere in that region being plainly divisible into 
three members : an upperf conglomerate 30' thick ; a mid- 
dle sandstone, sometimes massive and sometimes thin, 
about 100' thick ; and a lower conglomerate, carrying peb- 
bles, known as the ''^ Shiner sville Conglomerate^^ about 
60' thick, a total of 180'. 

* Prof. Lesley, in a foot note to this report T 2, page 66, tersely sums up 
the testimony which had been gathered during the first eight years of the 
Second Survey concerning the character and thiclcness of this great sand- 
■tone formation in Pennsylvania. He says : 

"The geology of the PottsvlUe Conglomerate No. XII, is now accurately 
known overall northwestern and northern Pennsylvania. Its thickness is 
generally about 300', and its triple division seems to be constant In the 
northwest it consists of Home wood sandstone at the top, Connoquenessing 
sandstone in the middle, and Sharon conglomerate at the bottom. Coal 
shales, coal beds and sometimes limestones, intervene between these sub- 
divisions (See Reports Q 1, Q 2, Q 3, H 4, V 1, V 2, R 1 and G 4). The three 
divisionsof No. XII are known in ttie counties east of Warren as Johnson's 
Run, Kinzua sandstone, and Olean conglomerate, and the Coal Measure in- 
tervals continue eastward to tiie Anthracite region, where No. XII becomes 
600' and 1000' thick, and holds numerous coal beds, some of them import- 
ant. At Sbamokin the triple division is strongly pronounced. 

Adding 170', the thickness of the upper division to 125', the presumed 
thickness in Kulton county of the lower division, we have 295 . 

Mr. Ashburner in Report F, page 191, divides No. XII into an upper 
member 100', a middle member 40', and a lower member 80'; total 280'." 
J. P. L. 

f In several places the upper member has been found to enclose a small 
coal bed averaging 20" thick; sometimes running as high as 2', but always 


In Lycoming Co. the formation was carefully sectioned 
at four widely separated places by Mr. Andrew Sherwood 
(plates CCXIV and CCXV). Usually marking the caps of 
tlie hills except in the Mclntyre and Little Pine Creek coal 
basins in the northern end of the county, its exact thick- 
ness cannot be inferred from these sections ; and whilst 
it varies from 70' to 160', it may be stated that the whole 
formation, allowing for erosion, fully equals the latter fig- 
ure in thickness. It is a coarse white sandstone rather 
than a distinct conglomerate, although in places containing 
rounded quartz pebbles as in Sullivan county* to the east. 

In the counties bordering on the Allegheny Mountain 
plateau, the Conglomerate Series is much thinner than it is 
to the east in the Anthracite district ; but still the same 
distinction prevails between its round pebble rocks, whether 
fine or coarse, and the flat pebble grains of the underlying 
Pocono No. X, as in the western counties of the State. 

Being of little economic importance along the Allegheny 
escarpment and through the First and Second Bituminous 
Coal Basins, it has never been given the careful study and 
detailed investigation its members have received through 
the western counties. f 

In Clinton^ Ceatre^ Clearfield^ Cambria and Somerset 
Counties^ along the western slope of the Allegheny Moun- 
tain, it is nearly everywhere a deposit of coarse sandstone 
and fine grained pebble conglomerate, with intercalated 
beds of shale, aggregating 250' to 350' in thickness. 

* For illustrations concerDing the conglomerate and its included coal beds 
in this district see plates CCXIV, CCXV, CCXLI, II, and III. 

fTbroughout north-western Pennsylvania the Conglomerate is represented 
by a group of sandstones, sometimes consisting of two or three beds but 
more often of four, five or six separate rocks, to which the name ^^Conglom- 
erate Series" has been given. Its sandstones are not even usually con- 
glomerate; but each member of the group becomes locally a Conglomerate 
over some area of the north-western counties. They are generally hard 
coarse grained, white, yellowish white or grayish white sandstones, rather 
loose grained, and are often much stained with ferric oxide. The grains of 
sand, when coarse, are always sharp, bright and clean, giving to the f^-ao- 
tured surface of the stone a distinct and easily recognized appearance. 
Between these individual beds of the Conglomerate sporadic beds of coal 
Iron ore, fire clay and even limestone are of frequent occurrence. In the 
western counties these become quite persistent, and in Ohio are so regular 
and reliable that they have been mistaken for a part of the coal measures 


In Cameron^ Elk and McKean Counties the series is 
maciL more variable in thickness than in the western conn- 
ties; apparently thicker throughout the oil district, 
especially in Venango Co., than in Elk and McKean Co.' a, 
and is thinner along the face of the Allegheny escarpment 
than at Renovo or Keating, although from Benovo along 
the Philadelphia & Erie B. B. to Kane its thickness is ap- 
parently qaite uniform. (McKean plates CCXLVI to 

No. XII in Clinton County. 

In Clinton Co.^ on Queen's run, there is a local replace- 
ment of the lower part of No. XII by the Mauch Chunk 
red shales No. XI, as its total thickness measures but 129". 
In less than a mile the shale totally disappears and at its 
horizon are hard massive sandstones evidently belonging to 
the Conglomerate measures. 

At Parrandsville No. XII shows about 220' of sandstone, 
the lowermost 70' of which has a transitional character, 
being lithologically neither Pocono nor Conglomerate ; but 
no sign of the Mauch Chunk red shale can be detected on this 
side of the river. At Glen Union the Conglomerate has a 
thickness of about 220'. 

Prom Hyner to Benovo and for some distance west, the 
lower member of the group is a hard massive sandstone from 
80' to 40' thick, above which there are three massive beds 
of hard whitish sandstone, parted by bands of soft shale, 
in all 245' thick. 

At Keating the detailed section is imperfect ; but enough 
was seen to fix the total measurement of the group, con- 
sisting of five or six sandstones, at 250' thick ; and a thin 
coal bed here underlies the top rock of the group, and a 
bed of bituminous shale or impure coal is found beneath 
the second stratum. The Conglomerate Series may be sub- 
divided in this county as it is in Cameron, Elk and McKean 
Cos. The following table will indicate the relationship : — 



Clinton Co. No. XII. 
Fireclay, containing kidney ore, W 0' 
Shale and abaly sandstone, . . 15' (V 

Interval, concealed, 4 (^ 

Coal No. S, 4' 0* 

Interval concealed, 26' 0' 

Gray sandstone, KV (K 

Coal No.i, 3' 2' 

Hard gray sandstone and shale, 33' O^ 

Coal No. 1, 1' (K 

Conglomerate, 25' 0' 

Cameron^ Elk and MeKean Co4. 
IssJohnsou Run sandstone. 

=s Alton Upper coal. 
> ^Alton shales and sandstones. 

^Alton Lower coal. 
s=Kinzaa Creek sandstone. 
aesUpper Marshburg coaL 
^K)lean Conglomerate. 

The 25' rock at the base of the section is the bottom of 
the Pottsville Conghymerate No. XII. Coal No. 3 has two 
benches 2' 8" thick divided by V foot of slate, and the 
upper 2' bench was regarded as the best coal ever found on 
the Karthaus Coal and Lumber Co. property.* 

Coal No. 2 was drifted upon at four points and found to 
yield three benches V 9", 0' V and 0' 3" separated by slate 
and bony partings of 3'' and 2". Coal No. 1 was found only 
V thick. 

No. XII in Centre County. 

In Centre county the Pottsville Conglomerate series, 250' 
to 300' thick, do not call for any extended notice. The 
measures are but poorly exposed along the Allegheny 
escarpment, owing to the flat dip of the rocks and the con- 
sequent concealment by detritus, there being also no large 
streams, except Beech creek, cutting through these meas- 
ures along their eastern outcrop. 

Along the Susquehanna and Moshannon creek north of 
Peale their thickness and character can be better studied, 
although no detailed section of them can be made here 
at any individual points. 

An intra-conglomerate bed, 8" thick, is exposed In a ©at 
of the Beech Creek R. R. to the east of Briartown summit, 
occurring about 60' below bed A. This is the same bed 
seen over the east entrance to Moshannon tunnel ; but it 
nowhere seems to reach mining thickness or importance. 
The top member of the Conglomerate exposed in the tun- 

*The Company drilled a bore hole on this property 207' deep, a record ol 
which will be found in detail in G 4, page 78. j 


nel is rather soft and shaly, but mostly of a fine grained 
gray sandstone with coal specks, and bearing many good 
fossil imprints. Along Beech creek the hills are largely 
capped with the Conglomerate rocks ; but they are nowhere 
well exposed here for measurement. A coarse conglomer- 
ate occurs between Oato and Snow Shoe, geologically asso- 
ciated with the lower portion of the formation, which makes 
a rugged terrace about 300' above the creek further east 
along Counsel run. 

On the Susquehanna along Yost's run the group is com- 
posed almost entirely of sandstone and shales, with very 
little conglomerate near the bottom. The general charac- 
ter of this series in Centre Co. therefore is largely sand- 
stone, intercalated with beds of shale with a conglomerate 
layer, 25' thick, (Olean conglomerate) near the base. 

No. XII in Clearfield Oounly* 

In Clearfield county conglomerates rarely predominate 
in the Conglomerate Series which is for the most part com- 
posed of false-bedded sandstones and shales. The top rock 
of the series, immediately beneath the Blue Ball fire-clay, 
is often a coarse conglomerate. This is its character in 
many parts of Bradford, Graham and Morris townships. 
It is doubtless the Homewood sandstone. 

A coarse conglomerate, with pebbles sometimes as lar^ 
as a walnut, sometimes occurs at the base of the series. 
It is seen along the lower part of the Susquehanna river. 
It may be considered as the representative of the Olean 

However, neither of these rocks exist as a conglomerate 
over a large area. They are both frequently replaced by 
sandstone, which may be massive and white, false-bedded, 
fine-grained and yellow, or even a shaly gray rock, while in 
many localities they are almost entirely replaced by shale. 

*The Gougloinerate No. XII series occupy the bed and sides of the whole 
length of the Susquehanna river except for a short distance in Bell twp.; 
Olearfield creek from Knox twp. north ; the Moshannon from Morrisdale 
north ; all the valleys on the north side of the river ; a belt of high land 3 
or 4 miles wide along the Second axis from the north-east corner of Boon 
twp. north-eastward into Ell^ Co.; and most of northern Girard, northern 
Covington and Karthaus twps. 


A gronp of current-bedded sandstones and shales occurs 
between these two rocks. It may be recognized as the 
representative of the Connoquenessing sandstones. Spor- 
adic beds of coal, sometimes locally of workable thickness, 
are found in this group. Between the Homewood sand- 
stone, or upper member of the Conglomerate, and the Con- 
noquenessing sandstone group, we find the attenuated eas- 
tern representative of one of the Mercer group of coals.* 

At many localities along Clearfield creek, and along the 
Susquehanna river and its main branches above Clearfield, 
this coal has been found at or near water level. It is com- 
monly not more than V 6" to 2' t5" thick. The Sharon coal 
has not been recognized in this county. It is probably 
qnite thin or entirely absent. 

The thickness of the Conglomercde Series^ from the fire- 
clay under bed A down to the red shale of No. XI, may 
be considered to range from 275' to 326'. 

2Vb. XII in Cambria and Somerset Counties. 

In Cambria and Somerset counties, completing the tier 
of counties lying immediately west of the Allegheny Moun- 
tain escarpment, the Conglomerate Series creates an im- 
portant topographical feature; but as this district was 
among the first reported upon (1874) there was little effort 
made to classify the series or to distinguish the special 
characteristics of its members. 

In addition to forming the crest of the Allegheny 
mountain from Gallitzin to the Maryland line, it sur- 
rounds the Salisbury basin in the extreme south-east 
corner of Somerset Co ; is exposed along Clearfield creek 
and its mountain tributaries in Cambria Co. for a dozen 
miles ; is hoisted to daylight by the Viaduct axis along 
the Conemaugh and Stony creeks ; forms both sides and 
frequently the back bone of Laurel Hill from Black Lick 

*At a few localities along the Susquehanna and Moshannon creek a coal of 
workable size has been found at this horizon. It was worked many years 
ago, and the coal was shipped in arks to the markets in central Pennsyl. 
vauia. These openings have long since fallen shut and the coal cannot be 
measured. It is reported as a three or four foot bed. 



creek in Cambria Co. to the Castleman river and is simi- 
larly exposed along. Negro mountain in Somerset Co. south 
of the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. 

At Bennington, along the Blair Co. line, it is 200' thick. 
At South Fork village in Cambria it is a compact fine 
grained sandstone, not exceeding 250' in thickness. It 
forms cliffs along Paint creek in Somerset Co. from Stony- 
creek to Scalp Level and outcrops along Shade creek from 
its month to its source. Along Laurel Hill, forming the 
dividing line between these two counties on the east and 
Indiana, Westmoreland and Fayette counties on the west, 
it forms the cap rock all the way from the Maryland line 
to the Conemaugh gap west of Johnstown. It is largely a 
massive siliceous sandstone, but not uniform throughout ; 
it ranges from a fine grained, compact, massive greenish 
sandstone to a coarse conglomerate, made up wholly of 
smooth, rounded, quartz pebbles, held loosely together by 
a siliceous bond. 

Three quarters of a mile west of Mineral Point in Cambria 
Co. a thin seam of coal, separated into two benches by 1^' 
of fire clay shale, occurs in the conglomerate ; but it is 
commercially worthless. At Cherry Tree, in the north- 
western corner of Cambria Co. , an old gas well was bored 
into the Conglomerate Series, which appears to have a 
triple character here, as follows : 

Well Record at Cherry Tree. 

No. XIL \ 

Massive hard sandstone, . . . . 75' 0" 

Shale, 20' 0" 

Sandstone, 40' 0" 

Sandstone ? (hard boring), . . . 68' 0" 

Very hard flint rock, 1' 6' 

Massive sandstone 20' 0'' 

In Somerset Co,^ along the Allegheny mountain, No. XII 
occasionally appears as a coarse conglomerate, made up of 
rounded quartz pebbles, with a loose siliceous cement; 
elsewhere the formation is a massive sandstone, with 
minute, distinct and sex)arate grains of sand ; and some- 
times the rock passes by insensible gradations from fine 


grained to coarse grained, and from coarse grained to 
pebbly character and vici versd. 

In the Wellersbarg basin the Conglomerate Series are 
represented in Gladen Rnn gap Dy about 300' of measures 
from the Piedmoat or Homewood sandstone on top to the 
red shale members of No. XI in the gap. In the lirst 75' 
there are three sand roc^s, 3', 22' and 22^' thick, with 
shales and fire clays between them. The next 90' consists 
of slate with sporadic thin coal beds and a large 10' bed of 
fire clay. The bottom member of the conglomerate is esti- 
mated at 35', largely a massive sandstone. 

iVb. XII in Bradford and Tioga Counties. 

The outcrop of the Pottsville Conglomerate, as delineated 
on the recent State map in these districts, extends beyond 
and encloses the patches of workable coal, and as else- 
where in the State, gives a very erroneous idea of the work- 
able coaZ areas of this region. The edge of the conglom- 
erate is often a vertical cliff, forming the cornice of a moun- 
tain wall descending abruptly into a valley or ravine. At 
Palls creek the Pottsville Conglomerate is about 160' thick, 
quite coarse and seen in precipices along Palls creek and 
along the valley of Schroeder's creek. 

It shows along the south rim of the Blossburg basin as a 
massive grey sandstone, filled with pebbles of rounded 
quartz, mostly pea size, and occupies a wide area in the up- 
lands, on both sides of the Babb' s Creek valley and along 
the several important branches thereof. 

The Conglomerate possesses a very marked character of 
its own in the Gaines Coal Basin* in Tioga Co. and on Pine 
creek in Potter Co. to distinguish it from other rocks in 
this basin. At some points it contains pebbles of quartz ; 
at others it is a hard, white, quartzose sandstone with a 
very uniform thickness of about 30'. At Long run, instead 
of capping the hills, the basin has deepened sufficiently to 
cap this rock with over 190' of coal measures. 

In the Mclntyre basin the Pottsville Conglomerate seems 
to consist of a top member of fine grained massive sand- 

•See plate OCXLV, page 1728. 


stone 10' thick, and a lower member of pea conglom- 
erate, very massive, with pebbles of white qnartz, 60' thick. 
It occupies a great area and so far as seen, holds both the 
above character and thickness over a wide section. 

No. XII in Potter County * 

Mr. Piatt summarizes the conditions in Potter county as 
follows : " The Potts ville Conglomerate No. XII^ is found 
in parts of Pike, Jackson and West Branch twps., (in the 
western continuation of the Gaines coal basin of Tioga Co.); 
in a small area in the southeastern part of Sweden twp.; 
occupies part of Eulalia twp. in the Coudersport basin; 
and may possibly come into the highest hill tops in Abbott 
and Sylvania twps., but only along the center line of the 
synclinals.'' The surveys of Cameron and Clinton Co's. 
show that Nos. XI and XII pass over into Potter Co. along 
the south and south-west border, especially prominent 
along the north side of Kettle creek. (See plate CCXL. ) 

No. XII in McKean County. \ 

The Pottsville Conglomerate here contains the Alton 
coals, and is therefore represented by the Johnson Run 
sandstone, Alton coal group, Kinzua Creek sandstone, 
Marshburg upper coal rocks and the Clean conglomerate, 

* In 1876 the speoial geology of the conglomerate formation of No. XII in 
Potter and other northwestern counties was very little known. Its division 
into Homewood sandstone, Connoquenessing sandstone and Sharon con- 
glomerate west of the Allegheny river, or into Johnson Run rock, Kinzua 
Creek rock, and Olean conglomerate in McKean Co., was not proved until 
1879. Neither was the strong distinction drawn between the Olean con- 
glomerate as the base of No. XII and the sub-Olean as the top of Na X, 
suspected. Consequently the map accompanying the Potter Co. report 
greatly exaggerates the horizontal spread of both the Mauch Chunk red 
shales and the Conglomerate, as well of course as the overlying coal meas- 
ures, all of which has been largely corrected in the final State map accom- 
panying this report 

fTbe McKean County report was among the earliest prepared and issued 
by the Survey and was accompanied by an atlas containing a general geo- 
logical map of the whole county and by detailed topographical maps of its 
three most important local coal basins ; first, the Potato Greek coal basin 
jn Norwich twp.; the Clermont basin in Sergeant twp.; and the Alton coal 
basin in Lafayette, Bradford and Hamilton twps. All these maps dellne- 
ate the outcrop of the top of the Kinzua sandstone ; and the distinguishing 
success of the investigations made for this report was the breaking up of the 
old indefinite *< Formation No. XII " into a group of well defined sand 




in descending order, having an aggregate thickness of IQC/ 
to 210'. (See plate CCXLVIII et seq.) 

Mr. Ashburner, regarding the Alton coal group as an 
integral part of the Conglomerate, suggested the following 
comparison of the measures with those reported by Carll 
in Venango ; Chance in Clarion and northern Butler and 
White in Mercer and Lawrence Cos. 

McKean Co. group, Venango, Clarianf Mercer Co, group, 

Clermont limestone. Ferriferous limestone. 

Clermont coal. Clarion coal. 

Absent Clarion sandstone. 

<* Brook ville ooaL 

Johnson Run sandstone. Homewood sandstone. 

Alton Coal group. Mercer Coal group. 

Kinzua Creek sandstone. Connoquenessing sandstone. 

•Marshburg Upper coal. Sharon coaL 

Marshburg Lower coal. Absent 
Olean Conglomerate. 

The work of these observers seems to prove that the 
Homewood sandstone of the south-west, or top member of 
No. XII, is the extension of the Johnson Bun sandstone of 
the north-west. In McKean the Alton coal group directly un- 
derlies this Johnson Run rock; in Mercer Co. the Mercer 
coals occupy the same relative position to the Homewood 
sandstone, indicating the identity of the Alton and Mercer 
coal groups. Of the bottom (Olean) member Prof. Lesley 
states : 

"The Olean conglomerate received its name during the 
survey of McKean Co. from the magnificent fragment of it 
at the rock city north of the State line, west of the town of 
Olean. (Plate CCXXXVIII.) 

It is the most important formation for the local geologist 
in that district. It occupies the highest hilltops and table- 
lands of the county, and crops out so boldly at a multitude 
of places, and is so characteristic in its appearance, that it 
can be identified from township to township. The pro- 

rocks and coal intervals and the determination that only the lowest of the 
Lower Productive Coal Measure beds existed, and these always variable. 
Inasmuch as this latter group has no commercial value attached to its coal 
in this county, the bituminous deposits might, for all practical purposes^ 
be treated in connection with the Pottsville Conglomerate Series No. XII. 
See plates CCXLVI to CCLIV. • : 


tracted topographical survey of the county furnished the 
altitude above tide of almost every point of its exposure, 
and these altitudes, when compared together, furnish the 
best possible instruction respecting the underground struc- 
ture, the dip and strike of all the formations, the size and 
direction of waves and basins. It has, therefore, for many 
years, indeed since the first reconnoissance survey in 1841,* 
played an important role in the geology of McKean. But 
until the more recent thorough topographical survey of the 
county, the outcrops of the Olean were continually con- 
fused with and mistaken for the outcrops of the sub-Olean 
beneath it and of the Kinzua Creek sandstone and Johnson 
Kun sandstone above it, with which it formed the Great 
Pottsville Conglomerate No. XII, and on this account the 
Clermont coal over the Johnson Run sandstone was con- 
fused with the Alton coal over the Kinzua Creek sandstone, 
the Marshburg upper coal over the Olean conglomerate, and 
the Sharon (Marshburg lower) coal over the sub-Olean con- 

The Olean rock generally consists of a loosely cemented, 
white or gray pudding stone, its round pebbles ranging 
in size from a pea to a goose egg, lying in a matrix of 
coarse sand grains, not as sharp or angular as those which 
make the matrix of the Kinzua Creek sandstone next above 
it in the series ; and this feature may help to distinguish 
tliem.f Its thickness as a formation is pretty uniform over 

♦Prof. J. P. Lesley's survey of 1841 was merely a reconnoissance through 
an unbroken wilderness in which no distinction could be made between 
the Conglomerate outcrops; and his notes were used, in the final report of 
1858, by Prof. Henry D. Rogers. At that time the Pottsville conglomerate, 
No. XII, was supposed to be to all intents and purposes a solid mass under- 
lying all the coal beds, but having liere and there the Ralston coal bed un* 
domeath it. Prof. James Hall's report of 1853, Dr. Salisbury's in 1854, Mr. 
Allen Putnam's in 1854, Mr. Peter W. Sheafer's in 1855 and 1856, Mr. A. P. 
Dalson's in 1856 and 1857, Dr. David Dale Owen's in 1856, the McKean Uo^ 
Railroad's in 1857, Mr. Putnam's in 1864, Mr. Joseph Lesley's in 1868, Mr. 
Ira Winan's in 1875 and 1877, did much to bring order out of the old confu- 
sion, and were all used in the survey of their respective localities in the 
surveys of '76, '77 and '78 by Mr. Ashburner. See preface to report R, page 

vin, IX. 

f The pebbles are invariably, so far as the results of surveys show, round 
or egg-shaped, in marked contrast to the flat or calce-shaped pebbles of the 

« • 

• • « 
* • • • 


special areas, but varies when traced across the regioa. 
The layers of which it is composed are thick and massive, 
but vary greatly in individual thickness and in character, 
changing from pudding-stone to thin and current bedded 
sandstones, wedging out to nothing in various directions. 
The sand layers lying between the pebbly layers are fre- 
quently steeply current bedded. 
The picturesque rock cities, into which the patches of 

Olean conglomerate left by erosion on so many hilltops 
break up, consist of immense pavements of isolated, cubi- 
cal blocks of rock with vertical faces 30' to 40' high, sepa* 
rated by fissures from top to bottom, varying from a few 
inches to 4' or 5' in width, and usually distant 20' to 40' 
from each other."* (See plate CCXXXIX.) 

There is a difference of elevation above tide of 682' be- 
tween the exposure of Olean conglomerate on Prospect 
Hill in Keating twp., and at the Hukill Dry Hole, in 
Wetmore twp,, and the formation continues to sink 
southward into Elk, Forest, Venango, and so on down the 
Clarion and Allegheny rivers to the bottom of the great de- 
pression under Q-reene Co., in the south-western corner of 
the state. 

The thickness of the Olean conglomerate at Kane is 
about 60'. At Marien, in Forest Co., twenty-two miles 
south-west of Kane, the record of the Towler & Hunt well, 
No. 3, shows pebbly sandstone, 98' ; blue slate, 26' ; sand- 
stone, 70' ; total, 193'. Even if the pebbly sandstone alone 
is regarded as the representative of the Olean, the increase 
of the formation in that direction to 98' is remarkable, and 
shows what variations it is subjected to locally underneath 
all western Pennsylvania. 

The Third Biiuminous iasin^ enclosing the Norwich or 
Potato Creek basin, is identical with the Coudersport syn- 

flub-Olean ; and there is no tendency in tiie Olean mass (as in the sub-Olean) 
to sub-divide into flagstone ; nor does the Olean contain clay-iron balls or 
show red and ferruginous ; nor are there any coal streaks in it. (See plate 

* In various parts of Pennsylvania, the great blocks of Mahoning sand- 
stone may be seen slid down gentle slopes in the direction of the dip to a 
distance of many yards from the places which they originally occupied* 


clinal in Potter Co., and the St. Mary's, Toby creek or 
Dagus Coal basin in Elk Co. 

The Fourth Bituminous hasin^ containing the local 
Clermont basin, is the Oswayo synclinal of Potter and the 
Johnson Run basin of Elk Co. The Norwich anticlinal 
divides these two basins, while the Smethport axis separ- 
ates the latter from the Alton basin, which under the name 
of the Fifth Bituminous basin has been considered to in- 
clude all that portion of western Pennsylvania west of the 
Brady's Bend anticlinal. 

The Lower Productive Measures have only a thickness 
of 140' and contain but two commercial coal beds, only one 
of which has ever been mined ; the Clermont coal bed. (See 
plate CCXLVII A. ) The Dagus bed, the upper of the two, 
has been referred to the horizon of the Kit tanning Lower 
bed B, underlying about 50 acres in the Clermont basin and 
ranging from 2i' to 3'. In the Alton basin the hills are not 
sufficiently high to include this bed; but at Clermont, 
where the section is exceptionaUy small, the Dagus coal 
occurs'only 12' above the Clermont (Ferriferous) limestone. 

The Clermont bed is found from 60' to 70' beneath the 
Dagus bed, separated from it by an interval of sandstone 
and slate and has usually been regarded as the representa- 
tive of the Clarion coal. 

The Alton Coal Group is the most extensive and prob- 
ably the most important in the county ; for with the ex- 
ception of very small areas of the Clermont and Dagus 
beds, it includes all the coals which are of commercial 
value. The group consists primupally of shale, slate and 
fire clay, containing generally three distinct beds of coal ; 
the Alton upper bed, the Alton middle bed (Alton cgal) and 
the Alton lower bed. Rarely more than one bed is suffi- 
ciently thick in one locality to be workable, and nowhere 
in the county have any two beds been worked, one above 
the other. In the Alton basin the whole group is from ^0' 
to 35' thick ; at Clermont it is only 20' thick. (See plates 
CCXLVII et. seq.) 


The Alton upper coaZ'^ has been worked in the old mine 
at Buttsville and by the Buflfalo Coal Co. near Clermont, 
consisting generally of one solid bench. In the Potato 
Creek basin, east of Norwich, the bed has been opened at 
the Blae, Spring and Rochester Cannel mines. Its thick- 
ness ranges from 2' to 3^'. 

The Middle coal, or Alton bed proper, is generally sep- 
arated from the top coal by 5' to 12' of fire clay, slate or 
shale ; bnt unlike the upper coal it is invariably made up 
of two to four distinct benches of coal. It is only mined 
in the vicinity of Alton, in Lafayette twp.; hence its name. 
It is from 4' to 8' thick including its slate parting, and 
seems to be generally absent in the Clermont basin, though 
represented in the Potato Creek basin by the Hamlin bed. 
The Lower coal lies immediately on top of the Kinzua 
sandstone and has its maximum development in the eastern 
part of the county, rapidly deteriorating both in thickness 
and quality to the west. In the Norwich basin it has been 
opened at the Hamlin, Splint and Lyman Camp mines, with 
an average section 4' thick ; but in the western basins it is 
represented by very thin and sporadic coal beds. All of 
the beds of this group are characterized by irregularities in 
thickness and quality, and are frequently entirely removed 
by erosion, the stream bed being subsequently filled in by 
material which has formed a fire clav or rotten shale, some- 
times a sandstone in the upper part of the coal bed. 

The Mar shburg upper coal\ (Sharon) is always sporadic 
in its occurrence and is found at an average distance below 
the top of the Conglomerate of 125' or about 170' below the 
top of the Clermont (Ferriferous) limestone:):. This coal 
has been opened in a number of places in the Alton and 

*It is the representative of the "Tionesta coal" of Rogers' final report 
and of report Q 2 page 55. 

t Occupies a position beneath the Kinzua Creek sandstone or Middle 
member of the Pottsville Conglomerate, and may possibly represent the 
Qaakertown coal of reports Q 2 and Q 3. 

Jin Lawrence Co. it lies from 250' to 300' below the same horizon, a por« 
tion of this excess of thickness being absorbed by the Brookville coal and 
shales between this bed and the Clarion coal and to a general thickening of 
the Conglomerate series, No. XII being 125' thick in the vicinity of Marient 
Forest Co. 


Olermont basins, but never worked to any extent. It is 
too thin and too poor to be profitably mined and has many 
features which characterize its representative, the Sharon 
bed in Mercer Co. 

The Potato creek has in* in Norwich twp. shows a total 
vertical section from the bottom of the Olean Conglomerate 
to the highest stratum overlying the limited area of the 
Dagus coal of about 290'. 

The Dagus coal, while known as a 6' bed, is generally 
dirty and without area. The Clermont coal is thin and 

The Alton group, 20' thick, shows a minimum develop- 
ment of the middle coal in this basin, while this bed has 
its maximum development in the Alton basin. Only two 
coals therefore show in this section ; the AUon upper bedj 
perhaps 2' 6" to 2' 10" thick, sometimes showing a cannel 
structure, and the Alton lower bedj with an average thick- 
ness of 4' in two benches, split by a foot of black slate. 

In the Clermont basin the total vertical section of the 
Coal Measures (including the Conglomerate No. XII) is 
285', a general section of which is given in plate CCXLVII 
B, page 1734. The Dagus coal is assigned a thickness of 
2' 9" and the Clermont coal 2' 11". In the Conglomerate 
series the Alton upper coal is found 2' 3'' thick and the 
Alton lower coal 3' 6'^ The Dagus coal however has been 
found only in the high knoll between the head waters of 
Red Mill creek, Beaver run and Ins tan ton creek. The 

*S6e plate CCXLVIII. McKean Go. contains the most northern out- 
crop of the Appalachian coal basin of the United States, and the nearness 
of its coal fields to the northern markets of New York and Canada has 
led to much investment in coal mining there. But the area colored on 
the map as being underlaid by the Lower Productive Coal Measures 
very far exceeds the area of the country underlaid by workable com- 
mercial coal beds. The commercial area is confined to Lafayette, 
Hamlini Sergeant, Norwich and Wetmore twps., but only in Lafayette 
and Sergeant twps. has coal ever been mined for shipment outside of 
the county. A table of analyses of the McKean Co. coals is given iu 
report R page 83 which clearly shows their variable character and their 
generally high percentages of sulphur and ash. They almost all show a 
volatile matter constituent of over 30%, showing them to be coals with a 
coking tendency, with high volatile matter; but only three samples show 
a percentage of sulphur under 1%, while ash averages about 10%. 


Clermont coal, in this township, has proven to be one of the 
most important beds in the county. It varies from 2' Al* 
to 3' 6" with a possible average of 3' ; but it carries usually 
high sulphur and ash. The Alton upper coal is generally 
in one bench 3' 0" to 3' 6" thick and has been so opened 
and mined by the Buffalo Coal Co. on the east side of In- 
stanton creek, where it carries an inch of bone coal 0' 8" 
from the top. The Alton lower coal has usually two 
benches separated by from 2'^ to 8" of slate, with an entire 
thickness ranging from 2' 6" to 4' 0"; but it has never been 
mined for shipment. 

In the Alton hasin in Hamlin twp. the section extends 
from a little above the horizon of the Dagus coal and is 
about 275' in thickness (See Dalson's section plate CCLIII). 
The number of coal beds in this township may be reduced 
to three ; the Dagus bed (No. 12 of the section) ; the Cler- 
mont bed (No. 10) and the Alton Middle bed (No. 7). The 
area covered by the Dagus bed is very limited and outside 
of the Howard Hill region* there are but few detached 
areas which are underlaid even by the Clermont coal bed. 

In Lafayette twp. the section is somewhat less than 
250', including the Conglomerate measures (see Fig. 80, 
plate CCXLVII B). The Clermont coal bed shows a varia- 
tion from 3' 6" to 4' 0" in thickness, generally in one solid 
bench with occasionally a small slate binder towards the 
top. This bed has been mined on the Davis, Newell, Bul- 
lock, Root and Whitman farms at elevations of over 2100^ 
A. T. but it is subject to many variations which affect its 
value as a commercial coal producing bed. 

The Alton (Mercer) coal group contains the principal 
coal beds in the township. The upper bed has an average 
thickness of 2'; the middle or Alton coal, 12' below, a 
thickness of from 4' to 7', composed of two or more benches; 
and the lower coal has two or three thin layers, varying in 
total thickness from V to 3', but extremely sporadic. 
The upper coal has been worked in the old Buttsville mine, 
but it is subject to more local variations and is more treach- 

♦lUustrated in plate OCXLVI, page 1730. 


erous to mine than the Alton bed. However the partings 
in this latter coal reduce its workable size to about 3' and 
as such it has been mined extensively at Alton and Bond 
Vein. The Marshburg coal beds, although only locally 
deposited, seem to be well defined over a considerable area 
south and south-east of Marshburg. 

The Longwood Coal Go.^s mine on the Alton coal at 
Bond Vein has been longer and more continuously worked 
than any mine in the township ; but the variations in the 
bed in the same mine will be clearly shown by the two fol- 
lowing sections : 

Rush Entry. Moloney Entry, 

Slate roof, good. Rock roof, good. 

Coaly 1' 9" Coal, bony, . . 0' e^-C 8" 

Slate (2" to 11"), . . 0' 2 ' Coal, 1' 9" 

Coal, 1' 0" Fireclay, C 9" 

Slate and coal, . . . . 0' 8" Soft coal, 1' 6" 

Sandstone, V 4" Black slate, 0* 8" 

Coal, 1' 6" Coaly 1' 2 ' 

Fireclay. Hard fire clay, . . 1' 0"-l' 8" 

The average section would show about 4f 0'^ of coal which 
it is possible to mine, out of a total thickness of about 

Both the middle and upper benches show over 1% of 
sulphur and the lower bench nearly 3% while the ash per- 
centage is respectively 13.79, 8.55 and 16.60%. In the 
Seven Foot Knoll, in the extreme south-eastern portion of 
the Alton basin, the Alton coal bed shows an average 
thickness with slate partings of 7', in three benches 2' 4", 
V 0" and V 4'', with partings of V 4" and 0' 10." 

Various drill holes have pierced this coal bed in this and 
other parts of Lafayette twp. and generally found the bed 
in three benches and without any improvement in char- 
acter. (See plates CCL. and CCLI.) 

In Wetmore twp: the Clermont coal has been opened in 
a number of places in the Kane locality and along Big 
Level road, toward Howard hill ; on the Coon lot, opposite 
Oberg's house and in several places in Wilkin's field ; but 
in no place is this bed of sufficient thickness and purity to 
prove a commercial coal. This latter statement in fact can 


be applied equally well to all other coal beds of the Series 
in this township.* 

No. XII in Carrier oUj Elk and Forest Counties.^ 

In Cameron Co., the Alton coals of No. XII have been 
opened in the vicinity of the Cameron Coal Co.'s property 
on Canal ran. In the Sherman mine one bed of this 
group, opened 85' to 40' below the Clermont coal of the 
Lower Productive Series, shows 3' thick, generally in two 
benches ; but this bed, as well as other coals of the Alton 
group in this part of the State, contain much ash ; are gen- 
erally sulphurous and much inferior to the overlying beds. 

On Sterling run and its branches the Alton beds have 
likewise been opened, the upper reported 3' 8'\ thick but 
containing considerable sulphur and burning with a great 
deal of clinker. It is the equivalent of the Star vein at Mt. 
Hope. The middle coal is only V 8" thick. The Marsh- 
burg bed has a section of 3 ' on the Cochran branch and 
was also opened in Tannery Hill 30" thick. 

At Sinnemahoning there are three bands of coarse grained 
sandstone included in an interval of 200', capping the 
highest hills and containing no coal beds, which represent 
the Conglomerate Series. At Cameron'there'is a thickness 
of sandy measures nearly 200' underlying the lowest coal 
bed, and as this bed probably belongs to the group, this 
measurement may be increased to 250'. 

The Pottsville Conglomerate formation No. XII is 161' 
thick at St. Mary's and is composed of the following 
strata : 

* other portions of the county, as Indicated by the colored geological 
map in report R, record the occurrence of detached areas of the Lower 
Productive Coal Measures; but none such have hitherto proved to contain 
deposits of commercial coals and are of more importance geologically, as in- 
dicating the former extent of the ancient coal bearing swamp than as being 
areas of merchantable coal. 

t In the report on these counties, the Pottsville Conglomerate Series 
No. XII is described and illustrated in connection with the next higher 
Lower Productive Series No. XIII, the piincipal coal beds of the several 
geological basins being confined largely to the latter group. 


1. Johnson Run sandstone and shale, 82' 0" 

2. Alton upper coal bed, 2*1" 

8. Shale, • • • 18' 0" 

4. Alton lower coal, 8' ' 

6. Kinzua creek sandstone, . 45' 0" 

e. Shale and coal, 10 0" 

7. Olean conglomerate, 60' 0'' 

The Johnson Run sandstone is thinner here than at any 
point in the county except on the Field tract in Jones twp. 

The Alton coal beds have never been found of suflScient 
purity to prove workable, though the upper was opened on 
the Keystone tract, but abandoned on account of slate. 

The Johnson Run sandstone forms one of the most strik- 
ing geological and topographical features in this basin and 
has therefore given its name to the top member of the 
Pottsville Conglomerate No. XII throughout these north- 
western counties of Pennsylvania. The Clarion coal fre- 
quently immediately overlies it, and the Alton upper coal 
immediately underlies it, which may largely account 
tor the variation of bed section in this latter coal bed. The 
strata between the coals are composed of a rather massive 
fine grained ferruginous sandstone, alternating with shale 
and slate/, frequently conglomeratic, but the pebbles are 
small and scattered. The boldest outcrops of the rock are 
found along the slopes of the east Clarion creek valley, 
most particularly near the headwaters of Swamp and Bur- 
lingame runs where "Rock Cities" are formed of great 
beauty and prominence. The sandstone formation aver- 
ages 80' thick. 

North of Benezette on the waters of Spring run, the three 
coals of the Alton group have been opened. The Alton 
upper bed varies from 2' 8" to 2' 10" ; but the same bed at 
the head of Autens run is stated to be 4' thick and on Spring 
run 3' 9", with an average of not far from 3'. The Alton 
middle coal likewise varies from 2' to 4' and is locally known 
as the ''Split bed." 

The Alton beds, where they have been opened, have been 
found of sufficient thickness to be economically mined, and 
in places contain coal of sufficient purity to'produce a good 
fuel ; yet the character of these beds is such that little de- 


j)endence can be placed on them either as to thickness or 
character of coal for extensive mining operations. 

In the Caledonia basin in Jay twp., the Alton beds attain 
importance also, especially the Middle bed, which shows 
y 10'' thick on Spring rnn, where it contains an exception- 
ally low percentage of ash (4.670%) though its sulphnr runs 
over 2%. It also shows in good condition at the Turkey 
mine, i mile above Weedville, where it contains 3' 6'' of 
good clean coal, with 6" of poor sulphurous coal on top, 
not mined. 

Both the upper and lower Alton beds have been opened 
on the Monastery lands north-west of St. Mary's, but 
nowhere showed over 2' thick. The Scahonda tract con- 
tains a limited area of the Alton beds in four prongs of ele- 
vated table land north of Scahonda Station ; but these 
coals are here worthless. 

In Pox twp., the Conglomerate and Alton coals foot up 
about 166' of measures. The only place in the township 
where the Alton beds have been practically worked is on 
the Conner tract on Mill run, where both the upper and 
lower beds were mined for some time by Mr. D. Eldridge. 
The coal produced a slaty and poor fuel ; the beds were 
subject to many local variations in thickness and character, 
rendering mining very uncertain. The lower coal consisted 
of two benches V 8" and V 3" thick separated by a slate 
parting 2" to 3", the upper bench producing the better 

The upper Alton bed showed three benches, 1'2", r6" 
and V 6" thick with partings of 0' 3'' between the benches, 
but always variable. Along Laurel run the same two coals 
were found 12' apart, the upper, 2^' thick and the lower 3' 
thick ; and in the Connor mine the sections were respec- 
tively 2' 10" and 3' 8" thick, the lower coal holding a parting 
in the middle 4" to 6" thick. This bed also occurs on the 
Kersey Coal Co's. land. 

In Jones, Ridge way and Spring Creek twps., enclosing 
the Fifth BUumi7ious Basin^ the Alton group is represented 
by two beds, separated by 18' of rock. The upper Alton 
coal, called locally the "Lower Cannel coal" has been 


measared 3' thick and the lower Alton seam or ^' Shaft 
bed" has been opened on the east side of the road leading 
from the Bucktail mine to St. Mary's with a section 3' 6" 

In the Silver Creek portion of the Fifth Basin, the Con- 
glomerate measures are 280' thick. 

The Alton beds are represented in the section with as- 
signed thicknesses of 3' and 4' respectively ; but neither of 
these beds is pure or persistent in character and they are 
doubtful commercial assets at the present time, always 
variable in thickness. 

Around Montmorency, in the Johnson Run basin of 
Ridgway twp., the Johnson Run sandstone is given as 40' 
thick, beneath which come the two Alton coals, 3' and 4' 
thick, separated by 16' of rock. With the exception of 
several small areas in the northern part of this township, 
none of the coal strata above the Johnson Run sandstone 
are found to exist ; and as no dependence can be placed on 
the coals of the Alton group and Marshburg beds for prac- 
tical mining, the township has but little commercial value. 

The Wilmarth coal tracts* on the ridge between Clarion 
river and Little Mill creek, has furnished a considerable 
amount of coal for market from a mine known as the Glen 
Mayo colliery. There has been considerable diversion in 
the views of local geologists as to the identity of this bed 
and the value of the tract for mining purposes. Mr. Ash- 
burner's investigations led him to identify it as the Alton 
lower coal bed, occurring immediately on top of the Kinzua 
Creek sandstone. 

It is a seam of coal largely divided by numerous bands of 
slate. In the main area the total thickness varies from 4' 
to 5i'; but it carries so many slate partings as to render its 
commercial value problematical. Below the coal bed which 
is mined occurs a second coal bed about 4' thick, which has 
a cannel structure and contains numerous layers of black 
slate. The interval between these beds is about 40' making 

* A map of this tract, showing two small areas underlaid by the Qlen Mayo 
coal bed, and constructed by Mr. J. H. Mayo, is given in Rep. R 2 page 136, 
as well as various vertical sections of the bed. 


the latter the representative of the Marshburg upper coal. 

In the smaller area along the old Montmorency road the 
Alton lower coal is 3' 11" thick, the top 0' 9" being very 
slaty ; but whether this is the characteristic section through- 
out this area it is not possible to say as the coal was seen 
at but one point. 

In Spring Creek twp., around Irwin Mills, the Alton 
upper coal is 4' 5" thick and the Alton lower coal 3' 2'\ 
with an interval of 28' between them. As opened by Mr. 
Irwin the upper bed shows two coal benches 1' 6'' and 0' 8" 
thick, separated by 0' 4" of slate, and on top 1' 6'' of bony 
coal. The Alton lower coal shows 2' of fair coal capped 
with 2' of black slate and bony coal. Both beds have how- 
ever very much the same inferior character here as ob- 
served elsewhere in the district. Their coal is generally 
poor and cannot be mined or sold at a profit in an open 

iVb. XII in forest County, * 

A general vertical section of the coal measures found in 
the county, and more particularly in Jenks twp., shows 
a thickness of 334' 3", all but 52' 3" of which on top of the 
section, containing the Clarion fcoal bed 2' 3" thick, is re- 
ferred to the Conglomerate series, containing the Altoa 
upper and lower beds and the Marshburg coal. Nowhere 
is the surface of the county believed to be high enough 

*The most striking feature at first glance, affecting the study of the coal 
measures is the fact that most of the high summits in this county were im- 
mediately underlaid by a sandstone or conglomerate. The geologists of the 
First Survey and those who followed them in private examinations, noted 
the fact that there was more than one sandstone and conglomerate bed in 
the county; and in endeavoring to present a satisfactory differentiation of 
the group, the most prominent sandstone found in the Tionesta valley was 
g^ven the name of the *< Tionesta Sandstone.'' This name has not been re- 
cognized by the Second Survey as designating any special strata; it had 
produced great confusion in the stratigraphy of the coal measures and 
should be expunged from all the sections. It was formerly applied indiffer- 
ently to one or the other of the three distinct members of the Pottsvilie Con- 
glomerate Formation No. XII; but since the records of a number of oU 
wells sunk in this region have definitely proven the triple character of this 
formation, having now distinct and separate names, there is no longer any 
good reason to maintain the name "Tionesta sandstone" for any part of the 



geologically to contain the horizon of the Ferriferous lime- 
stone. Stratification is everywhere quite level ; but 
although this fact produces a wide outspread of the Con- 
glomerate Series over the whole county, except where 
they have been eroded along the Clarion river and the 
valleys of Tionesta creek and the Allegheny river, the com- 
mercial area is exceedingly small, if existing at all. The 
beds are thin and variable* and their occurrence sporadic. 

No. XII in Jefferson County. 

Of the whole series, the most persistent and readily 
recognized members are the Homewood sandstone^ the 
Mercer shales and the Connoquenessing upper sandstone. 
The former is especially prominent in northern Jefferson, 
averaging 50' thick, massive coarse-grained and sometimes 
pebbly as it is in north Indiana, Clarion and Armstrong 


Although in Elk and Cameron Cos. there are generally 
two or three of the Alton beds found, in Forest Co. the 
same horizon furnishes but one coal which has been desig- 
nated the Alton upper bed. The facts obtained from the 
various developments have seemed sufficient to enable it to 
be asserted, that the coals of Forest Co. have no practical 

*Freqaent references to the varying characteristics of these coals wlU 
be found in report R. R. page 800 et seq. ; but it will suffice, in the pres- 
ence of their persistent inferiority, to state that the only beds found are the 
Clarion, which occurs on top of the Johnson Run sandstone, underlying 
the higher summits throughout the central portions of Jenks twp. ; one of 
the Alton beds, occurring between the Johnson Run and Kinzua Creek 
sandstone, underlying the higher summits throughout the county east of 
the Allegheny river ; and the upper Marshburg bed, occurring between the 
Kinzua sandstone and Olean conglomerate through the same area. 

fThe Homewood sandstone shows through many of the northern town- 
ships. Not massive along the Red Bank nor at Brookville; to the north 
more prominent. In Rose twp. two good beds of fire clay each 3' thick 
have been mined on Red Bank from beneath Bed A and on top Homewood 
S. S. by Messrs. Newsome, Porter <fe Co., the whole clay deposit measuring 
15' thick in places. Composition not uniform; more or less silicious in 
places. In Knox thicker and more prominent, often displacing the Clarion 
strata and Ferriferous limestone. Partly above water level on Falls creek 
at Osborne's mill, extending east to Wolf run and west up Beaver Dam to 
Rockdale. Creates prominent <'rock cities" in Eldred and a perfect wilder- 


The Mercer shales 30' to 50' thick, contain usually two 
seams of coal ; the upper important, in one place 9' thick ; 
both are generally thin.* At Port Barnet these shales con- 
tain good fire clay. 

noBS to the north in Heath; massive, coarse grained and 60' thick, and so 
continues in Warsaw, making a continuous line of outcrop along North 
Fork valley; still massive at Richardsville. In Snyder a coarse pebble 
rock along Little Toby, with smooth rounded milk-white quartz fragments, 
of local occurrence; along North Fork massive and thick but without 
pebbles. In Barnet and Polk universally massive and 40' thick. 

* Mercer coal group is absent in Oliver along Big run and Little Sandy . 
■hows thin coals in the Fairmount basin along Red Bank ; indistinct at 
Brookville, but one of the beds 4' thick and well exposed on the Vasbinder 
place north of Brookville, the equivalent of the coal at Port Barnet and 
Fuller's mills. The Mercer upper (Tlonesta) coal directly underlies Home- 
wood SS. at latter place, and was mined by Bu£fal<> Coal Go. Also at mouth 
of Camp run 6' 0" thick ; top 3' 10" ; parting 0' 7" ; bottom 0' 7" slaty 
throughout and yields inferior coal, with irregular bed section. On Ander* 
■on run only 3' thick. 

In Winslow the Mercer group of slates holds three coals east of Carrier's 
Sta; the lowest 2' 6'' in places: two upper beds, variable and obscure. In 
Union on Big Mill creek, coal 3\ one-halt slate or bone. At J. Aaron's up. 
per bench is cannel slate ; lower bench 8' and impure. The Mercer upper 
coal is mined south-east of Port Barnet (thickest at Fuller's mills) by the 
Jefferson Coal Co. and Mr. Fuller. The coal has been irregularly formed 
and much disturbed, even faulted in the latter mine, where a down-throw 
of 6' brings the roof to the level of the floor. There are similar develop, 
ments in the Jefferson mine. The sections are : 

Jeffenon Mine. Mercer Coal. Fuller Mine, 


Coal, 0* 10" 

Slate, 0' 2" 

9' 01" Coal, 21" 

Slate, r 3" 

Coal, 1' 8' 



Coal, 1' 5 ' 

Slate, 0' 3" 

Coal, 2' 7" 

Cannel slate, ..0^31' 
Slate,. . . 0'6"— 1'6" 
Coal, ... 2' 3"— 3' 0" 

The upper part, above main parting, is more persistent and yields best 
eoal. In Eldred the Mercer group contains two coals, 4' apart, which tra- 
yerse the county with tolerable regularity ; well seen at Siegel and west of 
Kahle. Along Brookville road the upper shows coal 0' 4" ; slate 0' 3" ; coal 
V 10". Coal pyritous and slaty ; sulphur 1.238, ash 9.265 ; but answers well 
for local use, free burning, with 40% volatile matter. Also opened at 
Singer's. At Siegel the upper coal is 2' and lower 3', sometimes variable, 
showing same character on Shippen run and at W. Kensel's in north-east 
comer of township, and at various other points, with same section. The 
lower seam is less explored ; best at James Fiscus ; larger than the upper 
bed but inferior, with top coal 2' 4', slate 0' 4" ; bottom V 0'. West of 
Kahle, bed is smaller but better. In Barnet the three Mercer coals occur 
on Owen Butterfield's farm; but only the middle bed has been mined, 
2' 1" thick and half slate. 


The Connoquenessing sandstone* is well opened along 
Red Bank and in the north-west ; usually about 75' thick. 

The Conglomerate Strataf occupy both sides of the 
Little Sandy valley below the mouth of Cherry run, 
showing boulders of massive coarse-grained sandrock, but 
rarely in sitH. The Homewood sandstone is especially con- 
spicuous here in Ringgold twp., and sa far as can be 
judged, is about 50' thick. 

Inasmuch as the whole floor of Jefferson Co. is lifted 
towards the north and sinks towards the south, there is a 
far greater outspread of the Conglomerate Series along the 
Elk-Forest Co. line than towards Indiana Co. Although 
the Conglomerate coal beds are frequently exposed, 
especially the Mercer group, and have been mined at local 
points for domestic use, none of them have any commer- 
cial value in the open market, especially in competition 
with the large tonnage annually extracted from much 
superior beds of the Lower Productive group from the 
southern and eastern sides of the county. 

*The Connoquenes8ing upper sandstone is the lowest rock exposed along 
Red Bank in Beaver twp., conspicuous in Rose twp. in the tunnel east of 
Brookville, and makes the base of the hills at Port Barnet in Pine Creek ; 
magnificently exposed in Garrison's out 70' thick and a finegrained grayish 
white massive sandstone ; below Brown A Erskine's clay pits at Bellport 
mills, and on Sandy Lick up to Iowa mills, beyond which point it goes 
under water level. 

Two deposits of fire clay occur at Port Barnet in connection with this 
sandstone, both very irregular. The lower is interleaved into sandstone ; 
it may be seen in the cut at Garrison's, 20' below the top of the sandstone. 
Maximum thickness about 5'; too impure to mine. The upper almost 
directly overlies the rock and is mined near Baughman's; varies from a 
mere streak up to 10'. Its best development is at Bellport mills. It lies in 
pot-like cavities in the sandstone, fluctuating in the Brown and Erskine 
pits from nothing to 11'. The deposit is not all of the same quality or of 
the same character. The top part of it is usually sandy and worthless ; some 
of the clay is hard and compact, whilst elsewhere quite soft. (For other de- 
tails see H 6 page 157 and 158.) The Connoquenessing sandstone is not ex- 
posed in Warsaw twp., though certainly above water level in the valley of 
the North Fork. 

t In Oliver twp., along Big run, 150' of these measures are exposed. At 
several places in the Toby valley, and notably in the region at Galush mill 
a stratum of red shale was noticed about 100' below the top of the Home- 
'Wood sandstone coming in at the horizon of the Mercer group, the whole 
Pottsville Conglomerate scries being judged to be about 300' thick. 


Noi XII in Indiana County. 

This formation is not a dominant feature of Indiana Co., 
being for the most part concealed beneath water level. 

In theLigonier basin it is not strictly a conglomerate de- 
posit; it is chiefly a fine grained sandstone and but rarely 
shows belts of coarse sand and small pebbles. Mr. Piatt 
assigns bnt 65' to the entire section on the Connemangh 
below Bolivar; but it still shows its three divisions. 

On Black Lick creek No. XII is assigned 60'-100' in thick- 
ness and still triple. The Homewood sandstone is fine 
grained, greenish and current bedded. 

It is hoisted to daylight on this stream by both the Nolo 
and Chestnut Ridge axes, the former again exposing these 
measures to the north on Little Yellow creek, and the latter 
on Yellow creek and Two Lick. The Indiana axis next 
west, increasing in strength north of the Conemaugh, does 
not however succeed in exposing the entire group until 
reaching the Little Mahoning creek within six miles of the 
JeflFerson Co. line ; to the west of this axis the measures 
are everywhere buried beneath the overlying Lower Pro- 
ductive and Barren Measure groups, which form the sur- 
face rocks. 

The Indiana Co. map shows but five small outcrops of 
the Mauch Chunk red shales No. XI, in every case under 
the crown of one or the other of these anticlinal axes ; and 
at these points only are the overlying Conglomerate Series 
No. XII fully exposed. Thus it is seen 100-150' thick on 
the Conemaugh under the Laurel Hill axis ; 70' thick at 
Evans' on Yellow creek under Chestnut ridge, and as cliffs 
of unknown thickness at Enterprise under the Indiana 
axis. It rarely shows a (conglomerate member, however, 
and it would appear as if this loss accompanies the reduc- 
tion of total thickness, the fonnation growing thinner and 
less coarse towards the west.* 

*In the gap in Chestnut and Laurel ridges in Westmoreland and Indiana 
Cos. (Reports K 2 and H 4) Stevenson and Piatt have shown that the Con- 
glomerate consists mainly of but one coarse, massive sandstone^ which is ap- 
parently the Homewood or Piedmont rock ; whereas in Lawrence, Butler, 
Mercer, Craw ford and V^enangoCos.the bottom bed A of the Lower Productive 


iVb. XII in Armstrong County. 

The top of this group is represented by numerous bould- 
ers of heavy sandstone, massive and coarse-grained, over 
the Roaring Run axis on the Kiskiminetas. The Conglom- 
erate is magnificently exposed in a series of cliflfs on the 
Cowanshannock, extending from the grist mill to the mouth 
of the creek. It is upwards of 60' thick, massive and 

On Pine creek its top beds are also exposed over the 
principal anticlinals, but less massive here than on either 
the Cowanshannock or Mahoning. On the Mahoning the 
top of the Conglomerate is a compact massive sandstone, 
rather coarse-grained but rarely pebbly ; usually in two 
layers of nearly equal size, in all 60'. The lower members 
are also sandstone, divided from the upper by shales of the 
Alton-Mercer coal group. 

At McCrea furnace there is a classic exposure of the en- 
tire Lower Productive group and though Mr. Piatt assigns 
only 52' to the Conglomerate, immediately below the Brook- 
ville coal A, the recent [stratigraphy of the survey would 
probably include all the lower part of his section (the so- 
called Mauch Chunk No. XI and Upper Pocono No. X) in 
the Conglomerate group, making No. XII here exposed 
200'. Along Red Bank creek No. XII shows in the same 
manner, and Mr. Piatt asserts that in his Pocono formation 
he recognizes an upper sandstone 150' thick and a lower 
sandstone 50' thick, and that slates and shales, holding 
sporadic coal beds occur between these two formations, 
which are "without doubt analogous to the small seams 
described by Messrs. Chance and White as occurring in 
Butler and Lawrence Cos. in the Quakertown and Sharon 
groups," that is to [say within the Conglomerate Series. 

Coal Measures is always at least 250' and usuaUy fully 300' above the sub- 
carboniferous (Pocono) shale. Around the Cumberland basin in Maryland 
this thickness has increased to 500' and in West Virginia to 1000', so that if 
the exhibition in Laurel Elill and Chestnut Ridge gaps be significant of the 
character of the whole central region, it indicates that the lower members 
of the Conglomerate group were deposited only around the margin of the 
Bituminous coal field and that only the upper member was deposited uni- 
versally over the whole coal field. 


The Conglomerate shows massive structure in the hills over- 
looking the Allegheny river at Parker City andjn a ravine 
opposite Monterey (plate CCLXIII.) 

No. XII in Westmorel-and and Fayette Counties. 

^ijThe Ligonier valley, as in Indiana Co., is flanked east 
and west by Chestnut Ridge and Laurel Hill, both of 
which mountains hold the Pottsville Conglomerate Series 
from the Conemaugh south to the State Line. 

Dr. J. J. Stevenson in Report K 8 on this district, sub- 
divides the series* in the following general section : — 

1. Piedmont sanastone. 

2. Shale. 

3. Mount Savage ooal bed. 

4. Shale. 

6. Conglomerate. 

South of the Youghiogheny, the Piedmont (Homewood 
or Johnson Run) sandstone is much coarser and sufficiently 
distinct, with pebbles as large as a pea at Ohiopyle Falls, 
bat a fine grained white sandstone along the National Road 
on the summit of Chestnut*Ridge. |5C 

.-.The Mount Savage coal bed exists as such only in Stew- 
art and Wharton twps. of Payette Co., at Wharton fur- 
nace, reported 4' thick. It was evidently an inferior coal 
here, with a high sulphur and ash. At the falls of the 
Youghiogheny it varies greatly and occurs in pots; on 
Cucumber run badly broken up, but single, and on Bear 
run, north from the river, 1' thick but good. 

The Conglomerate member No. 5 of the group, is not 
coarse throughout any locality in the Ligonier basin. It 
contains many layers and pots of conglomerate, but is 
more often a fine grained sandstone. It shows its maximum 
development just south of the State line, 325' thick in the 

*The distinction between the top and lower member of the group he states 
is only clear In the southern portion of the valley along the Youghiogheny 
river. To the north the coal bed and its associated shales disappear, per- 
mitting Nos. 1 and 5 to coalesce. The same conditions exist west, so that it 
'0 manifestly impossible to nere recognize and co-ordinate the several mem- 
bers of this series so plainly observed in the north-west counties of the 


gap of Cheat river ; but it rapidly diminishes northward 
along Chestnut Ridge, until reaching the Conemaugh it is 
little better than a sandstone occurring in pots of shale. 
The bed thickens east and southeast from the west slope of 
Chestnut Ridge, showing much thicker and more imposing 
in the Conemaugh gap on the east slope and becomes very 
thick on Laurel Ridge in the gap made by the same river. 
This mass affords some coarse layers which have econom- 
ical importance in the manufacture of mill stones. 

Returning now to a further consideration of the north- 
west counties, it becomes at once apparent how radically 
different are the characteristics of this same group. 

No. XII in Warren County. 

This formation, 300' thick through western and northern 
Pennsylvania, is largely represented in Warren Co. by the 
lowest sub-division, the Olean Oonglonnerate^ the middle 
and upper sub-divisions having been entirely swept away, 
with all the overlying coal measures. From Mr. Carll' s 
excellent report on this county, which deals mainly with 
the geology of the petroleum deposits, Prof. Lesley has 
extracted the following interesting details bearing upon 
the Olean conglomerate : 

*< The Olean conglomerate has been swept away from nearly the whole 
northern half, north of the river and Brokenstraw creek, and from the west- 
em side of the county between the Brokenstraw and Caldwell creek; but 
small fragments have been left on the highest summits, as, for example, on 
the ridge three miles west of Garland overlooking the Brokenstraw, a nar- 
row patch two miles long; between the Brokenstraw and Blue Eye run, 
two little patches east of Spring creek ; between Blue Eye run and the little 
Brokenstraw, three patches in Pittsfield twp. ; and a small patch at the 
Garland quarries. East of Wrightsville, on the little Brokenstraw, nothing 
remains but Pike's Rocks and Nuttairs Rocks. TVith these exceptions, the 
■whole of Sugar Grove, Farmington, Pine Grove, Conewango and northern 
Brokenstraw twp., have been entirely denuded of the Olean, not a trace to 
be found ol it on even the high hills between Warren and Irvineton, north 
of the river. Between the Conewango and the McKean Co. line, the Olean 
remains only in isolated patches along Quaker Hill, at the North ROcks, 
etc., and on the highest land east of Hemlock run, west of Kinzua. 

South of the river, the area of the Olean is extensive and continuous 
through Pleasant, Watson, Limestone and Cherry Grove into western Shef- 
field and southward into Forest Co. Between the river at Great Bend, below 
Kinzua and Hook's river, an extensive patch of it runs eastward into 
McKean Co. Four other patches lie on the highest lands between Mil© 


mn, Four Mile run, Deer run and Two Mile ran ; and three other patches 
lie Inrther south along the McKean Co. line. 

The whole slope of the Olean and other formations is south and south- 
west at an exceedingly gentle rate of fall, the highest outcrop being around 
what is called the Pass, six milea northeast of Warren. Its base at the Pass 
is 1996' A. T.; but two and one-half miles southwest from the Pass, at the 
North Rocks rOardner*s) it is only 1978' (a solid ledge 51' thick). 

The Pass is what may be called a street in the Olean Rock City of the 
Quaker Hill range, whern the high-road from Warren to Corydon passes 
between perpendicular walls of conglomerate more than 20^ high, separated 
from each other about 50', attracting the attention of every traveller, and 
popularly known as the <* Singular Rocks." 

In Spring twp., the Olean is only left on the Summit of the ridge be- 
tween Hosiner run and the Brokenstraw at two or three points ; and on the 
lidge in the northeast corner. 

In Pittsfield twp., Drake's Rocks, on the Freehold twp. line, is the 
furthest patch of Olean to the northwest. Two others are left further 
south ; but south of Garland some of the knobs rise high enough above it to 
take in the Kinzua Creek sandstone. 

In Sugar Grove, Pike's Rocks, two miles east of Wrlghtsville, are the 
fbrtheat outlier (top 1980' A. T.) Nuttall's Rocks are another small patch 
iB the southwest corner of the township. 

Pike's Rocks, on the Freehold-Sugar Grove twp. line, is the highest 
peak in Warren Co. west of the Conewango, and the most northern remnant 
of the Olean toward Lake Erie. It is a fragment of conglomerate not more 
than two acres in extent, standing in utter loneliness, completely isolated; 
making one of tlie most impressive and awe-inspiring rock cities that can 
be visited. Perched upon the highest summit within the range of vision 
and surrounded by well-cultivated, gently-sloping fields, its weather-worn 
walls, studded with pebbles which glisten in the sunlight, rise bold and 
sharp on every side ; no talds of broken rock at its base, not a block in 
■ight on all the slopes around ; a huge, naked pike of rock, the last frag- 
ment left of a great formation which once spread northward toward 
Canada. Standing on this pinnacle and surveying the panorama of low^er 
oountry, the student of geology will be impressed with one of the finest 
lessons of erosion, and understand the method by which frost, rain and 
sunshine have sculptured the surface of the earth. 

Gardner's Rock, the most westerly outlier of the Quaker Hill range, is 
an almost solid sandstone, with comparatively few pebbles, and these sel- 
dom larger than hazel nuts. Gardner's Rock stands by itself on the sum- 
mit of the divide, between Hatch run and Akely run, overlooking the deep 
▼alley of the Cone wago below Russcllburg. Here an area of about five 
acres is all that is left of the formation which once spread far and wide over 
northern Warren Co. and western New York; a bare platform on which 
flufiicient mould has accumulated in the inequalities of the surface to sup- 
port vegetation, and many trees with their roots in the fissures have grown 
to large size. Its sides towards the north, west and south are almost verti- 
cal. Few loose rocks lie around its base except on the south, where solid rocks 
TC long, 40' wide and 30' high are sliding slowly down into the valley of 
Hatch run; this southern face being a remarkably straight wall of rock 50' 
high, nearly due east and west. 

The bottom layer is 30' thick, often presenting a front without crack or 
seam ; current bedded in irregular lines, and streaked with layers of 


16' > 




pebbles always eKg-sbaped, generally small, and rather sparsely scattered 
through the sand matrix. The upper 20' feet consists of less mussive layers, 
very irregularly bedded, with thin clay shale partings, and weathering into 
small bloclcs or even quite thin plates. 

In Pleasanttwp., south of Warren, the Olean conglomerate cropaout in the 
spurs and ridges of the river hills, but nowhere except on the point west of 
Siirs run does it approach near the river ; the first ranges of hills being too 
low to hola it This Olean escarpment has a frontage towards the north of 
five or six miles. No other sach clean-cut escarpment as this abruptly fac- 
ing the river, without a single outlier to the north of it, is to be found either 
in Warren or adjoining countie& The rock is here about 30 thick, very 
massive, and remarkable for the size of its pebbles, some of them larger 
than goose eggs. It crowns the points and hog-backs with cliffs and rock 
cities : dips gently south-ward until it holds 125' of upper measures on its 
back at the summit between the Allegheny river and Tionesta ; the highest 
strata being the Kinzua Creek sandstone, between which and the Olean lies 
a coal bed. 

In Kinzua twp., the Olean Is extraordinarily thick, as shown by the Tat- 
tle Greek section, thus: — 

'Conglomerate pebbles from pea to hazelnut, 10'' 

Sandstone, coarse, with some conglomerate, 15' 

Olean { Conglomerate pebbles from pea to hazel nut. 

Conglomerate and pebbly sandstone thin layers, 
Conglomerate from hazel nut to egg size, . . 

Soft measures, shales, etc., concealed, 24- 

Sub-Olean sandstone, massive, coarse grained, 32- 

Concealed to Allegheny River level, 579* 

Above it rises 240' of carboniferous measures ; the highest point, a mile 
south-east of Great Bend, holding the top of the Johnson Run sandstone ; 
and three coal beds lying in the interval. 

In Limestone twp., on the river, opposite Tidioute, the Olean conglom- 
erate occupies the highest summits with little rock on top of it ; but in Wat- 
son twp., back of Carbon and Thompson's station, the Olean spreads out 
and is covered by 80' of upper measures. The Suavely water well stopped, 
after passing through 34' of white pebble sandstone, without reaching the 
bottom or obtaining the desired quantity of water. 

Where the road from Cobham to Baxter's Mills crosses the high land 
between east and west Hickory creek, an escarpment of Olean conglomer- 
ate 30' high may be studied, lying 40' above a cliff of sub-Olean. Here the 
Olean is very solid, composed principally of coarse sand containing a few 
small pebbles, the layers in parts of the exposure as much as 25' thick, solid, 
without seam or flaw. 

In Cherry Grove twp., the Olean makes many conspicuous outcrops and 
its loose blocks obstruct the upper parts oi the valleys of most of the streams, 
particularly those flowing into Forest Co. Copious springs issue from it and 
also from the sandstones overlying it, feeding streams which wander over 
pebbly bottoms and afford some of the best trout fishing. The high divides 
rise 200' or more above its base so as to includ** the whole of the Great Con- 
glomerate series ; but no good sections can be obtained and the well records 
are poor. 

In Sheffield twp., the Olean of the high lands is covered sometimes with 
100' of higher rocks with traces of coal ; but toward the Forest Co. line it 


becomes less massive, and contains fewer pebbles than toward the north ; 
the underlying shales becoming also more sandy ; and the interval between 
the Olean and sab-Olean increasing to about 150'." 

The Garland Conglomerate of Warren, Venago, Clarion 
and Butler is the Sharon Conglomerate of Crawford and 
Mercer Cos. ; the Ohio Conglomerate west of the State line; 
the Olean Conglomerate of McKean and the bottom sub- 
division of the great Pottsville Conglomerate No. XII of 
Northern, Middle and Eastern Pennsylvania, and is the 
Second Mountain sand of the oil producers on Oil creek 
and elsewhere. 

No. XII in Venango County. 

In Venango Co. Mr. Carll makes his Mountain sand- 
stone (No. XII Series) about 400' thick by lowering its 
base so as to include the Shenango sandstone (sub-Olean 
Conglomerate. ) 

The following table shows the relation of these rocks to 
the overlying coal measures of the western counties : 

Freeport coal group, "j 

Rittanning coal group, I Allegheny River Series of No: XIII. 

Clarion coal group, ) 

Homewood sandstone, 

Mercer coal group, 

ConnoquenessJng sandstones, . . , . ^ Conglomerate Series No. XII. 

Sliaron coal group, 

Sbaron, Garland, Olean Conglomerate, 

On Ennis Hill the same authority mentions the occur- 
rence of coal in the Conglomerate Series but finds it of no 
great extent or economic value. The Olean Conglomerate 
was given the name of ''Garland Conglomerate" from its 
exposures on the hill tops at Garland, and he identifies it 
as belonging to the same plane as the conglomerates of 
Colorado, Church run, etc., and the Second mountain sand 
of Pleasantville. 

No. XII in Clarion County. 

The Conglomerate Series No. XII* vary in the individual 
number and thickness of their members although their 

*An interesting set of sections is given in plate CCLXXXXII which 
clearly show the variable character of the difierent members of this group. 


total thickness is very nearly constant, 280'-340'. The 
most striking difference in this group in Clarion as com - 
pared with the same measures in the Elk, Cameron and 
northeastern fields, and the Mercer and Beaver fields to the 
south-west, is the almost total absence of the Alton, Sharon 
and Marshburg coals which characterize this group in these 

Coal seams of the Mercer horizon, i. e., beneath the 
Homewood sandstone, have been worked on Catfish run in 
Madison twp., in Paint twp., and at North Pine Grove in 
Parmington twp., yielding a very fair non-pyritous coal, 
but very irregular and of insignificant thickness. 

Economically considered, the entire series in this county 
presents little of interest or value. Its coals are thin, im- 
pure and subject to many and sudden local variations, and 
are few in number. 

No. XII in North Butler County. 

The Conglomerate Series No. XII shows a transition 
character in this county between the types of the Elk, 

ameron, Potter, etc., district and the * 'Beaver River 
Series" of Prof. White in Mercer and Lawrence Cos. A 
general. conpiled vertical section is given by Mr. Chance in 
plate CCLXXXV which indicates the relationship and 
correlation of the series with the work of the First Survey 
and Ohio geologists. Taking the records of many oil 
wells in Butler Co. he concludes that the Conglomerate 
series must be about 400'. thick, beginning with the Home- 
wood sandstone on top (the Tionesta sandstone and No. 
XII of the First Survey), 10' to 70', with an average of 40' 
and ending below with the Sharon Lower sandstone* 1.^0' 
thick, a lower member than the Sharon (Ohio) Conglomer- 
ate and Ferriferous sandstone, and being largely respon- 
sible for the increased thickness of the whole series. 

*But this Sharon Sandstone is no longer considered as a part of the Potts- 
▼iUe Conglomerate Series No. XII ; and hence this latter series must be 
reduced in thickness by Just the measurement of that formation. Details 
ooncerning the Conglomerate Measures must be sought for in both reports 
V and Q, treating of Northern and Southern Butler Co. 


The Homewood sandstone is exposed as a prominent 
stratum on Slippery Rock creek, rather coarse-grained and 
always more or less stained with iron ; near Martinsbnrg 
in the valley of Bear creek, in perpendicular escarpments 
10' to 30' high. 

The Mercer group, next below, is poorly represented. 
Both the upi)er and lower Mercer coal beds are present in 
some localities, but only as impure beds of bituminous 
shale ; the two Mercer limestones have never been noticed. 
The group is much more important in Mercer and Law- 
rence Cos. The Connoquenessing sandstone is a double 
member, the upper 60' thick and the lower 30', enclosing 
the thin Quakertown coal. 

The Sharon group follows next ; but though pierced by 
many oil wells, no coals have been found at the depth cor- 
responding to the horizon of the Sharon coal of Mercer Co. 
and the Shenango valley. 

In Franklin twp., in the R. Allen well section (plate 
CCLXXXV), the group shows : 

Homewood sandstone, black and soft, 56' 

„^ < Shale, 48' 

Mercer group, <„-.,, , ^ o. 

° ^' ) Soft white sandstone, 8 

Mercer? coal? 8- 

Black sandstone, 86' 

Mountain sandstone, 152' 

Shale, 20' 

Black sandstone, 10' 

Total, 338 

In Parker twp., an incomplete section of the series was 
compiled, between Columbia Hill in Allegheny twp. and 
Donnelly station, which shows the following character: 
(Plate CCLXXXVI.) 

Uome wood J Massive sandstone,, 15' 

Sandstone C Shale and slate, b(y 

Bituminous shale (Mercer coal), 3' 

Sandy fire clay, 12' 

Blue slate, 5' 

Bituminous shale (Mercer group), 6' 

Olive shaie and blue slate, nodular ore at top, . ... 47' 

Shaly sandstone, 20' 

Blue and olive shale, 43' 

Sandstone ; thin bedded to creek level, 20' 



The two impure bands of bituminous shale, 17' apart, are 
sometimes true beds of impure coal, representing the Mer- 
cer group. The iron ore of this group is also present and 
has been mined in the past for the Bear Creek furnace. 
Beneath this ore band the measures alternate widely in 
character, sometimes carrying slate, shale and fire clay, 
with a band of bituminous shale and sometimes a massive 
sandstone 120' thick, which corresponds in position to the 
Lower Connoquenessing sandstone horizon, the middle 
member of the Conglomerate series in Beaver and Law- 
rence Counties. 

In Southern Butler Co. the Conglomerate series is very 
nearly everywhere beneath water level, as well as to the 
south in Allegheny, Washington and Greene Cos. 

. No, XII in Crawford County, 

This county, together with Mercer, Lawrence and Bea- 
ver to the southwest comprises the western limit of the 
coal bearing rocks in western Pennsylvania. The last 
remnants of the lowest workable coal bed along the Lake 
Erie outcrop of the carboniferous system are seen in the 
southern townships of this county, along the low flat sum- 
mits of somewhat higher lands between French creek and 
the branches of Sugar creek on the one side, draining into 
the Allegheny river, and Crooked and Shenango creeks 
further west, flowing into the Beaver river. But it must 
be distinctly remembered that geologically these coal beds 
are all referable to the PoUsville Conglomerate series^ and 
do not form any portion of the Lower Productive Coal 
Measure series which are entirely absent from this as well 
as the greater part of Mercer Co. The Conglomerate 
series however, in all these w^estern counties, contain cer- 
tain rather sporadic coal beds, within a vertical interval of 
about 250' between the Homewood sandstone on top and 
the Garland (Olean) conglomerate at the bottom. It is be- 
tween the middle and lowest snb-division of the series that 
the important "block coal bed" of Sharon in Mercer Co. 
occurs, so extensively mined in the State of Ohio ; but in 
Crawford Co. this bed is almost everywhere too poor to 


work, except in east Fallowfield twp. where some of its 
areas have been exhausted. The map coloring therefor 
gives a very poor and erroneous idea of the commercial 
areas of this county which is almost entirely destitute of 
good coal. (Sections on plate CCLV.) 

The lowest member of No. XII is here called the '* Sharon 
Conglomerate." This rock increases in thickness eastward 
and becomes the Garland conglomerate of Warren Co. and 
the Olean conp^lomerate of McKean, Forest and Elk Cos. 
One patch of this rock caps the hill overlooking Mead- 
ville, the upper 35' comprising good building stone layers ; 
the lower 10' a conglomerate mass of round quartz pebbles. 
Beneath this rock here and elsewhere occur in descending 
order the Shenango shales 50' thick ; the Shenango sand- 
stone, 25' ; and other rocks of the sub-carboniferous for- 
mation, divisible into another group of 436' of lower Car- 
boniferous ; a still lower group of 310' comprises Mr. Carll's 
"Oil Sand Group." 

The coal beds of this and Mercer Co. appear to be similar 
in physical character wherever they are found. They lie 
in ''swamps," irregular in outline and uncertain in extent 
and are often liable to pinch out and terminate suddenly. 
They may be locally traced with' considerable uniformity 
as to level and position ; but can seldom be relied upon as 
persistent over wide areas. (Plate CCLV.) 

Coal was mined from premature pits or shafts on the 
McEntire property as early as 1837 to supply the surround- 
ing country before the introduction of railroads, and as 
nearly as possible the average section of the coal taken 
from a number of these pits showed a top bench of mica- 
ceous coal slate covering a coal seam of good quality 3' 
thick. Near McEn tire's house a hole 8' square showed on 
one side a coal seam measuring 11' and on the other side 
only 6', the lower 6' being good block coal. 

On the Hazen farm, two miles east of Atlantic station, a 
good but uncertain seam of coal was developed, although 
several attempts to mine it all resulted disastrously. In 
thickness it varied from 2' 6" to 3' 0" ; but the deposit 
seemed to be very variable and to thin out abruptly every- 


where. While therefore it is entirely possible to find a 
few productive acres of coal within the limits of this county, 
it may be safely taken for granted^ that, for commercial 
purposes, no mining on a large scale will ever prove profit- 
able in this district.* 

The Olean Conglomerate is exhibited in a satisfactory 
and complete manner by the Meadville quarries in College 
Hill, where it is plainly divisible into an upper and a 
lower member. 

The upper memberf consists of layers of building stone 
with a few pebbles scattered through them, 35' thick. The 
lower member is a conglomerated mass of quartz pebbles 
10' thick. Bat such a sub-division is by no means possible 
everywhere ; yet it recurs in so many exposures that its 
significance must be recognized ; and at Sharon, in Mercer 
Co., it is a marked feature ; white sandstone, 8' thick, cov- 
ering a pebble rock, 9' thick ; and the same thing recurs 
at the fine cliffs on the Cuyahoya river in Ohio. It charac- 
terizes also exposures in Warren, Venango, and Forest 
Cos. In fact it may be said that wherever the pebbles are 
abundant, they are vastly more numerous at and for a few 
feet above the base ; and are also larger there. 

The lower division seen in the by-road passing up to the 
Meadville quarries, is a perfect mass of quartz pebbles 
varying in size from a pea to a hen's egg ; never flattened, 
but always egg-shaped ;J in a matrix of coarse, greenish- 

*The Conglomerate Rock Series however, are well developed in tills 
county, and numerous sections and well records in Report Q 4 g^ves a 
clear insight into their character and variation. 

t At Meadville, the upper beds are a rather hard, coarse, dull gray (when 
first quarried often reddish) sandstone showing an occasional pebble of 
quartz ; but building stone free from pebbles can usually be got by neglect- 
ing the lowest layers ; stone durable, if homogeneous ; lower layers with 
scattered pebbles in a sand grain matrix, quite coarse, and so incoherent 
that weathering produces a rapid decay of the flags, as shown in parts of 
the walls of the Methodist Episcopol church in Meadville, the copings, door 
and window fixtures showing sig^s of disintegration. Great care should be 
taken in exposed walls to avoid stone containing pebbles. Thickness of the 
quarried part of this upper division in some of the quarries at Meadville, 30 

^ This egg shape or roundish shape of the pebbles of the Olean conglom- 
erate was first used by Mr. ('aril in distinguishing it from all the flat pebble 
rocks of an earlier date ; and throughout the Erie region, a geologist who 


j^ray sand, disintegrating readily, and letting the pebbles 
drop in loose heaps around the outcrop. The size of the 
pebbles seems to increase going east from Crawford Co., 
where the largest in Crawford Co. are like hen's eggs^ 
whereas along the Allegheny river, above Tidioute, they 
are often as large as goose eggs. 

The Olean in Crawford Co. is not always a conglomerate, 
however, but varies in its constitution as much as any 
other rock of the palaeozoic system.* Instead of being 
everywhere thick and massive, as at Meadville, it 
changes in many places to a series of thin bedded, fine- 
grained sandstones, making almost as little mark on the 
topography of the country as the shaly formation under- 
neath it. Not infrequently it is considerably current bed- 
ded, as for example, at Henry's quarry in East Fallowfield. 

Its fossils are Fucoids and fish without shells. The top 
layer, at Henry's quarry, is honeycombed as if from the 
decomposition of vertical stems of seaweed (Fucoids) ; and 
it contains there also pieces of fish scales aud bones. Ob- 
scure impressions of land plants are seen occasionally. At 
Snodgrass's quarry, near Jamestown, the Olean conglom- 
erate passes insensibly downward into the sub-Olean shales, 
and there, in the transition layers, multitudes of Lepidod- 
endron gaspianum occur. 

Between Oil CreeK district and Warren Co., small iso- 
lated fragments of the formation cap the highest hills. A 
glance at the red color on the map will show more plainly 
than the most minute topographical or geological investiga- 
tion with so extremely gentle a dip, could show, not only 
the flat outspread of the formation, but the direction of the 

has rendered himself familiar with genuine outorops of it^ finds no diffi- 
culty in recognizing its presence elsewhere when only marked by scatter- 
ed fragments. 

* The Olean conglomerate has been swept away from two-thirds of the 
area of Crawford Co. The patches of it which have been left in the highest 
lands are limited on the geological map of the county by the inside border 
of the red color. The patches are isolated from each other by the valleys ; 
but by the gentle southeast dip, carrying the formation down to water level 
of the Shenanago river, Crool^ed creek, French creek and its branches, and 
Oil creek, they ail become united in the great outspread of the formation 
in Butler, Venango and tne counties further south. 



slope which it takes in sinking southward under ground ; 
the normal strike across the county being N 63° E.* 

No, XII in Mercer County, 

The compiled section of this series given in Plate 
CCLVII is typical of the condition of this group all 
through the Beaver River district. It will be noted that 
the limits of this series are the Ilomewood sandstone on 
top and the Sharon conglomerate at the base, so that ex- 
cluding the underlying Sharon sandstone, the whole group 
as represented, has an average thickness in Mercer Co. of 
250\ The Homewood sandstone is a sharply defined hori- 
zon through a large part of Mercer Co., preserving a re- 
markable constancy of about 50' in thickness, increasing 
somewhat northwards. 

In Lawrence Co. it is very variable and often turns to 
sandy shales; but in Mercer this rock is always a massive 
and often conglomeratic sandstone, from 30' to 70' thick. 
It is well exposed at the county seat, 100' above the rail- 
road; on Wolf creek at Courtney's mill; on Quill's run at 
the saw mill west from Pardoe, and on Sandy Lake near 
Stoneboro, encircling a ravine south of the lake, capped 
with the Brook ville coal 4' 6" thick. 

The Mercer upper limestone and upper coal are the 
two next conspicuous features of the section, separated 
from the base of the Homewood sandstone by from 10' to 
16' of shales. The former is the ^'Mahoning Limestone" 
of the First Survey, which name has very wisely been 
abandoned for the more distinctive one above, although it 

* This N 630 E direction is not the true horizontal strike line of the tor- 
mationlu Crawford Co., but the theoretical outcrop line, to the northwest 
of which there are no traces of the formation left on the present surface of 
the country. The dip is not at right angles to this line, i. e., S 27° E, but 
considerably west of south ; for tlie S 630 W outcrop line falls from the 
northeast comer of the county to the southwest corner several hundred feet. 
A true strike line would be more nearly east and west, as shown by the fol- 
lowing levels : Base of Olean at Garland, in Warren Co. (CarlTs spirit 
levels), 1529' A. T. ; top of Olean at Meadville (barometer), 468 above rail- 
road grade, 1548' A. T., at Mclntire's 11 miles S 40° W from Meadville, top 
of Olean, 1330' A. T. At Franklin, where French creek joins the Allegheny 
river, 23 miles southeast of Meadville, it lies ITO' above water, about IHO' 
A. T. 


can be seen at few localities in this county *. It was once 
quarried at Cozard's on the Sharon and Mercer road and 
at Stranahan's showing 2' thick, with a foot of iron ore on 
top and the Mercer upper coal underneath 1'6" thick. 

This coal, though rarely of merchantable thickness, has 
been mined at some few places. In Wilmington twp. at 
Lyle*s mine it shows two benches 2' and 1' thick separated 
by 10" of fire clay, and here only 21' above the Mercer 
lower limestone. The coal is quite sulphurous and slaty, 
and is not highly valued. It was once opened near the 
southern edge of this township and reported 3' thick, up- 
per half cannel ; also in Devil's Hollow, along the Sharon 
road just west of Mercer, where it is 2' thick. (Plate 

The Mercer shales^ usually 25' to 30' thick, underlie this 
coal ; but at Maple Grove, in the north-east part of Sandy 
Lake twp. and near the Venango Co. line, this interval in- 
creases to 68' and contains near the bottom a local coal de- 
posit known as the "Maple Grove Coal" showing two 
benches 4' 0" and 1' 6" thick, separated by 4' of fire clay. 
The coal however is extremely local and while the upper 
bench of 4' has been extensively mined by the Maple Grove 
Coal Co., it is found in no other part of the county. At 
this point the coal is of very fair quality, mining out in 
large rectagular blocks, tolerably free from pyritous slate 

The Mercer lower iron ore is a thin seam from 2" to 6' 
thick, usually seen resting directly on the Mercer lower 
limestone, or entirely replacing it. In early times it fur- 
nished the chief ore supply for many local charcoal fur- 
naces. In western Jefferson twp. it occurs as a solid plate 
of ore li' to 2' thick and has been extensively mirfed and 
shipped to the Sharpsville and Clay furnaces. A small 
bed is reported to underlie it, the limestone being absent. 
South of Hadley stalion the same ore bed was extensively 

♦Some confusion has arisen in different parts oftlie county in identifying 
this Upper limestone bed, inasmuch as there is a lower limestone some 25' 
lower in the measures and the two beds are rarely seen exposed in the same 
section; at Painter's mill both limestones however are visible and ciireful 
levels there show them to be 31' apart and both underlaid by smail coal 


mined for Mineral Ridge furnace and on Otto creek along 
the New Vernon twp. line lie the extensive ore mines of 
the old Harry of the West furnace, where the bed varies 
from V to 3' thick. West of Milledgeville, where the coal 
is mined, the ore, 8" thick and rich is seen in the roof 4' 
above the coal. In Sandy Lake twp. on Wallace's farm 
the ore was also mined from the roof of the coal for the 
Mineral Ridge furnace. In Shenango twp., on the Byer's 
and other farms the ore bed is 6" to V thick, and was mined 
for the Middlesex furnace. 

The Mercer lower liToestone occurs throughout the county, 
sometimes as a limestone bed, sometimes as an iron bed or 
both combined. It is always a dark gray or bluish rock ; 
sometimes slaty, splitting oflf in thin plates or slab like 
pieces ; always richly fossilferous, and especially rich in 
mollusks and crinoids. At Lyle Mercer's, in South Wil- 
mington, this limestone is 3' thick underlaid by the Mercer 
lower coal 2' 6" thick. It is quarried to some extent from a 
bed 4' thick on Dick's land near the north-west corner of 
Wilmington and roofs the Carbon Coal Co's. mines in South 
Lackawannock twp. North of Bethel, near the Snyder 
Ooal Co's. shaft it is quarried in two layers, 20'' of lime- 
stone, and lies exactly 160' above the Sharon coal. In Keel 
ridge. Hickory twp., it underlies about 100 acres of the 
Hoagland and other farms, reported 4' thick and sufficiently 
pure at this point to be used as flux at the Sharpsville and 
Clay furnaces. It is a mere mass of fossils at this point. 
West of Mercer 1^ miles, it shows 2' thick 26' above the 
Mercer upper coal ; and the same thickness at Mercer on 
McDowell's land. Among many other places it can be seen 
at Storieboro, at the Maple Grove Coal works and in Mill 
creek and French Creek twps. (Plate CCLVI.) 

The Mercer lower coal sometimes immediately underlies 
this limestone ; sometimes it is 20' beneath it, the variation 
of interval being often sudden. At Mercer s coal bank it 
is 2' 6" thick while at Kaufman's bank 1 mile south it 
shows 4' thick, the top V being slaty while the bottom is 
divided near the center by 8" of cannel. At Lusk's bank, 
near the southeast corner of Wilmington the bed shows 


upper and lower benches of 2' and 6", with a parting shale 
of 3''. Occasionally the coal resembles that of the Block 
coal from the Sharon bed which is 160' lower in the series, 
and much money has been expended under the misappre- 
hension of this identity. At Rose's in Lake twp. the bed 
is mined for domestic use and is 3' to 4' thick ; but the top 
bench is slaty and all of it friable and impure. At Thomp- 
son' s on the north shore of Sandy lake it shows 2i' thick 
slaty and sulphury. Here it has the local name of the 
"Second Vein," the Brookville bed being the '* First 
Vein." It is workable over an extensive area in eastern 
Sandy Lake twp. (See plate CCLVI.)* 

The Mercer Lower shales, 15' to 25' thick, underlie the 
last described coal, sometimes carrying a little iron ore. 

The Connoqiienessing upper sandstone is assigned a 
thickness of 40' in this district and is regarded as the up- 
per part of the Masillon sandstone of Ohio. In many parts 
of the county no exposure of sand rock appears at this 
horizon, shales taking its place; but at Drake's quarries it 
shows an excellent building stone, light gray in color and 
pebbly near the top. Near Sprin^eld the different layers 
of this rock make a cascade in Dennison's ran 60' thick, 
with massive beds. It is well exposed at Mercer and forms 
the cliffs which line the Nesbannock, and extends along 
the north and south sides of Sandy Lake. 

The Quakertown coal hed, first recognized in Lawrence 
Co., has proved to be quite persistent in Mercer and has 
been mined at various places; but like all these lower coal 

» At the Oak HiU Coal Go's, colliery south of Sandy creek it varies from 2' 
to 4' and is of good quality. At Keho's, Reagle's and at the Maple Grove 
works the bed is also of workable thickness, though not of very good quality. 
In Perry twp. at John Smith's mine it varies from 1^' to 3 thick and yields 
a block coal, holding a considerable amount of sulphur and making plenty 
of ash. In Mill Creek twp. it is mined at several points, though rarely 
over 2' thick. Soalso in French Creek twp., where it shows a rather impure 
coal bed \\' to 2' thick. This coal bed thereiore may be said to have a wide 
occurrence in Mercer Co., though of generally low economic value on ac- 
count of its impurity. Its great importance arises from the fact of its avail- 
ability in many places where no other and better coal bed is at hand* 
Aimishing an abundant supply of fair domestic fuel. 


beds it shows a tendency to run into block coal, though 
never indicating the purity of the Sharon bed. It occurs 
between tlie two (upper and lower) sandstone members of 
the Connoquenessing formation, separated from the upper 
by about 10' of shales and iron ore and from the lower by 
about 40' of shales. It is found in East Lackawannock 
twp. 2'thick; in Springfield twp., as a bed of bituminous 
shale with streaks of coal, 3' thick; at Springfield Falls li' 
thick and somewhat slaty and in Jackson twp., where as 
the "Comstock vein" it was mined on the Comstock farm. 
Around Sandy Lake and Stoneboro it also has a local name 
— the ''Third Vein"- and seems to have been mistaken for 
the Sharon coal by the First Survey. On the road de- 
scending from the Mercer Iron & Coal Co., works its out- 
crop shows about 135' beneath the Brookville (Clarion 
lower?) coal. The Sharon coal should be found 80' to 100' 
beneath it. 

The Connoquenessing lower sandstone is a somewhat in- 
definite and variable member of the series, although there is 
a distinctly marked massive lower sandstone horizon, 30' to 
60' beneath the upper. At McClary's quarry 1 mile east 
of Sharon, good building stone is got from it and it is 60' 
feet thick and quite massive on the north shore of Sandy 
lake. Its position and relationship are well shown by three 
vertical sections plate CCLVI from borings on the Madge 
farm, put down for the purpose of developing the under- 
lying Sharon coal bed. The variation in thickness and 
character within very short distances is well shown by 
these sections. 

The Sharon upper shales and iron ore occupy the inter- 
val between this sandstone and the Sharon coal bed, gen- 
erally about 30', but varying from 0' to 70'. The Sharon 
plant shales are merely the lower layers of this member 
and of course form the roof shales of the Sharon coal bed. 
They are filled with well preserved fossil plants, two locali- 
ties especially noted being the Snyder Coal Co.'s shaft in 
Lackawannock twp. and the Morris Coal Co.'s shaft in 
Pymatuning twp. and at Oakland mines in Hickory twp. 

The Sharon coal bed is the principal economic seam of 
this entire district. The irregularities of its geographical 


distribution have been carefully described in the Ohio re- 
ports ; and in western Pennsylvania it is only in Mercer 
Co. that it has been found to be a workable coal bed. The 
main body of it is confined to Hickory twp.; but it occurs 
to more or less extent in the other townships bordering the 
State of Ohio and extends into the edges of the tier of 
townships bordering them on the east. It is absolutely 
essential to exploit each individual area by itself, as the 
patches or basins of this bed seem to have little or no con- 
nection with one another. Mr. White regards this ''irregu- 
larity as being due partly to the uneven floor on which its 
vegetation grew, and partly to an erosion of the bed previ- 
ous to the deposit of its over rocks." It is characterized 
by a splint or block structure, and has long been used in 
its natural raw state in the iron fnrnace. This feature 
arises from its low percentage of bituminous matter and to 
the distribution of its bitumen in thin layers, between 
bands of mineral charcoal, so that the mass is prevented 
from caking. It is also quite clean, with a low percentage 

of sulphur and ash. In Mercer Co. this Sharon coal bed 
runs about 4' thick, when fully developed, occasionally 

swelling to 5', but frequently shrinking to 2' below which 

thickness it is seldom mined.* 

Along the Ohio State line the Mt. Morris coal shaft 

worked this coal averaging 3' thick from a small area 75' 

 At Orr's, below Mercer, it was once mined 3' tliicic, coal and sliale. In 
western Wilmington it is also 3' thick and 180' boneatli the surface. In 
Ijackawaunock twp., a little south of Greenfield, a considerable area of it 
has been found on the Madge and Buchanan farms 275' beneath the surface, 
3' to 3|' thick. The northernmost area of it is in West Salem twp., Just west 
of Greenville, where it was once extensively mined by the Greenville Coal 
Co. It has also been largely mined by the Morris Coal Co. along the 
Pymatuning— West Salem twp. line, but most of the mining is now confined 
to Hickory twp., that formerly existing in Shenango twp. near Middlesex 
having been pretty well exhausted. The Bethel Coal Co's shaft, in the 
northeast corner of Shenango twp. reached this coal in 54', and though con- 
siderable mining was done in the vicinity of Bethel village, the coal 'was 
found very irregular, varying 1|' to 4' and frequently cut out entirely by 
<*hor8e backs." No. 1 shaft is 89' deep, 1 mile further west, the coal lying 
practically level, and Just west the Neihossel slope found the bod to be very 
pure and rich but only from 1' 6" to 2' 6" in thickness. Around Middlesex 
the coal lies in the hills at 1000' above tide, mined by drift on land of Mr. 
Risher, varying in thickness from 0' to 3'. Nortli from here the coal is 
dractically exhausted. 


beneath the surface. The Crawford coal works, three- 
fourths of a mile southeast, reached the coal at 120' though 
pretty well mined out now. 

In the Williams mine along the edge of Lawrence Co. 
the coal varies from a few inches up to 2* Q'\ and the Sharon 
coal has not been found in workable condition south of this 
point. An analysis of the coal here showed volatile matter 
36.30 ; fixed carbon 53.87 ; sulphur 0.67 and ash 6.36, with 
3.790 of water. 

In Hickory twp. there are a number of operations on 
this coal bed; and nearly all of the known workable areas 
east of the Ohio State line are to be found in this one town- 
ship, from which already millions of tons of this most 
excellent but sporadic coal have been mined. In the 
south-east corner not far north of Bethel the Hickory Coal 
Co. found the bed about 3J' thick at 107' beneath the sur- 
face, carrying two thin but worthless riders in the Sharon 
shales above. The coal bed is as usual extremely variable^ 
the floor of the mine rising and falling in hills and swamps 
with the coal thinning to 0' 6" and thickening to 3' 6" in the 
swamps. The quality of the coal is excellent.* 

The Oakland Coal Co. t have mined an excellent quality 
of coal from two shafts about 135' deep. In No. 1 the bed 
was 4' 6" thick, now exhausted. In No.'2 the bed is 4' 
thick but running from V to 5'. The coal is very black and 
shining but in some parts of the mine carries a sandstone 

* The Nesbannock Goal Co. has several shafts sunk further north, now 
pretty well worked out The eastern end of the Sharon coal basin is near 
the Neshannock shaft No. 2 from which point the coal 3' 6" thick, tbina 
away eastward and disappears entirely. In the northeast corner of the 
township on Rapp's land the coal was extensively mined, 2' 6'' to 4'0" thick 
but with many variations from these figures. One mile west the same bed 
has been mined on the land of Mr. Ilaan where the same features are re> 
peated from a nearly exhausted area. Another area lies a short distance 
east from Hickory Comers, known as the Ormsby Estate, but this is nearly 
worked out also. The largest continuous area of the Sharon coal was found 
on property south, known as the Pierce Estate. Many hundred thousand 
tons of coal have been won from this property, over a large portion of which 
the bed was found to be from 3' to 4' thick and only 25' beneath the surface. 

t A. plate of sections is given in Q 3 page 113 of six borings in the vicinity 
of the Oakland shafts which show the marked changes which occur within 
short distances in the rocks overlying the Sharon coal. 


roof and contains too much sulphur for furnace use. At 
the Home shaft No. 2, a quarter of a mile west, the coal is 
again found to contain a considerable quantity of sulphur; 
but it is otherwise good and attractive and shows about the 
usual thickness. The Pacific slope is I mile east from 
Sharon and the coal mined at this point, 4' thick of excel- 
lent quality, was used in the mills and furnaces at Sharon. 
In Ohio, just across the line and opposite the Western Iron 
works the bed has been very largely mined and about 2i 
miles south-west from Sharon the Brookfield Company of 
Ohio has developed extensively. Their works are among 
the most extensive in the Shenango valley and the pecular- 
ities of this unique coal seam can be well observed in the 
extensive underground workings at this plant.* Below the 
coal comes V to 2' of fire clay which rests immediately 
upon a massive i)ebble or conglomerate rock. The floor of 
the coal is most uneven, being constantly elevated and 
depressed by the hills and swamps of the miners. Coal 1' 
to 6' thick. 

iVo. XII in Lavyrence Courdy. 

The Conglomerate Series are also coal bearing in this 
county. Between the upper and middle divisions occur 
the two Mercer upper and lower coals, with a limestone 
over each except where the two beds come together on Slip- 
pery Rock creek. The upper bed is a block coal, 6' thick a 
few miles west of Edenburg, and iron ore usually accompan- 
ies the upper limestone, which is very f ossiliferous. Between 
the middle and lower divisions of the conglomerate lies a 
block coal bed, 2' thick at the falls of Quakertown run, 
which has given the name to this bed. 

The Sharon coal bed is found under the lower division of 
the Conglomerate ; but it is no where found of workable 
thiclf ness in this countv. 

The Conglomerate Measures are so variable within the 
limits of this county as to make it impossible to represent 

*Mr. White in Q 3 page 123 states that "the roof is a blaok shale perfectly 
firescoed with plant remains; graceful ferns, the long ribbon like cordaites 
and the elegantly cicatriced Lepidodendra ^igillariae being equally abun- 


them in a typical section ; yet a general section plate 
CCLIX serves to show the relationship of the coal beds and 
different, rock members, and emphasizes the importance to 
be attached to the two Mercer limestones which unlike all 
similar beds in the coal series, overlie their coals instead of 
underlying them. Many of the coal beds of this series 
are not universally present in Lawrence Co., and are all cut 
out by the rapid changes in the Conglomerate series. 

The Homewood sandstone is interchangeably spoken of 
in this report as the Piedmont or Tionesta sandstone. It is 
a most variable member ; for only three miles south of the 
Lawrence Co. line, at Homewood, it is found 155' thick 
whereas at Wampum, four miles above the county line it 
is reduced to 50' in thickness and beyond that point north- 
ward along the Beaver it disappears entirely as a massive 
rock, being reduced to a few feet of flaggy sandstone and 
shale. On passing up the Connoquenessing, the same 
marked change takes place, and continues on up Slippery 
Rock to Harris' fording, when a great sand and pebble 
rock begins to make its appearance, which at Eckert's 
bridge attains a thickness of 110' in a solid mass, its top 
being only 30' below the Ferriferous limestone. This is the 
only portion of the Conglomerate that in Lawrence Co. 
ever contains any considerable quantity of pebbles. Its 
usual thickness is about 30' to 35', and when not pebbly, it 
makes an excellent building stone. 

All the coals of the Conglomerate series are pretty well 
developed except the Sharon bed ; but all thin away and 
disappear southward into Beaver Co. except the upper 
coal,* immediately under the Homewood sandstone. 

The upper Mercer coal is also very persistent ; for even 
when the overlying limestone is absent the coal is still 
found unless both have been cut out by the massive sand- 

* There is still more or less confusion concerning the identity of this bed, 
and though it has been mined at several localities and sometimes attains a 
thickness of 8' to 4\ it is usually slaty and sulphurous. It has various local 
names, such as the "Shield's coal in Taylor twp.'*; the " Four Foot Vein " in 
the vicinity of East Brook, and ♦* Dirt Vein " in the territory north ft*om the 
Mahoning and west from the Shenango, where it often contains a layer of 
slate 2' to 6" thick near its center. (For coal bed sections see plate CCLIX.) 


stone above. The coal, however, is always very impure 
and worthless, being in many localities one-half dirt. It is 
therefore of no economical importance. 

The lower Mercer coal, occurring from 0' to 18' below its 
limestone, is also a persistent but slaty and impure bed. It 
is the '* Lower Porter coal" of the First Survey and has 
been found at numerous localities along the Slippery Rock ; 
in the vicinity of Wampum and as far south as the mouth 
of the Connoquenessing. Along the Big Beaver it is 
known as the "Blue Limestone coal" and on the upper 
Mahoning it becomes a very fair block coal as mined on the 
land of Mr. Erskine. One mile west of New Wilmington 
it is found from 2^' to 3' thick, often with a few inches of 
cannel as its base. It is also found along theNeshannock. 

The Connoquenessing sandstone, the equivalent of the 
Massillon sandstone of Ohio, includes all the massive rock 
between the Mercer lower limestone and Sharon coal. In- 
stead of the rock material in this interval forming a homo- 
geneous mass of sandstone, as it does in some portions of 
Ohio, it splits up in Lawrence Co. into an upper and lower 
massive portion with a coal horizon in the center and is 
therefore given the double name of the Upper and Lower 
Connoquenessing sandstones. The Quakertown coal bed, 
between these two members, creates a persistent horizon 
in the county though it is a workable bed at only two or 
three places. At the 'Tails" on Quakertown run it is 2' 
thick and at Wright's bank, one mile northeast from Quak- 
ertown station it shows a tendency to run into the block 
variety and is about 3' thick. It carries a high sulphur 
however and considerable slate. Along Slippery Rock 
creek this bed is tilled with bituminous matter, but entire- 
ly worthless commercially. Its occurrence as a coal bed 
is very sporadic. 

The Sharon coal bed, which attains such importance in 
Mercer Co. to the north, has scarcely workable dimensions 
in Lawrence Co., although future shafting for it may reveal 
a merchantable thick tu^ss over parts of the county where 
its outcrop is now concealed. 


No. XII or ^'Beaver River Oroup^^* in Beaner Oo. 

This group of rooks is exposed in Beaver Co. only along 
the Big Beaver and Connoquenessing creek, where limited 
by the Homewood and Piedmont sandstone above and the 
Sharon (Garland-Olean) conglomerate below. It shows a 
mean thickness of about 225'. 

The Homewood sandstone, massive and conglomeratic, 
occurs from 75' to 155' thick, and is supposed to be the repre- 
sentative in this district of not only the Piedmont sandstone 
of West Virginia, Maryland and Central Pennsylvania, but 
also of the great sand-rock which extends unbroken through 
McKean and Forest Cos. , to which was given, 70 years ago the 
name of ''Tionesta sandstone," which it (locally) still retains 
though better known now as the Johnson Run sandrock. 
It reaches its maximum thickness at Homewood station, 
where it is a massive yellowish-white sandstone, somewhat 
co«nrse grained, many of its layers filled with quartz pebbles, 
the whole making a solid ledge 155' thick. A.t Beaver Falls 
and New Brighton it diminishes to 75' in thickness. (See 
plate CCLXI.) 

One of the Mercer limestones, with sometimes a thin coal 
below it, has been identified in the vicinity of the old 
Homewood furnace, separated from the Ferriferous lime- 
stone above by an interval of 135'. It has a dark bluish 
color ; is filled with fossils ; varies from 8" to 12" in thick- 
ness and is quite persistent from this point up the Beaver 
and Connoquenessing to Wurtemburg, where it is the Lower 

*The latter name was assigoed to this series in a prefatory notice by the 
State Geologist in 1876, inasmuch as at that time there was considerable 
doubt as to the propriety of separating this series of sandstone and conglom- 
erate, frequently carrying commercial coal beds, from the true Lower Pro- 
ductive Goal Measures. 

The work of the field assistants during the succeeding years, however, 
effectually Justified this separation as it also brought about a satisfactory 
harmony between the Beaver Hirer group along the Ohio line and the Con- 
glomerate series of Lycoming, Potter, Cameron, McKean, Warren and 
Venango Cos. There is still such marked diilerences in character and thick- 
nesses of ttie rocks of this g^oup in Western Pennsylvania, as compared 
with the Allegheny Mountain district and the Anthracite district that it is 
doubtful whether there will ever be a perfect correlation of this series 
which will be uniformly applicable throughout the State. 


Wartemburg limestone of the Slippery Rock section. It 
occurs in shales 20' to 80' thick, containing carbonate ore. 

The Connoquenessing sandstone has been divided in this 
county into three members : an upper member^ very mas- 
sive hard white sandstone, 4C' to 60' ; a middle member^ 
dark sandy shales, containing iron ore at the top and some- 
times a thin coal below, 85' to 40' ; and a lower meraber^ 
hard, massive, grayish-brown sandstone, 20' to 25' thick ; 
the three members representing the Massillon sandstone of 
Ohio. The Sharon coal beneath this sandstone seems to 
be generally absent, and Sharon conglomerate not exposed. 

The most noticeable feature of the Conglomerate series 
in this county is the total absence of all workable coal beds 
which characterize and render commercially important this 
group of rocks ia Butler, Lawrence and Mercer Cos. to the 
north and east. 

South of the Ohio river to the West Virginia line the 
Conglomerate Series is everywhere buried beneath a con- 
stantly increasing cover of overlying coal measures, and the 
constitution of this group in the counties of southwestern 
Pennsylvania can only be gleamed from the imperfect rec- 
ords of the oil well drill holes in that region, very few 
of which suggest the commercial integrity of this group 
south of the Beaver river in Pennsylvania. 

Beneath the Sharon coal on the Connoquenessing, 1 mile 
above Jones' bridge, a sharp roll exposes the following lower 
measures : 

1. Bluish shales containing fossil plants, 2' 

2. Stratum of iron ore, 1' 

3. Dark shales containing fossil plants and streaks of 

coal near their base, 4' 

Shales 1 and 3 of this section are crowded with plant re- 
mains which are identical with those seen in the roof shales 
of the Sharon coal, on the Shenango and Mahoning. Here 
appear immense quantities of Cardiocarpa^ Tiigonocarpa^ 
and Cordaites; also Odontopteris neuropteroides^ AletJiop- 
teris grandifolia^ A, lonchitlca^ Sphenopieris macilenta^ 
and numerous others. The shales themselves have the 
same lithological character as those over the Sharon coal. 



and if both were thrown on the dump together they could 
not be distinguished in any manner. 

The streaks of coal at the base of No. 3 represent the 
Sharon coal, or at least its roof, though there is doubtless 
no workable bed at this locality. (Sections on plate 

No. XII in Beaver^ Lawrence and Mercer Counties along 

the Beaver and Shenango Valleys, 

As a result of the special survey of the Beaver and She- 
nango Valleys,* a clearer conception of the Conglomerate 
Series was obtained and a general vertical section compiled 
of the entire group together with the overlying Lower Pro- 
ductive Coal Measures (see plate CCLXXXVI). The Con- 
glomerate or "Beaver River Series" here shows: — 

No. XII General Section. 








41 0" 

to 60' Home wood sandstone 
to 15' Slate 

to 3' Mercer Upper Limestone 
to 2' '♦ ** Coal j Mercer Group 

to 20' Ferriferous shales 
to 2' Mercer Lower Limestone 
to 10* Shale 

to 2' Mercer Lower Coal 
to 10' Shale 

to 60' Connoquessing Upper Sandstone, 
to 50' Shale, with iron ore and *»Srawbridge Coal," 
to 60^ Connoquessing Lower Sandstone sometimes 
double, with small coal near the middle, . 

to 40' Slate and shale, 

to 4' 6' Sharon Coal bed, 

to 25' Dark Shale and Slate, 

to 40' Sandstone; upper part Ohio Conglomerate, . 

Total average thickness. 


. 30' 
. 11' 
. 2' 




The Sharon coal underlies the upper Mercer limestone 
from 160' to 175', and between them occur the two Conno- 
quenessiug sandstones. The two Mercer limestones seldom 
occur in the same section, but the group is readily recog- 

» H. M. Chance 1875 Report V part II. 


nized, coming in beneath the Homewood sandstone. At 
Wurtembu'rg this group consists of the following strata: j 


Limestone, hard and black, . 3' 

Fireclay, 2' 

Sandstone, 5' 

Soft greyish shales, 15' 

Limestone (fucoidae) 1' 

Coal, 0' 5'— 1' 

Shale, black, soft with iron ore, 5' 8" 

The Homewood sandstone here shows to a knife edge, 
appearing again further up the stream ; but at Honiewood 
furnace it is a massive and 20' thick, constantly thickening 
going up the Connoquenessing until it becomes 60' at Slip- 
pery Rock creek. This will give an idea of the extreme 
variability in thickness and character of the Conglomerate 
members and will indicate the reason for doubt and error 
in identifying them in the early years of the Survey. 



Report on the Anthracite Region, 

By a. DW. Smith. 

Commercial Importance of 

The phenomenal growth of the anthracite industry is so 
well known as to require but little comment ; commencing 
about 1820, in 20 years the product had increased to one 
million of tons anually, to 8 million tons in 1860, 25 million 
tons in 1880, and in 1893 the region produced the magnifi- 
cent total of 48,186,306* tons. 

It will perhaps come with some surprise, even to those 
well conversant with the magnitude of the anthracite trade, 
when we consider that the value of the product from the 
484 square milep underlaid by anthracite beds, at the mines, 
in 1893 was $85,687,078t or more than the value, that year 
of the total product from the whole United States of any 
one mineral excepting bitumious coal, which with an area 
of more than 200,000 square miles produced only some 50 
per cent, more value or $122,751,618. It is interesting to 
note in this connection that in 1893, with bituminous coal 
Jirst^ anthracite second^ pig iron is a close third with a pro- 
duct valued at $84,810,426, silver fourth with $77,575,757, 
iivciQ fifth with $35,960,000 and gold sixtli producing a trifle 
less than lime or $35,950,000. 

The magnitude and value of the anthracite tonnage ex- 
plains fully why the surface of the region is covered by a 
net work of railroads which becomes more complex with 
each succeeding year. 

* Includes the coal consumed at the mines. 

t According tt> * * Mineral Products of the United States " U. S. Geological 

,• » 

\. •• 

^mlth.] ANTHRACITE REGION. 1917 

Location and General Description. 

The anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania* occupy a 
-central position in the eastern half of the State, and may 
be said to lie between the Susquehanna and Delaware 
rivers ; none of its basins extend west of the main Susque- 
hanna and but a comparatively small area is found on the 
west bank of the North Branch tributary, while to the 
•east the Delaware river water shed is reached but not 
crossed. The drainage of the region is through the Sus- 
quehanna, Schuylkill and Lehigh rivers and their tribu- 

Wayne, Susquehanna, Wyoming, Sullivan, Lackawanna, 
Luzerne, Columbia, Northumberland, Carbon, Schuylkill, 
Lebanon and Dauphin counties all contain areas of anthra- 
cite coal, but the great bulk of the region is found in 
Lackawanna, Luzerne, Carbon, Northumberland and 
Schuylkill ; in these counties the business of coal mining 
overbalances all other interests and gives a distinctive 
characteristic to the population and politics. 

The anthracite coal basins are near the north-eastern end 
of the Appalachian Belt or Province,t which extends south- 
west across Pennsylvania into Maryland, Virginia, West 
Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama. Their pres- 
•ervation from erosion is due to a northeast sinking knd 
broadening of the great troughs characteristic of the belt, 
bringing in successively higher measures, until east of the 
Susquehanna Formation No. XII is seen making moun- 
tainous rims to basins which contain many hundred feet of 
sandstones and shales interspersed with valuable beds of 
coal. A northeast rise in the measures, however, soon sets 
in and finally lifts even the lowest coal beds into the air 

* Plate 299 shows general shape and location. 

Plate 300 is reproduced from a very valuable and beautiful Relief Map of 
the Anthracite Coal Fields and vicinity, (geologically colored), by Mr. Ed- 
ward B. Harden. While the illustration is on quite too small a scale to do 
justice to the original, a general idea of the topography of the region is con- 

t A valuable paper on "The Mechanics of Appalachian Structure," by 
Bailey Willis, is published in the I3th Annual Report U. S. Geological 



and encloses the eastern ends of the basins with the high 
conglomerate rim. 

The general trend of the measures is N 60° to 70° E or 
S 60° to 70° W, with a decided curve toward the north at 
the northeastern end of the region. The enechelon arrange- 
ment of the basins has also a northerly tendency so that 
the greatest length of the region, 120 miles, is not along the 
strike, but in. a diagonal line N 45° E from Dauphin to 
Forest City ; the maximum width is between Mauch Chunk 
and Shickshinny, some 30 miles, or 55 miles including very 
I)roperly the small outlying anthracite basin to the north at 

Although a figure embracing all the anthracite basins 
contains about 3300 square miles, only about one-fifth of 
this is underlaid by Formation XII and the area occupied 
by workable coal beds, about 484 square miles, is of 
cpurse still less. 

The anthracite region is divided into the following 
prominent divisions: (1) Northern or Wyoming-Lacka- 
wanna field, lies in the two valleys from which it derives 
its geographical name; it is the most northeastern of all, 
a magnificent basin 55 miles long and six miles wide at the 
most; of canoe shape pointed at the ends, with a slightly 
crescent curve toward the north. The product from the 
small coal areas in Wyoming and Sullivan counties twen- 
ty-five miles to the northwest is now included with that 
from the Northern field. This field constitutes what is 
known to the trade as the Wyoming region. 

(2) The Eastern Middle field lies some 10 to 20 miles to 
the southwest of the Northern field, and is separated from / 

it by the broad high arch of the Wapwollopen anticlinal, 
from which the coal measures have long since been 'denu- 
ded*. The field comprises a number of small coal basins 
(resting chiefly along the southern flank of the great 
Wapwollopen arch) preserved from erosion on the high 
plateau between the Lehigh and the Susquehanna rivers. 
The Eastern Middle is the smallest of the divisions although 

* For Bhape of this arch see the '*Lehigh river section" by Arthur Win- 
slow. Atlas Annual Report 18S6 Pt. IV 


the area in which its coal basins are found is about 25 
miles long and 10 miles wide. It is contained chiefly in Lu- 
zerne, Carbon and Schuylkill counties and forms the greater 
part of what is known as the Lehigh region. 

(3) The Western Middle or the Mahanoy and Shamokin 
field joins the Eastern Middle on the southwest, the meas- 
ures after making the comparatively shallow basins of the 
Eastern Middle dip deeply to the south and west to form 
the important double basin of the Western Middle field. 
This field is about 37 miles long and 3 to 4 miles wide, 
lying between the headwaters of the Little Schuylkill and 
the Susquehanna rivers and within Schuylkill, Columbia 
and Northumberland counties. 

(4) The Southern field ; the important arch which lifts to 
the surface measures as low as Formation No. Vat the 
Susquehanna, sinking toward the east splits but does not 
wholly divide the Western Middle from the Southern field. 
No. XII rides, between Frackville and New Boston, the 
narrowed arch, forming the shallow basins of 'the Broad 
mountain before sinking under the great deep basins of the 
Southern field to re-appear as its southern barrier the Sharp 
mountain. This field is the largest of the four, some 70 
miles in length from the Lehigh at Mauch Chunk to the 
Susquehanna at Dauphin ; its maximun width 8 miles is 
in the neighborhood of Pottsville. Four miles west of 
Tremont the eastward extension of the Perry county anti- 
clinal separates the field into two long narrow basins 
branching westward, the northern ( Wiconisco) basin spoon- 
ing out when about half way to the river. The field lies 
chiefly in Schuylkill county with smaller areas in Carbon, 
Lebanon and Dauphin counties. The comparatively small 
area of the Southern fleld which lies east of the Little 
Schuylkill together with the Eastern Middle lielfl consti- 
tute what is known as the Lehigh region. While the 
balance of the field together with the Western Middle 
comprise the Schuylkill region. 

The anthracite coal beds are undoubtedly identical in 
time of deposit with the bituminous beds of the western 
part of the State, and it is the accepted theory that they 


were originally bituminous beds which in some way have 
been changed into anthracite. 

There are but two divisions recognized in the anthracite 
coal measures: — Firsts the Pottsville conglomerate or 
Formation No. XII. Second^ the '*Coal Measures," con- 
sisting of all the overlying beds of sandstone, shale, coaJ, 
and fireclay comprising probably Formations No's. XIII, 
XIV, XV and XVI of the bituminous fields. The lower 

part of the Coal Measures are often referred to as Forma- 
tion XIII. 

Formation No. XIL 

The Pottsville conglomerate at the base of the coal meas- 
ures by its resistance to erosion has been an important fac- 
tor in preserving the small part of the original anthracite 
field which now remains. It is the floor upon which the coal 
measures rest and its outcrops from a protecting and 
enclosing mountainous rim to the softer coal measures. 

No. XII is composed of beds of grayish conglomerates ; 
white, gray and brownish sandstone usually course and 
hard ; some thin beds of carbonaceous slates ; and gen- 
erally one or more thin seams of coal, which in the south- 
western part of the region are large and valuable coal beds. 
The beds of the lower part of the formation generally have 
a greenish color, which shades into the red of No. XI ; the 
central part ^\iOw^ 2in increased coarseness and hardness 
of the materials comprising it and usually forms the 
mountain crest or ridge ; the upper part as a rule con- 
tains more coarse sandstone beds with fewer and finer con- 
glomerates. The coals of No. XIIsLre found at different 
horizons, the valuable Lykens Valley beds are chiefly in 
the upper and the lower part of the formation. 

Limits of No. XII. 

The bottom of the Buck Mountain or Red Ash bed, the 

first coal bed overlying the conglomerate, has been taken 

as the upper limit of XII; it is as a rule a well defined 

•horizon and but rarely is there any difficulty in fixing its 

position in the section. The placing of the bottom of XII 

The internal vegetable structure of Coal 
as seen by the microsco[ie. 

Fij J. 
Comjaact coal 

nj 2 

Mineral Charcoal. 



is a much more difficult affair, as the transition from the 
red shales of XI to the conglomerates of XII, is not often 
abrupt but gradual; it is seen in a decreased thickness of 
the red shale beds, in the appearance of coarse sandstones 
and conglomerates mixed with the shales which slowly 
disappear; and in the greenish color of many of the beds 
with here and there a grayish one. In the Southern field 
these transition beds have, in places, a thickness of 500 to 
600 feet.* 

The transition beds and the lower beds of XII also ex- 
hibit decided variations in the materials composing them, 
at times heavy conglomerates predominate with but few 
sandstones and shales or again the whole series may be 
composed of coarse sandstones and of shales, with the 
green and reddish tinge running high in the formation; 
making it diflBicult, even when a complete section is at 
hand, to decide where the line between the two formations 
should be drawn. It is not safe to always take the high- 
est red shale bed as a limit, as beds of red shale, usually 
thin, but in appearance like the mass of No. XI are not in- 
frequently seen high up in the conglomerates of XII, and 
occasionally among the overlying coal measures; nor will 
it suffice to take the lowest conglomerate as beds of con- 
glomerate are often found well down in the red shales of 
XI. The fixing of a precise limit between the two forma- 
tions becomes in many instances a matter of individual 
preference and judgment. 

That there are local variations in the thickness of XII is 
unquestionable, but it would appear not improbable thnt 
some of the seeming great differences,+ within comparative 
narrow limits, in the thickness of the conglomerate has 
been due to the selection of different horizons between XI 
and XII by the different assistants of the Survey, or even 
by the same assistant at the various points of exposure. 

* These beds, and those of XI and XII also, are u eU exposed along the 
Pennsylvania Railroad in the gap below Potts villo. 

t Noted by Mr. Ashburner in the Panther creek basin. See Letter of 
Transmittal First Report Anthracite Region and cross section, sheet III 
Southern coal field. 


Thickness of No, XIL 

The formation shows a marked decrease in thickness 
and in the coarseness of the material composing it from 
the southwest to the northeast.* 

The greatest thickness of No. XII, not only for the an 
thracite region but for the State, is found in the Southern 
coalfield; and the maximum is apparently reached in the 
southwestern part of this field. Measurements of XII at 
Lincoln and Kalmia collieries, where there are extensive 
tunnels to tap the Lykens Valley coal beds, furnish a com- 
plete section 1475' thick (Page plate 391). Its thickness 
on the Broad mountain is about 1200'. This is about the 
average thickness throughout the field. (For seciions of 
XII see page plates 366, 370 and 391). 

In the Western Middle field the conglomerate has an 
average thickness of about 850'. The section exposed in 
the East Mahanoy tunnel P. & R. R. R. is one of the best. 
(Page plate 346.) 

In the Eastern Middle field the average thickness is about 
300', but there is a marked decrease from the Silver Brook 
basins on the south, where the formation is 400 to 600' 
thick, northeast across the field to the Upper Lehigh basin 
where but 200' of measures are assigned to XII (Section 
given on page plate 334). 

No. XII in the Northern field will average about 225' in 
thickness, at the northeastern end it has a general thick- 
ness of about 200' only a little below the average ; the f orma- 

^ ♦The conclusion seemed to me irresistible that an explanation of the 
thickness of the Conglomerate southeastward must be sought for in 
a supposition of some shore line backed by extensive lands in that direction* 
far enough away to be beyond the Middle or Lower Pal8eo7X>io outcrops, 
and yet near enough to account for the suddenness of the increase of thick- 
ness within the belt of observation. But the present typography of the 
Atlantic border furnishes nothing for this purpose except the South Moun- 
tain range from Reading eastward and its continuation on a larger scale as 
the Highlands of New Jersey. But the now completed typographical map 
oi the South Mountains between Reading and Baston seems to prove very 
plainly, what I have long believed, that the Azoic core of this range was 
entirely covered by the Palaeozoic sediments at the time of the deposit of 
the Potts ville Conglomerate." (Prof. J. P- Lesley in First Report Anthra- 
cite Region. 





tion is thickest apparently in the central part of the field ; 
at the southwest end as little as 9()'-lf)0' has been locally 
assigned to it. (Page plate 312 gives sections.) 

In the Loyalsock-Mehoopany region the limits of XII 
are not conclusively determined, but enough is known to 
assure for it a thickness of at least 120 feet . The materials 
composing No. XII in the Northern field are much finer 
than in the more southern basins ; the pebbles even in the 
ooarsest layers do not as a rule exceed hickory nut size, 
and northeasc of Scranton XII is mainlv a coarse sandstone 
with some thin layers of fine conglomerate. A detail ac- 
count of this formation in the various sub-divisions of the 
fields is given later in the report. 

The Coal Measures. 

The coal measures cousist of beds of sandstone, some 
coarse and hard grading down to fine, soft and shaly ; of 
shale ; of fireclay ; of black carbonaceous slate or shale 
and of beds of coal from a few inches in thickness up to 
the great Mammoth bed with its thickness over large areas 
of 50' to 60'. The prevailing color of the sandstones and 
shales is brown or grayish. Beds of fine conglomerate are 
not an unusual occurrence within the coal measures and 
in some instances thev are so coarse and massive as to 
have been mistaken for No. XII.* Fireclay beds usually 
but not always underlie the coal beds, they are also often 
seen in the intervals between. 

The coal beds are pretty well distributed through the 
whole thickness of the measures, the intervals separating 
them vary from a few feet to a couple of hundred ; but it 
is seldom that a barren interval of more than 200' is seen. 
The distances between the same coal beds vary somewhat, 
and at times decidedly, in the different basins and in 
different parts of the same basin. The lower 300' to 600' of 
measures, from XII to the top of the Mammoth bed, con- 

* Mr. Benj. Hmith Lyman gives an example of this in a paper called **An 
Occurence of Coarse Con Klome rate above the Mammoth Anthracite Bed" 
published in Transactions American Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. 


tain the thickest coals, and are more productive thai> 
the measures higher in the series. 

The Eastern Middle, Western Middle and Southern field* 
are closely associated and have common names for their 
principal coal beds. The Northern field further removed 
has not only a different set of names for its coal beds, but 
diflFerent names for the same bed within the limits of the 
field. No attempt has been made to correlate all the beds 
of the Northern with those of the other fields, but the^ 
identity of the Red Ash with the Buck Mountain bed and 
of the Baltimore with the Mammoth bed is generally ac- 

Thickness of the Coal Measures. 

The greatest thickness is found in the deep basins of the 
Southern field, 'where the total aggregates more than 2500'; 
workable coal beds extend to the very top of the column, 
and perhaps still others may have been originally de- 
posited, of which every trace has been removed by erosion. 
In the Western Middle field we find a total of about 1600' 
of measures, the upper coal beds of which are thought to 
correspond with the Southern beds of the same names and 
at about the same height in the column. All the high 
coal measures have been denuded from the Eastern Middle 
field, the deepest basin (Hazleton basin) containing only 
about 700' of measures above the conglomerate. In the' 
Northern field at its deepest point there is a thickness of 
about 1800'; the upper part of these measures seem rather 
barren of workable beds ; the identity of these beds with 
the high beds of the Southern field is quite uncertain. It 
is possible that the deposition of the 1800' of coal measures 
of the Northern field may represent a period of time equal 
to that required to deposit the2500'-(- of the Southern field. 

The Slruchire. 

The ^reat waves into which the originally horizontal 
measures of the anthracite region have been thrown reach 
their maximum height along the southern edge of the 
Southern field. Here the north dipping strata have been 





tilted up to a perpendicular and overturned position. 
Commenting upon this feature in the Panther creek basin 
of the Southern field, but applicable to the whole field Prof. 
Lesley says :* 

"The most striking feature of the plication of the coal 
beds of this basin is its sharpness, the rarity of those soft 
and gentle curvatures which characterize the bituminous 
coal basins, a rigid plainness of the up and down slopes, 
suggestive of (1) a severe lateral compression in the jaws of 
a vice, and (2) a humid plasticity of the coal measures at 
the time of compression." 

Following this, Prof. Lesley also adds : 

"It would advance structural geology a long step if we 
could get at the data for portraying equally well the shape 
of the whole hoitom of the Conglomerate (No. XII). 
Hitherto whenever transverse sections of the Palaeozoic 
system were made deep enough beneath the surface to 
include the underlying red shale (XI), the plane of contact 
has been conceived as a series of simple and compound 
waves of such a shape that the curves of the synclinals were 
struck with a larger and those of the anticlinals with a 
smaller radius. But we have always been and still are 
ignorant for the most part of the true character of this con- 
tact plane. 

*'If, when we know it better, it should turn out to be 
plicated as sharply as we know the contact planes at the 
top and above the top of the Conglomerate are, the fact 
would go far to prove that the Conglomerate itself was as 
humid and plastic as the coal measures when first com- 
pressed. It would also reinforce the opinion that no Pal- 
aeozoic plication occurred until the close of the coal age; 
and, that it took place then at once, and for all. 

''Although our ignorance of the shape of the bottom 
plane of the Conglomerate is great, what little we do know 
about it is significant. It can be studied, more or less un- 
satisfactorily, at the summits of the spur mountains in 
which terminate the numerous coal basins of the region." 

 First Report Anthracite Region A A, page xviii. 


Since 1883, when Prof. Lesley wrote the above, the com- 
pletion of the mapping of the anthracite region and the 
extension of the mine workings and explorations, have fur- 
nished the Survey with information for correctly portray- 
ing, in special localities, the shape of the contact planes of 
XII. These results as a whole show the Conglomerate to 
be less sharply plicated than the overlying and softer coal 
measures, and tends to strengthen confidence in the theo- 
retically lessening curves of the underlying beds, as usual- 
ly drawn on the cross sections;* although these same de- 
velopments have disclosed some plications which do not 
appear iu the overlying beds. 

The plication]of the measures lessons toward to the north 
and east; the basmsof the Western Middle fields are most- 
ly deep with steeply dipping sides, but less so than those 
of the Southern; in the Eastern Middle field although the 
basins are shallow the sides dip rather sharply, say 30® to 
50 ° ; while in the Northern field the ruling dips are much 
more gentle; even at the southwest end where steepest, 
and at the northeast end the broad basin with its gentle 
curves is scarcely more inclined than some of the bitumi- 
nous basins of the western part of the State. 

The numerous page plates of cross sections which illus- 
trate this report show clearly the prevailing structure in 
the different parts of the region. Care was taken in se- 
lecting tlie sections to eliminate as far as practicable the 
purely theoretical and to choose those on which the posi- 
tion of the coal beds had been determined bv actual mine 

Composition of Pennsyltiania Anthracite. 

In the prefatory letter to the First Report Anthracite 
Region 1883, Mr. Chas. A. Ashburner tabulates the results 
of the analysis by Mr. A. S. McCreath of some 30 samples 
of anthracite coal, especially collected for that purpose 
from the market cars as loaded for shipment; samples 
were had from each of the fields, and the coal came from 

* Page Plates 387, 389 and 390 show shape of XII according to the mining 
developments at those points. 

Smith.] COMPOSITION of Pennsylvania anthracite. 1927 

beds between the Primrose and Buck Mountain inclusive. 
A general average of the results shows the constitution of 
commercial anthracite to be about as follows: 

Water, 3.30 

VoiatUe matter, 3.80 

Fixed carbon, 84.00 

Sulphur, 50 

A8h 8.40 


Fuel ratio, 1 : 22.33 

Specific gravity, 1.628 

''The high amount of ash is undoubtedly due to an 
imperfect separation of the slate and poor coal from the 
better coal, in the preparation of the market product." 
Improvements in the cleaning and preparing have unquest- 
ionable been made since 1883 ; but the precentage of 
impurity (ash) sent to markiBt, is naturally somewhat reg- 
ulated rather by what the market will stand, than by the 
best result attainable with the improved machinery. 

It is a well known fact that the precentage of ash in- 
creases with the decrease in the market size of the prepared 
coal, this is illustrated in the following table from the 
same Report, page 182. 

Analyses of the Market Sizes of Coal shipped hy the 
Lehigh Goal and Navigation Company^ 1882, 

Kind op 













Total. , 

Color of ash . 

Egg, .... 







Light cream white 

Stove, . . . 

1.426 4.156 



10. 174 



Chestnut, . 

1.732 i 4.046 






Pea, .... 

1.700 ! 3.894 

71'. 015 




Cream, white 









Cream, white 

Specimens of rli r»*e grades of bony coal, mined at Colliery 
No. 10, — Lehigli Navagation Co. — which from its bad ap- 
pearance had bsen thrown on the dirt bank as worthless, 


were carefully selected and analyzed by Mr. A. S. Mc- 
Creath (See First Report page 181) ; the result showed 
the bony coal to be a much better fuel than much of the 
coal then shipped. Much less bony coal is now thrown 
away than formerly ; it is mostly broken down to pea and 
buckwheat sizes where its lustreless appearance is not so 

A later paper by Mr. Ashburner with additional analyses 
contributed by Dr. Chas. M. Cresson of the Philadelphia 
and Reading Coal and Iron Co. is published in Annual Re- 
port 1885 Chapter II. 

Specific Gravity of Anthracite. 

An inspection of the analysis, published by the Survey, 
shows that in specimens where the ash is above the average 
the specific gravity is as a rule also above the average. 
The weight of pure anthracite is invariably less than that 
of the commercial product. Messrs. Coxe Bros. & Co. of 
Drif ton utilize this fact to determine, by a simple specific 
gravity test, each day the proportion of refuse contained in 
the product shipped by them to market.* 

*The method they employ is fully described in a paper contributed by 
Mr. Eckley B. Coxe to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
1893 under the title of <*The use of small sizes of anthracite coal for genera- 
tion of steam.'' Mr. Coxe comments on the value of the results as follows: 
"There seems to be no doubt that there is a close relatior. between the 
specific gravity of coal and its percentage of ash. Mr. Walter. R. Johnson, 
in his celebrated report upon American coals, suggests that there might be 
such a relation, but gives no figures to establish the fact. A careful study 
of a greft number of analyses of coal and determinations of specific gravity 
has led us to believe that, althougn our experiments are not as yet abso- 
lutely conclusive, there is a strong probability that, for a given size of coal 
from the same colliery under ordinary circumstances, the determination of 
the specific gravity of an average sample will give very nearly the same 
percentage of ash as will be determined by analysis, although the relation 
may not be exactly the same for different mines or for different sizes ot 

If the specific gravity and percentage of ash, in any sample of coal below 
egg size, is known, the percentage of ash in any other sample of the same 
size coal, and tiom the same colliery, can be satisfactorily determined (we 
are inclined to think) from the specific gravity of that sample, by the fol- 
lowing formula: 

«t« • 

• • • 4 . 

. . « ••• 

Smith.] SPECIFIC gravity of anthracite. 1929 

Their experiments indicate a specific gravity of about 
1.55 lor pure anthracite from the Drifton colliery. In the 
thirty analyses of commercial anthracite by Mr. McCreath 
the three specimens from the Northern field average 1.576, 
the eight from the Eastern Middle field 1.614; the ten from 
the Western Middle field 1.658; and the nine from the 
Panther creek basin of the Southern field 1.6307. A num- 
ber of specific gravity determination of the Lykens Valley 
coal from the western part of the Southern field, by Mr. 
John R. Hoffman of the P. & R. C. & I. Co., give a varia- 
tion of 1.42 to 1.50 with an average of 1.44. 


^^ Vegetable origin of coaV* 

Is the title to a paper by Prof. Leo Lesquereux with 
''Notes by Prof. J. P. Lesley" published in Annual for 1885, 
pages 95 to 124. Prof. Lssquereux states: 1. The proofs 
of the yegetable origin of coal. 2. Objections to the same. 
3. Bischof hypothesis. 4. Grand Eury hypothesis. 5. 
Vail hypothesis. 6. Kuntze hypothesis. 7. Thejpeat bog 
theory with his own observations and sums up with^ the 
following remarks: "It must be kept in mind that all the 
agencies which contributed to the formation of coal beds 

in which 
X S3 the standard specific gravity, 
y = the standard percentage of ash, 

z'= the specific gravity of coal determined by our apparatus, 
2/'s3 the percentage of ash to i»e determined, 
a s= a constant for coal from same mine. 

It is possible, however, that for the very smallest size from mines where 
the percentage of iron pyrites is large or very variable, the formula may 
require some modification. It might also fail if the character of the coal, 
slate, or other impurities varied very materially in the different veins or in 
the different parts of a mine, so that the product of the mine could not be 
considered a uniform one. There is no question, however, that the deter- 
mination of the specific gravity in this rough way, which can be done by 
any careful person, is of great value, and would be a very good check on 
the shipments of coal received, provided it was accompanied from time to 
time by a slate determination by means of chloride of zinc, and occasionally 
by an ash determination by analysis. 

I do not wish to speak too positively on this subject, because we have not 
concluded our experiments, and liope later to give more information upon 
this point*' 


worked on a prodigiously larger scale than those which 
are now in activity for the formation of peat. Then, the 
deposits of vegetable remains were from an exceptionally 
exuberant vegetation, favored by the greatest possible hu- 
midity of the air, and a superabundance of carbonic acid 
in the atmosphere. It was a vegetation from which we 
can scarcely get an idea from anything now visible. Acro- 
genous plants, Ferns, Lycopods and Equisita (Horsetail) 
composed nearly the whole flora of the coal period. All 
the plants of those orders, represented by numerous gen- 
era, were then large trees, their trunks measuring from 
one to three feet in diameter, forty to 100 feet tall, or even 
more; growing close together, and forming an impenetra- 
ble thicket of stems, branches and leaves; whereas, at the 
present daj^ the same kinds of plants are represented by 
mere herbage of small size, with stems and branches scarce- 
ly as thick as a goose quill, and only one or two feet high. 
Most of the land surface was then a vastness of swamps, in 
which the first growth, generally floating or creeping 
plants, was essentially composed of a peculiar species, the 
Sifgmaria, whose immensely long stems aud branches, 
from 4 to 6 inches thick, were woven together, like the 
thin, matted, Aoating stems of the Sphagmim ot Jthe pres- 
ent age, into an immense woven mat, or thick carpet, over 
which the luxuriant land vegetation of the coal soon spread 
itself. And, of course, we must suppose that such an ac- 
cumulation of ponderous material, such a mass of vegeta- 
tion, sank of its own weight at times and places into the 
water beneath and became wholly submerged. This sup- 
position becomes a certainty in view of the superposition 
of thick beds of sandstone, shale, clav, ironstone and 
limestone upon the old beds of coal. 

'To account for the succession of coal beds separated from 
each other bv manv feet or yards of rock strata, and con- 
stituting a mass of coal measures several thousand feet in 
total thickness, it is necessary to take into consideration 
those very slow downward movements of large areas of the 
earth's surface which have taken place in all ideological 
ages, and were nearly continuous on a grand scale during 


Anthracite Me{ji.on.^.Mimnq ^Jfef/iods 



• * 

< « 


the whole time in which the numerous formations of Middle 
and Western Pennsylvania were being deposited ; ending 
with the rise of the whole region to its present height at 
the end of the Coal Measure age. During all the last part of 
the downward movement the coal vegetation fionrished 
magniticently, but was interrupted by inroads, of the sea 
on an equal grand scale ; and these inroads which explan 
the intermediate sandstone, shale, limestone and iron ore 
beds, were precisely similar — but vastly greater and per- 
haps lasting for a much longer lime — to those which have 
been described as happening in the history of the formation 
of the peat-bogs of our own day.* 

*'Froni all that has been said then it plainly appears that 
in the growth of peat we have have a microcosmic but true 
representation of the formation of the ancient coal." 

Prof. Lesley's brief notes are accompanied by a page 
plate (reproduced as Plate 301) showing the vegetable 
structure of coal as seen by the microscope. His notes 
conclude as follows : 

**Por the purpose of the present paper these few exhibi- 
tions of the vegetable origin of our coal beds will suffice ; 
and I have chosen those made nearly thirty years ago, first 
for the purpose of showing how long investigations into 
the origin of coal were successfully pursued, and secondly, 
because the conclusions arrived at then have been since 
verified and confirmed by the work of later investigators, 
especially by those who have discovered many coals crowded 
with the preserved pollen of the plants of the coal age. 
These will be given in my Summary Report. 

**Not often is Nature caught in the act of performance ; 
she behaves like a loving house-mother on Christmas eve, 
moving noislessly about, that the children be not awakened 
while she fills their stockings with toys and sugar plums. 
Sometimes a plank in the floor will creak, or a piece of 
match-wood snap ; that cannot always be helped. Volcanic 
action is impossible without periodical eruptions, nor a 
restoration of the elevation of worn-down highlands without 

*See also a recent Memoir on this part of the subject by E. Hull, Director 
of the Geological Survey of Ireland. 


occasional earthquakes. But most of Nature's operations 
are so noiseless, and so hooded from human eyesight, that 
Geology plays with her a perpetual game of blindman's 
buflF, and is only now and then successful at a catch, as in 
the case of the Lac d'Etailleres, narrated by Mr. Lesquereux 
in the foregoing paper." 

Mining Methods and Appliances in the Anthracite 


^ Report AC, "Coal Mining," with an atlas, by Dr. H. M. 
Chance, published in 1883, was intended, the State Geolo- 
gist in his letter of transmittal says, *'to serve as a manual 
for the working of anthracite collieries in Pennsylvania, by 
supplying to superintendents and mining engineers such 
precise practical information concerning the opening of 
outcrops ; the sinking of shafts and slopes ; the construction, 
erection, and use of machinery ; the cutting, handling, and 
transporting of the coal ; the ventilation of the mines ; and 
whatever else of importance is incidental to the explora- 
tion and exploitation of our anthracite beds — as the history 
of anthracite mining in Pennsylvania can furnish." 

The abundant success of this, report is fully attested in 
the continued demand for the work and the difficulty with 
which copies are now to be procured. Its comprehensive 
scope is seen from the subject headings of the twenty-eight 
chapters into which the book is divided, they are as fol- 
lows: — 1. Introduction, 2. Prospecting for coal, 3. Meth- 
ods of opening coal, 4. Shaft sinking and timbering, 6. 
Slope sinking and timbering, 6 Gangway and tunnel driv- 
ing, 7. The Mining plant as the surface, 8. Mining systems, 
9. Methods of opening and working breasts, 10. Coal mining 
tools and methods, 11. Underground railways and slopes, 
12. Slopes, planes, and inside slopes, 13. Rolling stock 
and motive power, 14. Winding engines and drums, 15. 
Winding machinery and appliances, 16. Safety attach- 
ments, signaling apparatus and indicators, 17. Access to 
and from mine workings, 18. Drainage and pumping ma- 
chinery, 19. Ventilation and ventilators, 20. Colliery 
management, 21. Mine surveying and mapping, 22. Mine 

'• • •. 

• - 


gases and explosions, 33. Roof falls and other accidents, 
24. Mine fires, 26. Hygiene of mines, 26. Preparation of 
coal for markets, 27. The anthracite coal breaker, 28. 
Waste in minino: and preparing anthracite. Appendix A . — 
Mine laws, B. — Glossany of mining terms, C. — ^Tables 
showing production of anthracite. 

Page plates 302 to 310 are reduced from illustrations ac- 
companying the report and show some of the different meth- 
ods of mining anthracite. 

In the eleven years which have elapsed since the publi- 
cation of Dr. Chances' report a number of improvements 
both in mining methods and appliances have been made, 
but mainly along the old lines with little or no radical 
change in any direction. 

One of the most important perhaps is a better and more 
general utilizaiion of the small sizes of coal. Buckwheat 
No. 2 is saved at nearly every colliery in the region and 
No. 3 or Rice at many of them, formerly these small coals 
were thrown on the dirt banks, the rapid improvements in 
appliances for burning fine coal would seem to indicate that 
the time is perhaps not far distant when even the smallest 
particles of carbon will be utilized.* 

A number of ''washeries" have been established at differ- 
ent points in the region to re-claim the coal which had 
been thrown away in the great piles of culm that form 
so prominent a feature of the anthracite landscape. 
The culm is first thorougly washed to remove the fine 
dirt clinging to the coal and slate, it is then cleaned (slate 
removed), sized and prepared for market in the usual 
way. In some of the old culm banks 50 to 75 per cent, 
of the contents, is found to be a marketable product, f The 
cost of erecting the ''washeries" has been from $10,000 to 

* A paper titled "A Furnace with Automatic Stoker, Traveling Grate, 
and Variable Blast; intended especially for Burning Small Anthracite 
Coal" by Mr. Eckley B. Ooxe, Drifton, Pa. Transactions American Insti- 
tute of Mining Engineers Vol. XXI l, 1893, gives much valuable information 
on this subject. 

t A paper by Mr. Arthur W. Sheafer, of Pottsville, Pa., "The Re-working 
of Anthracite Culm-banks" Trans. Am. Ins. Mining Engmeers gives statis- 
tic. See also Report Pennsylvania Coal Waste Commission. 


$20,000 each and it is of course necessary to have a large 
culm bank, free from fire, containing a good percentage of 
marketable coal, to make the operation a profitable one. 

Culm is also used at a number of the collieries to fill 
worked out breasts, in order to support the roof while 
the pillar coal which has been left standing can be safely 
mined. The culm is mixed with wsrter and conveyed by 
pipes or bore holes to the desired localities underground, 
the water is afterwards pumped out of the'mine, and in the 
course of time the weight of the overlying strata compresses 
the culm until it becomes hard and firm and it then af- 
fords the necessary support. In some instances it is found 
more profitable to utilize the culm in this way than to 
wash and prepare the coal it contains for market, of 
course the refuse from a *'washery" can be used for filling 
in if conveniently situated. 

An increase in the individual capacity of the collieries is 
one of the tendencies of the times, in many cases this is 
made desirable because of the greater cost of opening and 
operating the mines owing to the constant increase in the 
depth of working. In 1882 the maximum product from 
any one colliery was about 300,000 tons per annum, but 
in 1893 six collieries produced between 400,000 and 500,- 
000 tons each and a number of others over 300,000 tons. 
There are probably now, at least, a half a dozen breakers 
which if operated to their full capacity could each prepare 
during the year some 700,000 tons of coal. 

Two breakers built entirely of iron have been erected 
during the past few years, among other advantages is their 
compactness and perfect freedom from any danger by fire.* 

The '* stripping" of the coal beds, where they lie flat and 
sufficiently near the surface, continues to grow in favor and 
is carried to a greater depth than before, but it is only the 
shallower basins that can be worked in this way. 

Coal Waste (A 2) is the subject of a report made in 1882 
by Mr. Franklin Piatt, it is also made the subject of in- 
quiry by a Special Commission appointed by the Gover- 

•For a description see. "Iron breaker at Drifton, Ac." by Mr. Eckley B. 
Coxe, Trans. Am. Ins Mining Engineers Vol XIX. 1890-1. 


^ntkrcui^e Regiorb^ Jlfinin^-Jfet/iods 

* f .■ t t 

• • • • ' 

•• w« ., 


nor in 1889. Some notes from the report by the Commis- 
sion together with "Estimate of Contents of the Anthra- 
cite Coal Fields," will be given at the close of the anthra- 
cite chapters. 

The Anthracite Survey. 

It seems pertinent before entering into the detailed dis- 
cription of the region, in which constant reference will be 
made to maps, sections and reports of the Anthracite 
Survey, to give a brief review of the work of the Survey, 
its original plans, and of the extent to which it was en- 
abled to carry them out. 

The survey of the anthracite region was commenced in 
1881, under the direction of the late Charles A. Ashburner, 
Geologist in Charge. The plan of the survey as outlined 
by Mr. Ashburner proposed :* — 

1. Mine sheets. 

The publication of a set of maps, covering all the anthra- 
cite basins, drawn to a scale of 800' = 1", of uniform size 
28f " X 23i", and designated as mine sheets. These mine 
sheets to represent surface features, viz : — railroads, wagon 
roads, streams, county, township and property lines ; 
outcrops of the principal coal beds ; limits of the coal 
measures ; towns, coal breakers &c. ; also underground 
features viz : —all shafts, tunnels, slopes, drifts and airways, 
together with the mine workings on each bed to be rep- 
resented by a conventional color, the shape of the floor of 
the most extensively developed coal beds in the individual 
distrects, mammoth bed principally to be shown by con- 
tour lines 50' vertically apart. 

With some modifications the plan of publication of the 
mine sheets has been carried to a successful completion. 
After the publication of the first sixteen sheets, owing to 
the demand for a rapid extension of the work and the 
limited appropriations, it was thought best to abandon the 
underground contouring, which although adding materially 
to the value of the sheets, increased decidedly the time 

 First Report Progress Anthracite Region. 


and cost of their preparation. Other than this but few 
changes in the plan were found necessary. 

2. Cross section sheets. 

'*The mine maps are to be supplemented by sections 
across the coal basins, to show the same structure on a ver- 
ticalplane that the mine maps show by their contours on 
a horizontal plane. These sections are to be drawn on a 
scale of 400 feet = 1 inch, (^(^^j^ nature). No special plan, 
either in the distances of the cross sections apart, or the 
method of representing the structure which they will illus- 
trate, can be adopted for the entire region. The frequency 
of the sections in any basin must be governed entirely by 
the difficulties in the structure to be solved, and the number 
of facts which it is possible to obtain." 

Cross sections of every important basin have now been 
constructed and published. Care is taken to distinguish 
on the sections between the theoretical structure and the 
structure as actually developed by the mine workings. 

3. Columnar section sheets. 

*' These sheets are to contain columnar sections of the coal 
measures and coal beds, to show grai)hically the character 
and vertical thickness of the strata included between the 
coal beds and the divisions and character of the individual 
beds with the intercalated slate and sandstone. They 
will be divided into two sets: First, those containing the 
rock sections, which are within the limits of the productive 
coal measures, to be drawn to a scale of 40' = 1"; in these 
sections, the entire series of strata popularly known as a 
coal bed, whether coal or refuse, will be printed solid black 
and designated as coal. The second class of sheets will 
contain coal bed sections to be drawn to a scale of 10'=1". 
In these sections the alternation of good coal and poor 
coal, of sandstone, slate, bone and dirt, will be shown with 
as much minuteness as is actually found in the bed, in the 

Some forty-one columnar section sheets of the first class 
arc» published by the survey and they give detailed meas- 



urements of the strata cut in nearly every shaft, tunnel, 
rock slope or borQ hole in the region. Of the second variety 
of sheets — containing only bed sections — but one has been 
published although the materials for many others v^ere 

4. Topographical sheets. 

*' Surface contour curve maps will be published of most 
of the coal basin areas. These maps will be on a scale of 
1600'= 1", or one-half the scale of the mine sheets." 

Owing to the restricted means of the survey this very im- 
portant part of the general plan has been but imperfectly 
carried out. The largest area contoured by the Survey is 
the northeastern half of the Northern field, here it was 
found practicable to place the contours on the mine sheets, 
without overcrowding, and so publish them on a scale of 
800'= V\ It is greatly to be regretted that the Legislature 
did not authorize the contouring to be carried over the 
whole region, had this been done in connection with the 
mine sheets the increased cost would have very small com- 
pared with the added value of the work. 

5. Miscellaneous sheets. 

Under this head general maps of the region showing the 
location of the collieries and digrams showing graphically 
the shipments of anthracite have been published. 

6. Reports 

''After the survey of the entire region is completed, the 
geological report of all the basins will be published in two 
volumes ; one on Descriptive Geology^ and] the other on 
Systematic Geology. The preliminary reports published 
with the sheets will only contain facts relating directly to 
them, with [such brief explanations as may be thought 
necessary to make the illustrations perfectly understood."' 

The report proposed above has not been published or 
even prepared although much of the material necessary for 
it is at hand. The Legislature when providing for the com- 
pletion of the mapping of the anthracite region made no 


provision for this report Special reports, which accom- 
panied the earliest of the mine sheets issued, cover aboat 
one third of the region. * 

Mr. Ashburner remained in charge of the Survey until 
1887 when he resigned to accept a more lucrative position 
with the Westinghouse Company of Pittsburg. Mr. 
Frank A. Hill, the principal Assistant Geologist was then 
appointed Geologist in Charge. The progress of the Sur- 
vey had been dependent upon the varying amounts appro, 
priated to it, but in 1887 the L3gislature passed an act calling 
for the completion of the Anthracite Survey within the 
following two years — prior to June, 1889 — and made the 
necessary appropriation. At that time there still remained 
nearly two-thirds of the region to map and the usual cross 
and columnar section to construct. The successful comple- 
tion of this large amount of worK within the time specified 
reflects much credit upon Mr. Hills ability and industry. 

It had been found impossible to get all the numerous mine, 
columnar and cross section sheets through the press before 
the disbandmentof the anthracite corps and the writer was 
retained to complete and supervise this portionof the work. 

The mine sheets constitute the most important part of 
the publications of the Anthracite Survey. No rigid 
system, for their construction, applicable to all parts of 
the region could be adopted. In practice the Survey first 
obtained from the mining companies and individuals copies 
of all the maps, when practicable, but especially of all the 
mine maps, within the area under consideration; these 
maps were reduced to a common scale 800', 600' or 400' = 
1" as the case might be, and join together on a common 
base.f Then one or more parties were placed in the field to 
locate outcrops, axes of anticlinals and basins, correct ap- 
parent or real discrepencies in the connecting maps, and to 

* See Anthracite Region, First Report A A. — Anthracite Region, Second 

Report in Annual for 18S5. — Anthracite Region, Third Report in Annued for 

1886, Part III. 

t The excellent connected maps (300' =k 1") of the Philadelphia and Read- 
ing Coal and Iron Company furnished a very accurate base for most of the 
Southern and Western Miadle fields. In the Northern and Eastern Mid- 
dle fields extensive field work by the Survey was necessary to establish a 
reliable base. 


fill out the various features necessary for the completion 
of the sheets. Sometimes the work original with the Sur- 
vey is but a small part of the information on a sheet and at 
other times it comprises nearly or quite all of it. Credit is 
given on the sheets to the mining companies and individuals 
who have furnished information, but in most cases it was 
impracticable. to specify of what that information consists. 
The value of the mine, cross and columnar section sheets 
depends very largely upon the maps and information freely 
furnished the Survey by the operating companies and 
individuals, the mining engineers and the citizens through- 
out the region. The results attained would have been im- 
possible without their hearty cooperation and it is desired 
on behalf of the Survey to make a full acknowledge of 
the credit due to them. 

Scope of present report. 

The greatest deficiency in the Anthracite publications is 
undoubtedly the lack of more definite information as to 
the thickness in detail and comparative value of the coal 
beds. The publication, which was proposed, of bed sec- 
tions on sheets and a general report to accompany the map- 
ping, would have supplied this want. Although the nu- 
merous columnar sections give a great many total thick- 
nesses of the coal beds at the points cut by the sections, 
there is — owing to the scale — little or no attempt made to 
show what portion of the bed is valuable coal and what 
worthless refuse. An honest and correct columnar section 
giving only the total thicknesses of the coal beds may easily 
give a very erroneous idea of their value. It seems advisa- 
ble to devote the greater portion of this report in an en- 
deavor to supply in part at least this deficiency. Com- 
paratively little space will be given to the description of 
surface features, the anticlinals and the basins, the extent 
of the coal beds and similar subjects; not because of any 
lack of appreciation of their importance but because these 
points are shown graphically and very clearly by the pub- 
lished mine, cross and columnar section sheets. 

In the detailed account of the region which follows, it 
was found convenient to divide each field into a number of 




smaller divisions, the boundries as a rule being determined 
by those of the mine sheets, a set of four sheets usually con- 
stituting a division, the limits of each division are, however, 
stated before described, and they are also shown by the 
small page plate maps. The divisions are numbered 1, 2, 
8, &c., the first division is at the northeastern end of the 
Northern field and the last is at the southwestern end of 
the Southern field. 

The report was prepared with the mine, cross and colum- 
nar sections before the writer and it will no doubt add 
much to its clearness if read in the same way. 

The anthracite sheets, which were issued in sets as fast 
as prepared, are published in nineteen atlases ; and for the 
convenience of the reader a complete list of the sheets, 
giving the location of each, date of publication, and tbe 
number of the atlas in which it is found, is now inserted. 

List of the publications of the Pennsylvania Geological 
Survey pertaining to the Anthracite Region. 

» Northern Goal Field, 

Mine sheets, scale 800'= 1". 


Locating name 

. Geologist. 

Asst. Geoi. 


N. C.F.Atlas. 





. Ashbumer 

Hill, . . . 


Part II 

Newpoit, . . 


1 t 

t ( 



Nanticoke, . 


J , 




Warrior Run, 


. . 




Plymouth, . 





Ashley, . . . 






Kingston, . . 











Pittston, . . . 

Hill, . . . 

Griffith, . 


Part II 


Yatesville, . 












Pleasant Vail e^' 

r t( 
> • 





Scran ton, . . 




Part III 


South Scran ton 

, '' \ 





Providence, . 






Dunmoro, . . 






Olyphant, . . 




Part IV 


Jessup, . . . . 






Jermyii, . . . . 






Arch bald, . . 






Car bond ale, 







« '♦ . . 





Forest City, . . 






Wayne county. 





Smith, ] 



N. C. F. Cross section sheets — scale 400'= V, 



In the Tldnlty of 

On Mine Sheets. 





Bhlokshlnny t*> Sugar Notch. 

1-1 V 





Nanticoke to PltUton. 


1 • 

It II 


• « •• 

•  t • 1 • 


1 1 

• 1 .1 


• t It 

It • t II 

It It 11 iiii 

1 i 




Ashley and Plymouth. 






Wilkes- Barre and Kingston. 


1 1 

It ( • 




11 II II 

1 1 

It It 



Lackawanna to Olyphant. 



Part VI 


« I t 

• 1 1 « • « 


• 1 

It > 1 


I. J &K 

Jermyn to Forest City. 

1 1 

It It 


it 1 1 

• 1 It la It 

1 . .1 

1 1 

.1 II 

N. C. F. Columnar section sheets — scale 40'=1". 


Sections In the Tlelnlty of 

















Wilkes-Barre and Plains 

W.-Barre, Ashley and Sugar Notch 
Wyoming. Kingston and Plymouth . 
Plymouth, Nantlooke and Hanover. . 
Shlckshlnny, Nantlooke A W.-Barre 

Wyoming and Plttston 

Plttston and Jjackawanna 

Pleasant Valley 

Scranton and Dunmore 

TaylorTlIle and Hyde Park 

Hyde Park and Provldeiice 

Scranton and Dunmore 

Dunmore, Olyphant and Peckyllle. . 
PeckvlUe, Jessup and Wlnton . . . . 

Archbald to Carbondale 

Carbondale and Forest City 

On Mine Sheets. 

VI A VIII. . . 
V A VII. . . . 
III. IV AV. . 
I-VIlI. . . . 
IX A X ... . 
IX-XII. . . . 
XI A XII . . . 


XllI A XV . . 
XV A XVI . . 
XVI— XXII . . 

Date. ! N. C, F. Atlas. 



i I 
1 1 

1 1 

1 1 
1 1 
1 1 


a I 
• I 

I ( 

I I 

I 4 

t « 

1 1 

1 1 

Part II. 

Part III. 


N. C. F. Miscellaneous sheets and reports. 

1. Topographical map— Shickstiinny to Scranton by R. P. RotbweU. Scale 
3200^=31'', in Atlas to Annual Report, 18S5. 

2. Topographical raap — Scranton to Forest City. Scale 800'=r'. See mine 
sheets XVI to XXIV. 

8. Topographical map — Preliminary part of Lackawanna Valley. Scale 

1600'sl'^ Annual, 1886, Part III Atlas. 
4. Report covering Mine Sheets I A II, Hill, Annual, 1886, Part III. 
6. << covering Mine Sheets III to VIII, ^shburner. Annual, 1885. 

6. *< on Wyoming Valley Limestone Bed, Ashburner, Annual, 1885, 
chapter X. 

7. Description of the Archbald Pot Holes ; also of the Burled Valley of 
Newport Creek, Ashburner, Annual, 1885, Page 615. 

& Description of the Buried Wyoming Valley, Hill, Annual, 1885, PageHST* 

9. ** a new substance resembling Dopplerite, Lewis, Annual 
1885, Page 647. 

la Columnar Sections (written), Annual, 1886, Part III, Ch. V. 

11. Report on the Bernice Coal Basin, Ashburner, Annual, 1885, Ch. XI. 

12. Map of the Bernice Coal Basin, Harden, Atlas to Annual, 1885. 


.Eastern .Middle Coal Meld. 
Mine eheets, scale 800' ^ 1" 


LoMUna nuDt. 


A»(. QWlonlrt. 


E. H. C. P. 



B^rllniWIn.low. . 




Wi^r. ::::: 

Fart 11. ' 







E. M. C. 

F. Cross section sheets, scale 400' =1 



In the TiclDitT ot 












"••'•• ' '"""•"■ 

E. M. C. P. — Columnar section slieets, scale 40'=!' 


BectloD In lbs 




f; ")«: 

nnrum >n<i Milnenll 




p«n 1 


vii"-Viii: :[ 

nrteO A TomblcW 

E. M. C. F. Miscellaneous. 

1. Columnar iecUona written. Annual, ISSe, PL II[, Cbspter VL 

Smith, ] 



Western Middle Coal Field, 
Mine Sheets, scale 800' — V 

Sheet nnmber. 
















Locating name. 





Mt. Carmel 


Bear Valley 


Half sheets Joining 

on the north. 
Delano (north) . . . 
Shenandoah (north) 
GlrardTllle (north) 



Hlokory Swamp. . . 
BearVallej ;north). 



Asst. Geol. 

Sheaf er Jt Wells 



• « 


t « 


 • • 


• • • 

• •  

•  • 

• • ft 

•  * 



« > 


a t 

I • 

• • 

< • 

t « 

I a 

W.M. G.F.Atlas. 

Part I. 

Part II. 

I « 

Part III. 

W. M. C. P.— Cross section sheets, scale 4C0' = 1". 



In the yiclnttjr of 

On Mine Sheets 







7-9 & 11, . . 
lOftll. . . . 

12-16 & r«-iv 


Mahanor City 



I 4 II 


1 • 

% • 





Ill & IV 


• 1 


Mt. Carmel 

Mt. Carmel to Shamokln, 

Shamokln to Trevorton, . 

It It 

• i 






V-VllI * *. .' ." .* .' .' 

Part III 

W. M. C. F — Columnar section sheets, scale 40' = 1". 


Sections in the riolnlty of 

On Mine Sheets 




Trevorton and Shamokln 

Shamokln and Mt. Carmel 

Ashland and Centralla 

Asbland and (jirardvllle 

GlrardTlllo and Shenandoah, . . . 

Shenandoah and Ollberton 




• a 
f t 
1 t 

* « 
ft • 

Part II 


V & VI. 




HI & IV 


lift III 




I All 

\V. M. C. F.— Miscellaneous. 

1. Topographical map Delano to Mt Carmel by Lehigh Valley Railroad 
Ca and others scale 1600' = 1" (3 sheets) Atlas Pt. I. 

2. Report "Survey of Western Middle Field" Hill, Annual,, 1886, Pt. TIT, 
Ch. III. 

3. Col nniiiar sections written, Annual, 1886, Pt. Ill, Ch. VII. 



Southern Coal Field. 
Mine sheets, scale 800' = V\ 































Locating name. 

Mauch Chunk, .. 

Lansford, .... 
Tamaqua, . . . 
Tamaqua (west), 
Patterson, .... 


FackviUe, . . . . 


Gordon (west), .. 
Middleport, . . . 
Potts vl lie (east), 
Potts viUe (west), 
Forestville, . . . 
Swatara r alls, . . 


Westwood, . . . 
Potts ville Gap, . . 
Blaclswood, . . . 


Good Spring, . . 
Brookside, .... 
Williamstown, . 


Lorberry, .... 


Rausch Gap, . . 
Yellow Spring, . . 
Rattling Run, . . 
Big Flats, . . 

Dauphin, .... 








Asst Geol . 


A Hill, 

Smith, . 




i i 
1 1 


S. G.F. Atlas. 

Part I 

i ( 
i t 

Part II 



i i 
i I 
i i 
1 1 
i i 
i t 
i t 
f i 
t i 
i i 

Part III 

i i 
f t 
i i 
1 1 
t i 
i i 
f t 
t i 
t i 
i i 
i i 

S. 0. F. — Cross section sheets, scale 400' = 1 







1-6. . . . 


7-10, . . . 


11-12. . . 


13—14. . . 


15-17, . . 


• « t ( 


< < • 1 


16« • ' . . 


18-20. . . 


it 1 ( 


It t . 


. . It 


21-22, . . 


1 . 1 1 


It •! 


22-24. . . 


28-24, . . 


It It 


25-2«, . . 


27-28. . . 


5»-3l. . . 

In the Tloinlty of 

On mine sheets 





Reevesdale k Tuscarora, . . 

Broa«l Mountain 

Mine Hill 

St. Clair 

Sharp Mountain 

Broad Mountain 

Mine Hill 


Sharp Mountain 

Sharp Mountain, 

Otto & Middle Creek 

Broad Mountain, 

Sharp Mountain 

Tremont & Smoky Hollow, . 

Thick Mountain 

Good Spring and Brookside, 
Williamstown A Lykens, . . 
Schuylkill & Dauphin basin. 

I &II 






M A Om «* « • • •  • 


VII A VIII, . . . 


XIV A XV . . . 

XV A XVI, . . . 

XII A XIII. . . . 

XVI A XVII, . . 

XVI A XVII, . . 


XIX A XX. . . . 

> I 


. . 

1 1 
I • 
• I 

I < 
. ( 

I I 

8. C. F. 



1 1 

I Pan VI. 



Smith. ] 



S. C. F. — Columnar section sheets, scale 40"=!'. 


Beotlons in the Ticlnity of 


On mtne sheets. 


8. C. K. 


Haoklebarney to No 10 

Mauoh Chunk to Tamaqua .... 

* - Bed aectlODS P. G. basin, . . . 
Tamaqua to New Phlla.. .... 

New Philadeiphiato Pottuville, . 
Hecksohersvllle & MinersTlUe, 

MinersTlUe to Lykena 

8ban> Mountain 



t > 


4 t 
1 t 
1 ( 
» < 
1 i 





• 1 



I • 



Parti IV 




1 « 






Branohdale A Broad Mtn .... 

» » 



Part IV h 


Mlddleport to Kalmia 


• ft 


t * 

S. C. p. — Miscellaneous maps and reports. 

L Topographical map of the Paather Creek basin, Mauch Chunk to Tam- 
aqaa by R. P. Rothwell, Scale 1600=r' in S C F Atlas Part L 

2. Report on the Panther Creek basin — Ash burner— 1883->in A A First 
Report Anthracite Region. 

8. Report on the New Boston basin with map, B. S. Lyman. Annual 
Report 1887. 

Anthracite Region — Oeneral Miscellaneous. 

1. General Map of the Anthracite Coal FieldsssScale 5 milesal" 1882, S. 
C F. Atlas Pt 1. 

2. Qeneral Map of the Anthracite Coal Fields showing position of col- 
lieries. Scale 2 milesal" 1886. Atlas to Part III Annual 1886. 

8. General map of the Anthracite Coal Field showing position of collieries, 
Scale 2 milesial" revised 1890. Under separate cover. . 

4. Statistics— Shipment and Production for 1881 & 1882. First Report An- 
thracite Region Chapter VIII. 
.5 Statistics — Shipment and Production 1883 A 1884, pamphlet 
a Statistics—vSbipment and Production 1885 & 1886. Annual 1886 Pt I II Ch. 
7. Chart showing Shipments, 1820-1882. S. C. F. Atlas Pt L 
a Chart showing Shipments, 1825-1886. Annual 1886 Pt III Atlas. 

9. Columnar sections Anthracite Region. Annual 1885-Atlas. 



Northern Coal Field. 

The Northern coal field or Wyoming- Lackawanna basin 
lies almost wholly in Luzerne and Lackawanna counties, 
only a small area extending into Wayne and Susquehanna 
counties. The field i§ about 56 miles long from the north- 
eastern end near the junction of Wayne, Susquehanna and 
Lackawanna counties to the southwestern end near Shick- 
shmny; it has a general width of 4 to 6 miles. In shape 
the basin is very like that of a canoe ; it has pointed ends, 
but its northern side is concave instead of convex. 

Formations Nos. XII and X form a high mountainous 
rim — in general about 1000' above the valley — around the 
basin ; this is a double rim around the southwest edge, 
where the erosion of the red shales of XI makes a rather 
deep trough between the two hard formations, but the 
thinning of XI toward the northeast, elevates and decreases 
the size of this trough until all three formations practically 
unite to form a single mountain ridge. 

The Lackawanna river, seldom more than 100' to 1.00' 
wide, breaks throus^h this rim at a high gap, 1500' A. T., at 
the extreme northeast end of the field, and flows south- 
westerly, within the basin, for 30 miles to join the North 
Branch of the Susquehanna river, just after it enters the 
field through the deep gap — 550' A. T. — its waters have cut in 
the northern mountain rim at Pittston. The Susquehanna 
flows southwest through a broad fertile plain within the coal 
measures, for 14 miles ; then at Nanticoke turns west, leaves 
the basin by another gap — 415' A. T. — in the northern rim ; 
resumes and continues its southwest course, in the red 
shale valley just north of the field, until Shickshinny is 
reached, where turning abruptly to the south, the river has 
cut off and separates a high narrow trough of coal meas- 
ures — the Salem basin — some two miles long, from the main 
body of the field. 

mthraciteJie^wrv. .JVorfka'ri, (oalTu'Jd. \ 


* « • * 
t • 


Nature has furnished comparatively easy outlets from the 
field toward the west and north by way of the Susquehanna 
river, but to the south and east where the chief markets for 
the coal lie there is no escape, except by crossing the high 
Pocano plateau— 2000' ± A. T. — which forms the watershed 
between the Susquehanna and the Lehigh and Delaware 
rivers. Six important railroad lines now cross this plateau 
to reach the seaboard markets. 

The Susquehanna river has a width of 800' to 1200' with 
a broad flood plain one to two miles wide ; the valley of the 
Lackawanna is much narrower, but in both cases the hills 
within the basin rise slowly with gentle slopes and to sel- 
dom more than half the heigth of the bounding mountains. 

The beautiful Wyoming and Lackawanna valleys were 
classed among the most fertile of the State long before the 
far greater value of their coal deposits were understood.* 


The comparatively gentle slopes of the surface find an 
echo in the gentle dips of the coal beds underlying them 
not that it necessarily follows that a hill or ridge on the 
surface means a hill or ridge — an anticlinal — in measures, 
in fact, in this basin, it is more often the reverse, many of 
the ridges especially in the southwestern part of the field 
are formed by synclinal measures.f 

The steepest dips and the most numerous and important 
anticlinals are found in the southwestern part of the field, 
say from Pittston to Shickshinney and south of the river ; 
within this area dips of 30"* to 40** are quite common and 
occasionally steeper dips of 60° to 70*^ are met with. 
Between Nanticoke and Pitstton north of the river, and 
from Pittston all the way to Foresi City at the northeastern 
end of the field, the dips seldom exceed 10° to 20° and 
the few anticlinals disturb but little the gentle curves of 

* For Historical Notes see Annual, 1886, pg. 277, also History of Wyoming 
Valley, by George B. Kulp, Esq , of VVilkea-Barre. 

f The shape of the floor of the basin under the Kingston and Plymouth 
flats was for a long time the subject of many conjectures, but developments 
made since the publication of the mine sheets give for the most part gentle 
and regular dips ranging from lo to 10^. 


the basin floor. Comparatively but few faults or slips are 
encountered in this field although the measures are not 
wholly free from them ; they are more often found among 
upturned beds than were the measures lie so nearly 

The position. of the various anticlinals and synclinals, as 
indicated by surface exposures and developed by the mine 
workings, are shown on the mine sheets. The cross section 
sheets* also show the position and shape of the different 
axes where intersected by the section lines and they will 
be discussed individually briefly, in the report of the locality 
in which each occurs. 

The anticlinals have a general parallelism throughout 
the field even to the far northeast end. The usual course 
is about N 70° E or S 70° W. Between Shickshinny and 
Nanticoke this course is about parallel to the sides 
of the basin, but the gentle curving of the field towards 
the north, soon causes the course of the anticlinals to 
become more and more oblique to the general trend of the 
measures, so that towards the northeast end of the field 
the few scattered axes cross the basin at an angle of 
about 46°. 

In common with the general structure of the whole 
anthracite region it is usual in this field to find the steepest 
dips towards the north and more gentle ones towards the 

Nearly all the anticlinals of the Northern field originate 
within the coal measures and die out eastward before cross- 
ing the conglomerate rim. Two important exceptions to 
this are seen south-east of Pittston, and tlie unusually wide 
area there covered by No. XII and the scattered patches of 
coal measures is due to the extension of these axes across 
the Conglomerate and out of the field. Some of the most 
important of the anticlinals are continuous for a nujnber 
of miles; but it is quite common for an axis to flatten 
down and be replaced by another which springs up a little 
to one side, this new axis is sometimes regardf^d as simply 

* See also the oross section page plates. 

Anthracite' Segiem/^J^T-tkerth CoatTceld/ 




a continuation of the first and sometimes as a district 

The deepest part of the Wyoming-Lackawanna basin 
(about 2200' feet), lies about half-way between Nanticoke 
and Wilkes-Barre, from here northeast the measures have 
a general rise reaching their highest point in the neighbor- 
hood of Lackawanna station, some four miles above Pitts- 
ton, where only 100' to 150' of coal measures are left. 
Prom Lackawanna northeast the measures once more sink 
along the basin, bringing in successively the higher beds, 
attaining a depth of about 700' below the river a mile or 
or two beyond Scran ton ; then rising again slowly but 
surely as we follow up the valley of the Lackawanna until 
the lowest coal bed finally disappears into the air beyond 
Forest City at the northeastern end of the field. 

Formation No. XIL 

The northern outcrop of No. XII occupies a narrow 
strip of country, seldom more than 1000' to 1500' wide for 
the whole length of the field; between Shickshinny and 
Nanticoke this outcrop forms a mountain ridge, but from 
Nanticoke northeast the rocks of No. X more commonly 
make the main crest with those of XII forming a subordi- 
nate ridge a little lower along the southern slope. The 
southern outcrop of XII from Wilkes-Barre northeast cov- 
ers a broader strip of country ranging from one-half to one 
and one-half miles in width; the mountain slope and the 
dip of the conglomerate beds often so nearly correspond as 
to throw their final outcrop far back and high up on the 
ridge or even a little beyond its crest. This broad south- 
ern rim of XII is seamed here and there with deep ravines, 
which the streams after cutting through XII have eroded 
in the softer underlying measures. Here, as on the north, 
the conglomerate beds sometimes form a separate ridge 
but more often only a terrace a little below the higher 
mountain summits formed bv the rocks of No. X. Be 
tween Wilkes-Barre and Shickshinny the southern outcrop 
of XII is only a few hundred feet wide, but forms a high 
ridge with a red shale valley between it and the No. X 


mountain, making an excellent exhibition of the "double 
rim" which in many points of the field exists only in a 
much modified form. 

The average thickness of Formation No. XII in the North- 
em field is about 220'; its usual variations are between ISO'' 
and 300', although a minimum thickness of 90' is reported 
at one place near Moconaqua and again at another point 
south of Wilkes-Barre, and a maximum thickness of 450' ia 
reported to have been cu t by a hole bored for water south 
of Scranton ; but it may perhaps be reasonably questioned 
whether the line between XII and XI has been correctly 
placed in the instances just mentioned. 

In the southwestern half of the field the conglomerate 
beds of No. XII* are made up of rather coarse materials, the 
pebbles often reach egg size, although a hickory nut con- 
glomerate is usually the coarsest layer ; the materials com- 
posing XII grow finer toward the northeast but in rather 
an irregular way, as now and then a coarse massive outcrop 
of conglomerate is seen. In the neighborhood of Carbon- 
dale the heaviest beds of XII are a coarse-grained, massive, 
whitish gray sandstone, containing a few scattered pea- 
sized pebbles. 

Lines were run by the anthracite corps locating the out- 
crop of the bottom of XII all the way around the field ; for 
the most part but little difficulty was found in accurately 
fixing its position, as the lower members of the formation 
generally make an outcropping ledge below which the 
shales of XI can usually be seen in the wash and at times in 

The ^'Campbells Ledge' black carboniferous shale bed — 
one to ten feet thick — of which mention is made by Mr. I. 
C. White, Report G 7, and placed by him at the bottom of 
No. XII, is apparently persistent under a considerable por- 
tion of the field, its outcrop has been dug into at a number 
of points and it is also recognized in some of the diamond 
drillings, further mention of this will be made in the de- 
tailed reports. At some of the places opened thin streaks 
of coal are found among the shales. Mr. R. D. Lacoe, of 

* For sections of XII see plate 312. 

Smith.] N. 0. F. FORMATION NO. XII. 1951 

Pittston, obtained a large number of fossils from the out- 
crop at Campbell's Ledge. For list of these see Gt 7 
page 39. 

A tjiin hed of coal^ at the most 1' to 2' thick, is some- 
times found among the conglomerate beds of No. XII. At 
no point where opened is the bed of workable thickness ; 
further mention of it will be made when describing the 
localities in which it has been found. 

Coal Measures. 

The 1800 feet of coal measures found in the deep basin 
between Wilkes-Barre and Nanticoke comprises the 
maximum thickness of the Northern field measures. They 
consist of the usual beds of sandstones, shales and fire- 
clays, alternating in varying order and interval with beds 
of coal. The lower 500 feet are by far the most pro- 
ductive, mining operations are, largely confined to these, 
and our knowledge of the higher beds of the series is 
still rather meagre and not wholly conclusive. 

The eleven workable coal beds in the vicinity of Wilkes- 
Barre, in the "Wyoming basin," have a set of names 
wholly different from those in use in the Eastern Middle, 
Western Middle or Southern fields ; and the eleven work- 
able beds found in the vicinity of Scranton in the "Lacka- 
wanna basin," have still another set of names different 
from those in use in the vicinity of Wilkes-Barre or in the 
other fields. The Survey has used the recognized local 
names on its maps and in the reports, indicating the pro- 
bable identity of some of the beds from point to point. 
The frequent splitting of the large coal beds into 
two or even more smaller beds, which sometimes be- 
come separated by as great an interval as 200 feet, (many 
instances of which the mine working prove beyond ques- 
tion); illustrates the uselessness of insisting uponapositive 
correlation of all the beds in one field with those of another 
field or even between the beds at widely separated points 
in the same field, except where the bed is continuous and 
can be traced by mine workings and its outcroppings. 


Proportion of Refuse in the Coal Beds. 

The coal beds of the Northern field contain proportion- 
ately less refuse — chiefly slate and bony coal — than do the ^ 
beds of the other fields; this is due perhaps partly to a 
smaller amount of foreign material having been originally 
deposited in the beds with the coal; and chiefly to the 
fact that the beds of this field have suflfered but very little 
from the close folding which has made unmarketable, by 
crushing or intimately mixing with the slate, a considerable 
amount of coal in the Southern, Western Middle and to a 
less extent in the Eastern Middle fields. 

The average of 891 bed sections well distributed through- 
out this field eliminating all refuse and including all bony 
coal as refuse, gives 81.8 percent, marketable coal and 18.2 
per cent, refuse. From this it would appear that, where 
special information as to the purity of a bed is lacking, 
the assumption of say 80 per cent, of the total thickness of 
a bed to be marketable coal is a wholly reasonable one. 

For convenience in description the Northern field is 
divided into six divisions, and a seventh, the Loyal sock- 
Mehoopany field of Sullivan and Wyoming counties, is also 
included under this head, they are as follows :* 

1. Forest City-Carbondale Division. 

2. Jermvn-Priceville " 

3. Scran ton '' 

4. Pittston *' 

5. Wilkes- Barre, " 

6. Nanticoke-Mocanaqua *' 

7. Loyalsock-Mehoopany *' 

1. Forest City-Carbondale Division, 

This division comprises all of the area mapped on mine 
sheets XXI to XXIV. t these mine sheets also show the 
topography of the division by contour lines 10' vertically 
apart. The general structure is exhibited by cross section 
K at Forest City and J at Carbondale, published on cross 

*Page plates 313 and 321 show locaUon. 

t Page plate 813 also gives relative location of this division. 

• « 

• t 


section sheets VIII and IX.* A number of columnar sec- 
tions giving the detailed thicknesses and character of the 
strata at various points within the division are given on 
columnar section sheets XV and XVI. 

This area includes the extreme northeastern end of the 
field. The Lackawanna river enters the basin, through a 
gap in the northern rim of No. XII, just above Forest 
City, it crosses the coal measures and occupies a narrow 
valley along the southern edge until Carbondale is reached, 
where the valley broadens out and the coal beds underlie 
both the valley and the hills on either side. South of the 
river the ground rises in one steep slope, with little or no ter- 
racing, to the outcrop of No. XII near the top of the moun- 
tain. North of the river where most of the coal lies the 
ground rises abruptly from the waters edge, then flattens 
off and goes rolling back to the mountain nearly two miles 
away. Elk creek. Coal brook and Fall brook flowing 
diagonally to the river drain this area. 

Two railroads— the N. Y., L. E. & W. and N. Y., 0. & 
W. — find a northern outlet by following up the Lacka- 
wanna river ; an eastern outlet is gained by the Delaware 
and Hudson Coal Co's R. R. by a series of inclined planes 
over the Pocono mountain to the south of Carbondale. 

The general level of the valley is about 1000' A. T. at 
Carbondale, rising to 1500' A. T. at the Forest City gap 
seven miles above. No. XII outcrops on the mountain 
side 1800' to 2000' A. T. 

Formation No, XII : The place of outcrop of the bottom 
of the formation is here sometimes rather diflicult fix 
upon the ground, owing to the thinness of No. XI, a 
greenish shale only 1'/ to 20' thick, and the close re- 
semblance of the beds of No. X with those of No. XII. 
Much care was taken in the determination of this outcrop 
and it is thought to be very closely shown upon the mine 
sheets. The crest of the mountain surrounding the field in 
this division is usually composed to beds of No. X, with the 
rocks of No. XII making an outcropping ledge or ridge a 

*Page plate 316 gives parts of these sections. 

} No. XII=126 1 


little lower on the mountain side. At the eastern end of the 
field beyond Forest City where No. XII rises into the air, 
its outcrops form steep cliffs 100' or more in height at 
nearly 2200' A. T. 

The. general thickness of No XII seems to be about 200' 
although it varies from 125' to 220'. It is composed of 
coarse grained hard sandstones and pea conglomerates. A 
diamond drill hole on Lot 32 about one and one- half miles 
west of Forest City, put down by the Hillside Coal & Iron 
Company cat through No XII with a thickness of 125' as 

Clifford bed, 2' 3" "^ 

Slate, 7'6" 

Pea Conglomerate, 18' 9" 

God glomerate, 6' 10" 

Bard sandstone, 22" 

Conglomerate, 4 3'' 

Hard sandstone, 27' 3" 

Conglomerate, 6' 9'' 

Sandstone, 3' 3" 

Conglomerate, 7' 3" 

Sandstone, 8' 4" 

Conglomerate, 39' 9' 

Green shale, 17' 7' No. XI=17 7' 

White rock, 15' 4" Top of No. X. 

A bore hole near the mouth of Kendrick's drift, south of 
Carbondale has also cut through the formation which is 
there 220' 7 " thick. This section is given on columnar 
section sheet XV and also on page plate 312. 

The structure is that of a broad shallow basin with 
gentle dip of 10° more or less on either side. The trend of 
the basin is about N. 25° E. The two rather mild anti- 
clinal flexures — the Coal Brook and Northwest axes— de- 
veloped by the mine workings run about N. 70° E., or cross 
the basin at an angle of about 45°. Along Brace brook 
above Forest City a gentle dipping axis is exposed, it ap- 
pears to be only local importance. The general dip of the 
basin, although not uniform, is toward J the southwest and 
it has a fall in that direction of about 1100' in this division. 

The coal measures of this division attain their greatest 
thickness under the high ground, near the axis of the 
basin, north of the river and between Carbondale and 


Forest City; this thickness probably does not exceed 400' 
and includes four coal beds workable for part if not for all 
of the area underlaid by them. 

The identily of the coal beds worked at Forest City with 
those lower down the valley in the vicinity of Carbondale, 
has been, owing to the scanty developments intervening, a 
matter of much uncertainty; although it was supposed to 
-be correctly expressed on the mine sheets. Later develop- 
ments and particularly a series of eight diamond drill 
holes, recently bored for the Hillside Coal and Iron Co., 
Beem to conclusively prove the former conjectures to be 
partly incorrect. The first of these borings is near the 
Forest City No. 2 shaft and they extend southwest at 
brief intervals to the site of the new Richmondale col- 
iiery on Lot No. 31. The record of these holes and their 
relative position is given on page plates 314 and 316. 
Bore hole No. 1 shows the "Shaft" bed of Forest City 
No. 2 colliery to be in two splits, each about 3' thick and 
14' apart; Nos. 2 and 3 show the interval to widen to 26' 
and the beds to thicken to 4'; No. 4 shows the beds still 
thicker. No. 5 thinner ; No. 6 thicker ; No. 7 still thicker ; 
No. 8 or Richmondale No. 1 shows the splits each about 8' 
thick and 20' apart : from here it is easy to trace and iden- 
tify these splits of the '' Shaft" bed as the ''Top coal" bed 
and ** Bottom coal" bed* of the Northwest colliery and 
of the Coal Brook colliery at Carbondale, (see columnar sec- 
tions on sheet XVI). 

The uniform position of the ''Slope" bed at about 100' 
above the "Top coal" and the variation in the number and 
thickness of the thin Dnnmore beds below the "Bottom 
€oal" are important facts disclosed by the bore hole re- 

The identity of the beds at Forest City with those at 
Carbondale may now be expressed as follows: (See also 
page plate 319.) 

♦Southwest of Carbondale the "Top" and ** Bottom " coals again unite 
■and are called the Archbald bed. 



Carbondale. Korest City. 
Grassy Island bed (not worked) = **Slope"bed. 

"Top Coal" bed ) u«u«#^t» k^^ 

"Bottom Coal" bed I =- ^^""^ »^^^- 

Third bed = Thin beds not worked. 

DunmoreCo. 3 bed, bottom ) r»M4r^^A k«^ 

bed of Watkins bore hole { ^ Cliflford bed . 

On the mine sheets the "Slope" bed is erroneously called 
the *Top Coal;" and the Clifford bed is printed in the same 
color as the Third bed suggesting an identity between them 
which does not exist. 

The changes noted in themselves do not call for any re- 
vision of the outcrop of the bottom Dunmore or Clifford 
bed, or of the outcrop of the ''Bottom coal" or "Shaft" bed 
as given upon the mine sheets; but the fact that the wash, 
even on the hillsides is often 50' or 60' deep and that a 
heavy growth of timber covers the surface makes it quite 
probable that these outcrop lines are more or less in error 
except when fixed by mining developments or explora- 

Clifford or Dunmore No, 3 hed^ is the lowest of the 
Dunmore coals it lies at the base of the coal measures 
and marks the dividing line between them and formation. 
No. XII. The Clifford although only workable for a por- 
tion of its extent is apparently the most important of the 
Dunmore beds in this division ; it reaches its best thickness: 
about the northeastern end of the division and is worked at 
the Clifford coUery just above Forest City where it has 
an average thickness of about 5' ; the bed however grows^ 
thinner to the southwest as in the bore hole at Forest 
City shaft No. 2 and in the new borings southwest of the 
shaft, it varies from V 1" to 3' 4" in thickness with an aver 
age of about 2' 6". At the Hendricks drift bore hole south 
of Carbondale this bed was cut 2' ^" thick ; an examin- 
ation of the records on columnar section sheets XV and 
XVI show no other borings near Carbondale of sufficient 
depth to have cut the Clifford bed ; the bed is so vari- 
able in its thickness that it is j)ossible however that 
future developments may prove limited areas of it to be 
workable in this vicinitv 

PL. 314. 

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Third Bed is the only other of the Dunmore coals- 
which are represented in this division by four or five small 
beds of varying thickness — that is worked. It is opened 
in the hill south of Carbondale and to a small extent in the 
Coal Brook* colliery north of the town, where worked the 
bed is 4' to 5' thick but in general it is rather irregular and 
variable. Some of the bore hole records indicate that pos- 
sibly limited areas of this coal between Carbondale and 
Forest City may prove workable. The Third bed is usu- 
ally found 100' to 120' above the Clifford bed and 10' to 50' 
below the '^Bottom coal" bed. 

Shaft or ^^Top coaV^ and 'Bottom coaV^ bed is the most 
important bed in this division and extensively mined, es- 
pecially about Carbondale where the workings on this bed 
include some of the oldest operations in the field. As we 
have already seen the bed is a double one and ap- 
parently continues so nearly all the way to the Forest 
City No. 2 shaft, where the splits reduced in size 
unite to form the Shaft bed. The interval between the 
splits varies from a few inches to 30' or 40', making it neces- 
sary in j)laces to work them separately. In the vicinity of 
Carbondale the bed runs from 12' to 14' thick, about 
equally divided between the two splits — Top coal and Bot- 
tom coal — ; at the Northwest and Richmondale collieries 
the bed will average 10' to 12' thick still in two splits; and 
at the Forest City and Cliflordf collieries where it is a sin- 
gle bed it has a thickness of 5' to 7'. The coal has a good 
reputation, the bed is fairly clean and certainly does not 
fall below the average of the field or 80 per cent, of its thick- 
ness in clean coal. At Forest City the interval between it 
and the Clifford is about 180' ; at Carbondale this interval 
is about 125' or possibly less. 

Slope or Grassy Island bed, the highest of this division, 
is worked only at the Forest City colliery where it is found 

* A cross-section through Coal Brook is given on plate 316. 

Note— On mine sheet XXIII the bed mined from the Clifford shaft called 
on the sheet the <*Top'' coal and printed in blue is the *'Shaft" bed and 
should be in red ; this correction is made on the cross and columnar sec- 
tion sheets. 

t A cross-section through the Clifford shaft is given on plate 316. 


about 80' above the Shaft bed, this interval increases to 100' 
or 120' toward the southwest. It has apparently quite a 
uniform thickness of about 5' not onlv in the mine work- 
ings but where cut in the new bore holes. The extent of 
this bed is not shown on the mine sheets ; it underlies the 
high land close to the axis of the basin and has at the most 
only 100' to 120' of cover. 

'2. Jermyn-Priceville Division. 

This division comprises all that part of the field mapped 
on mine sheets XVII to XX,* these mine sheets give also 
the topography of the area shown by contour lines 10' ver- 
tically apart. The general structure is exhibited by two 
sections across the basin, J at Jermyn and H at Olyphant 
published on cross section sheets VII to IX.f Columnar 
sections giving the detailed thicknesses and character of 
strata at various points within the division are given on 
columnar section sheets XII to XV4 

The area embraced by this division includes the full 
width of the field, some 4 to 6 miles, and it is some 9 miles 
in length from the sheet line a little below Carbondale to 
the sheet line at Priceville. It has within its limits the 
towns of Mayville, Jermyn, Archbald, Win ton, Jessup, 
Peckville, Olyphant and Priceville. 

The Lackawanna river, from Carbondale to Jermyn, 
occnipies a central place in the basin, with the mountains 
on either side sloping down quite uniformly to the river flat 
which is about half a mile wide ; at Jermyn the river bends 
and flows south, in a narrow valley, to Winton close to the 
southern rim of the[field, leaving a hilly area to till the cen- 
tral part of the basin ; at Winton the river turning sharply 
to the right fiows west, then to the southwest, and at the 
division line at Priceville it is once moio in a wide valley 
and near the trough of the basin ; the structure and more 
gentle dips here throw a much larger coal area to the south- 
east than to the northwest of the river. The river falls 

* Page plate 313 shows general location, 
t See also reduced sections page plate 310. 
X See also sections on page plate 317. 


about 240' from 1000' A. T. to 760' A. T. in crossing this 
division. Both mountain rims of the field are notched, but 
not very deeply by streams tributary to the Lackawanna. 
The waters of Rush brook north of Jermyn have cut the 
deepest ; No. XII crosses the brook at 105u' A. T. 

Formation No. XII. — The southeastern outcrop of No. 
XII is from one-fourth of a mile to a mile wide; its irreg- 
ular shape is caused largely by the erosion of the streams 
which cross its boundaries. Owing to the many exposures 
its outcrop is for the most part easily traced. The dips 
are gentle, often less than tlie slope of the ground, throw- 
ing the bottom beds of conglomerate far back on the moun- 
tain side where they outcrop at 1700' to 1900' A. T. Along 
the northwestern rim the dips are steeper 15® to 26° making 
a narrower outcrop of No. XII in general about 2000' 
wide ; the beds are not so well exposed as along the 
southeast but yet frequently enough to prevent the likeli- 
hood of any important error in the location of its out- 

The character of the materials composing No. XII is 
much the same as in the Forest City-Carbondale division, 
mostly line conglomerate and sandstone, shading from one 
to the other, with occasional layers of coarse pebbly con- 

The full thickness of the formation seems to have been 
cut in ttie bore hole 2000' south of the Peirce breaker at 
Winton, (section 16 col. sec. sheet XIV)*, which gives 
*'162'.5" of Sandstone" from the Dunmore No. 3 bed to 
*'3'.()" of coal and slate," probably the '^Campbells Ledge 
black shale bed" found in a number of places further south 
at the base of No. XII. If this be the Campbells Ledge 
shale, and it seems most probable, it is the most north- 
eastern proving of it recorded. A new borehole — No. 8 
— put down by Mr. John Jermyn, northwest of Jermyn 
No. 5 colliery, on the Sandy McLean warrant, cut No. XII 
247' thick, composed of hard sandstones and conglomer- 
ates, largely the latter, with 6" of slate — Campbells Ledge 
shale? — at the base. 

* Reproduced on plate 812. 


Structure, — From Carbondale to Jerniyn the basin con- 
tinues to dip gently to the southwest along its axis, but 
from Jermyn for the next two miles or so, say to a little 
beyond the Ridge shaft, the basin rises at least 300' and 
retains only the Archbald and Dunmore beds within its 
cover. This lifting of the lower measures along the axis 
may in some way have determined the deflection of the 
river toward the southern rim of the field at Winton. From 
near the Ridge shaft the basin once more sinks toward the 
southwest, under Peckville and Olyphant, rapidly bring in 
higher coal beds. The deepest point in the measures of 
this division is near the southwestern line at Priceville. '■ 

The northeastern half of the division is practically free of 
rolls, but the southwestern half shows several anticlinal 
axes, two of which are quite important ; the most northern 
of these is the Archhald axis which is developed in the 
mines of Jones, Simpson & Co., and of the Delaware and 
Hudson Canal Co., at Archbald. The course of the axis is 
about N. 65° E., its southwestward extent and shape is not 
yet fully determined. The presence of this axis is undoubt- 
edly influential in the uplift of the measures between 
Jermyn and Peckville, but it is hardly of suflBci^nt impor 
tance to be the sole cause of it. A little oval patch of No. 
XI is brought to-day along the Lackawanna on the north 
flank of the axis. The PecJccille- Winton anticlinal effects 
chiefly the outcrop of the Grassy Island coal bed above 
Peckville, although not connected on the mine sheets it 
seems possible that this axis is identical wdth one shown 
in the mine workings at Peckville. Several small rolls are 
seen to the south of the Peckville-Winton anticlinal; 
their position is shown on the mine sheets. 

Coal measures— The highest coal beds of this division are 
found in the hill south of Olyphant and Priceville, the 
maximum thickness of the measures is 700' to 800' and 
thev contain nine coal beds some of which are workable 
for part and others for all of their extent. The Archbald 
or Clark bed from its size and extent is the chief bed of 
the division, its outcrop is given upon the mine sheets as is 
also that of the lowest or Dunmore (No. H) bed. 


Jlntkradte Region _ Jlorthem Coal Field 


I I If 




. ^Mi » rii L'- -' \'o ^ 


1 i 

OlAUfQftQ ,»t» 

'.- ^^'I'Z. SSI^— --— 2^:i=Ti:t:. 

«/« mto 



Th.% Dunmore hedsoit\\e Jerniyn-Priceville areaare so 
variable in number, and tliickness* that it is here impossible 
to conclusively identify the three well define coals exten- 
sively worked in the vicinity of Dunmore and Scran ton. 
On sheet XIX — Jermyn sheet — a note says: ^'theexistance 
of any workable bed under the Archbald is regarded as 
doubtful." A bore hole (see Sec. 13, Col. Sec. sheet If)) 
from the bottom of the Erie shaft to 160' below the Arch- 
bald bed cut but two thin seams of coal 9" and 6" respect- 
ively ; another bore hole (see sec. 14, col. sec. sheet 15) on 
ihe hill north of Mayville to 215' below the Archbald bed cut 
four thin coals, the largest but 10" thick. Developments on 
the adjoining sheet No. XVII made since its publication, 
to be referred to, make it seem possible that the thinness of 
the beds in the Erie and Mayville bore holes may be only- 
local, and that a Dunmore bed of workable thickness may 
underlie some portion of this sheet. On sheet XX a Dun- 
more bed reported to be 3' to 4' thick has been opened at 
several points by trial- shaftings along the southern out- 

The greatest development of the Dunmore coals in this di- 
vision is within the area covered by sheet XVI; the Marsh- 
wood rock slope (near the southeast corner) opens three 
beds all of which are worked; bed No. 1 is 4'.3" thick, 
No. 2 is 4'.2'' and No. 3 (the bottom bed) is 4'.2" thick; these 
beds correspond fairly well and are probably identical with 
beds Nos. 1, 2 and 3 of Dunmore, the workings on which 
are only two miles southwest of the slope; at the Dolph 
colliery south of Jessup one of the Dunmore beds — No. 2 
probably — is extensively mined, its thickness varies from 
5' to 12', with an average of about 8'; an inside bore hole 
from near the Grassy Island shaft (see sec. 10 col. sec. 
sheet XIII) cut three Dunmore beds, workable so far as 
mere thickness; a bore hole (see sec. 18 col. sec. sheet 
XIV) on the Theodore Woodbridge warrant in Peckville 
to 338' below the Archbald or Clark bed cut seven small 
coal beds the largest of which is but 2' 2" thick; at the Mt. 
Vernon colliery just south of Winton (marked Peckville 

♦For example see "Winton" and "Glen wood" coluinar sections plate 317. 


Coal Co. on the mine sheet) a Danmore bed, No. 1 prob- 
ably, has been worked to a small extent, the bed is 5' 
thick but rough and dirty with but 2' 6" of coal; at Mr. 
Thos. Waddell' s new colliery just across the river, tlie 
Dunmore No. 1 bed is opened by aslope, several boreholes 
(see sec. 22, 24 and 25 col. sec. sheet XIV) put down before 
ihe colliery was established, cut the bed 6' to 8' 6" thick. 

On sheet XVII, in the central part of the basin underly- 
ing Priceville, Olyphant and Blakely, the diamond drill 
borings including a number of recent holes put down by 
Mr. John Jermyn, the Lackawanna Coal Co. and the Hill- 
side Coal and Iron Co., show all the Dunmore beds to he 
thin ana apparently here unworkable. The bottom bed, 2' 
to 6' thick at some 260' below the Clark bed, makes the 
best showing but the coal is dirty and of inferior quality. 

Along the northern side of the basin and close to the north- 
ern outcrop these beds shown a decided improvement, which 
has largely been demonstrated by developments made since 
the publication of this sheet ; on the Sandy McLean war- 
rant, on the mountain northwest of Priceville, the bottom 
Dunmore bed — perhaps here Nos. 2 and 3 combined — has 
been shafted along' its o'ltcrop and found to have an un- 
usual thickness of 16' 2", 14' of this being coal ; a series of 
bore holes test the bed for half a mile southeast of the 
outcrop. These borings demonstrate that the bed splits 
near the outcrop, that the lower split — Dunmore No. 3 
bed — has where bored 5' to T of good coal and the upper 
split 2' to 4' thick contains perhaps too much bone and 
slate to be valuable ; additional borings are now being made 
further to the southeast to determine the extent in that di- 
rection of the workable thickness of the bed. 

At the Ontario colliery on the James Dodd tract — estab-'' 
lishedsince the publication of the mine sheet — a Dunmore 
bed, cajled by the operators No. 2, is extensively worked ; 
the shaft is 800' deep, a bore hole (see sec. 10, col. sec. sheet 
XIV) just west gives a section of the measures cut. The 
bed is about 6' thick with 4' 6" to 5' of coal; a new tunnel 
900' long, on a level with the top of the shaft, opens up a 
large area of this coal above water level. The northeast- 


ward extent of this bed with a workable thickness is not 
yet determined. 

To sum briefly the Dunmore beds of this division three 
of which at one point at least are workable, show such 
diversity of thickness and quality, that, in nearly every 
case it requires a thorough proving* to determine their 
value, which may be considerable or very little. 

ArcJibald or Clark bed,, or the ^''Top coaV^ and ^"^ Bot- 
tom coaV^ of Carbondale is in this division, except near 
Carbondale, a single bed. The mine workings in this bed 
are now so extensive that its identity throughout the di- 
vision seems unquestionably established. The outcrop of 
the bed between Peckville and Carbondale is shown on the 
mine sheets ; southwest of Peckville the outcrop of the 
Grassy Island bed is given instead. At the Powderly 
mines, near Carbondale the bed is 13' to 15' thick, in two 
benches — Top coal and Bottom coal — of about equal thick- 
ness, in some parts of the mine the benches are so far 
apart as to be worked separately; at the Keystone colliery 
the bed averages T 6" thick with but 5" of refuse; at the 
Edgerron colliery the bed is about 12' thick; at the Erie, 
Glenwoodjt Jermyn shafr. White Oak and Eaton collieries 
the bed has an average thickness of about 10'. Practically 
everywhere on mine sheets XIX and XX the bed seems to 
be of good regular thickness, containing but a small propor- 
tion of refuse and the coal is of excellent quality. A sec- 
tion of the bed at Archbald is as follows : Coal ^' tf", slate 
S'\ coal 6'\ slate 2'\ coal 1' 6'\ slate 2'\ coal 6' 0". Total 
10\ coal 9' 6", West of Archbald the bed is thinner and 
more broken by slate partings and bony benches; at the 
Mt. Jessup colliery the bed is 8' to 9' thick with 1' 6" to 
2' 0" of refuse; at the new Riverside colliery, on the How- 
ells Estate, west of Winton, the bed is about 6' thick 
with 4' 6" to 5' 0" of coal; at the new shaft of the Blue 
Ridge Coal Co., on the Ann Dilly warrant, the bed is about 

*It is highly important that borings should reach a sufficient depth to 
make sure of cutting the lowest bed, 300' below the Clark bed, if that hori- 
zon is known, is not too much. 

t For cross section througli Glen wood see plate 3 16. 

1964 gh:ological survey of Pennsylvania. 

6' fhick; at the Sturges shaft near by 6' thick with 3' of 
coal; the bed is now worked at the Jermyn collieries at 
Priceville with a thickness of 3' to 5'; along the north side 
of the basin between Priceville and Peckville the Clark 
bed, as it is here called, is thin or so split by slate or bone 
partings sometimes of considerable thickness, as to make it 
difficult to identify the bed in the borings and probably 
renders it unworkable for much of the area. 

Four foot bed : —In the interval between the Arch bald 
or Clark bed and the Grassy Isbnd bed two small coal beds 
usually occur, one of which at times reaches a workable 
thickness and is called the Four Foot bed. The only work 
ings on this bed thus far are at the Grassy Island shaft, of 
the Stony Creek Coal Co., near Jessup, where its thickness 
is about 4' ; shaft and bore hole records-see col. sec. sheets — 
sIjow it to vary from 2' to 6' thick at other points in this 

Or assy Island bed is separated from the Archbald or 
Clark bed by an interval of 130' to 140', throughout the 
northeastern part of the division, along the southwest at 
Priceville this interval is 200'. 

The approximate outcrop of the bed is given on mine 
sheets XVII and XVIII ; the extension of the Lackawanna 
colliery workings, since the publication of the mine 
sheets, has shown that the bed spoons just west of the 
branch railroad up Tinklepaugh creek, although the bed 
may be caught again in the hill to the northeast near the 
approximate outcrop given on the sheet. In the basin 
about Jermyn, sheet XIX, the Grassy Island bed is also 
found, it underlies here an area about 4 miles in length 
with a maximum width in the hill southwest of the town 
of about 4,000'; its outcrop is not indicated. North of 
Priceville on the Jermyn property the outcrop has been 
found about 1,000' higher up the mountain side than the 
mine sheet shows. 

The Grassy Island is the principal bed of the southwest- 
ern half of the division and indeed of the whole field, m 
other parts of which it is called the Big bed, Pittstonbed, 


^nthrcLcvte Regicrv^ Ji^orthent Coal Field. 



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Baltimore bed, etc. It is worked at the Glen wood colliery 
in the Jermyn basin, where it has a thickness of about 10'; 
borings to the south and west of the town give a thickness 
for it of 5' to 12' with an average of about 8', the cover over 
the bed in this neighborhood is light, seldom* more than 
100'. In the main basin, sheet XVII and XVIII, the bed 
is extensively worked, at the Grassy Island colliery* of D. 
&H. C. Co. and the Grassy Island colliery* of the Sterry 
Creek Coal Co., the bed is 10' to 12' thick; at the Olyphant, 
the Eddy Creek, the Lackawanna and the Jermyn No. 4 
and 6 collieries the bed averages from 7' to 9' thick, though 
occasionally thickening to 14' or thinning to 4' or 6'. The 
coal is of good quality, the bed contains about the average 
amount of refuse, say 18 to 20 percent. 

Rock bed is next above the Grassy Island with an 
interval of about 80' between, in which a small leader or 
two are usually found. The bed is not worked in this 
division, where cut by shafts and bore holes it is generally 
about 6' thick in two benches with 1' to 2' of slate be- 
tween. The coal is rather rough and inclined to be 

Diamond bed is found in the high measures south of 
Olyphant and Priceville ; where cut by the Olyphant No. 
2 and the Eddv Creek shafts it has a thickness of 3' 6" to 
4' 6". Its place is about 100' above the Rock bed. It is 
not worked in this neighborhood. 

Olyphant No. 2 bedf is 70' to 100' above the Diamond. 
It is mined in the hill south of Olyphant, at the Olyphant 
and the Eddy Creek collieries, where the bed is about T 
thick, coal of excellent quality. The sections show three 
leaders between the Diamond and Olyphant No. 2 bed but 
none of workable thickness. 

Olyphant No. 1 bed is found 16' to 50' above the Oly- 
phant No. 2 bed and is also worked at the Olyphant and 
Eddy Creek collieries, where it has a thickness of about 7'. 
This is the highest bed of the division and the cover over 
it does not much exceed 60'. 

*A oross section through the Grassy Island shafts is given on plate 316. 



Owing to their high position in the measures the two Oly- 
phant beds have a rather limited extent mucii of which ow- 
ing to its favorable situation and excellent quality of the 
coal has now been worked over. 

3. Scranton Division. 

The Scranton division comprises all that part of the field 
mapped on mine sheets XIII to XVI* ; these sheets do not 
give the topography, but it is given on a small scale map 
(.3200=1") contained in Annual, 1885, Atlas.f The gen- 
eral structure is exhibited by two sections across the basin, 
G at Providence and F at South Scranton, published on 
cross section sheets VI to VIII4 Columnar sections giv- 
ing the detailed thicknesses and character of the strata at 
various points within the division are given on columnar 
section sheets X to XIII. || 

The area covered by the four mine sheets is that between 
Priceville and Taylorsville some nine miles in length with 
a width of about five miles between the outcrops of No. 
XII. .The City of Scranton occupies the central portion of 
the division ; the business portion of the city is built upon a 
bluff, the sides of which rise steeply a 100' or more above 
the river, at just above the junction of the Lackawanna and 
Roaring brook. Leggetts creek on the north, Roaring 
brook and Staffords Meadow brook on the south, have eacti 
cut rather deep gaps in the mountain rim of the basin. 
Keyser's Valley run is an important tributary rising within 
the coal measures, draining the valley north and west 
of Hyde Park and emptying into the Lackawanna at Tay- 
lorsville. The Lackawanna falls about 120', 760' A. T. to 
640' A. T. in crossing this division. 

Formation No. Xll in this area becomes a more promi- 
nent feature of the topography; the materials composing 
it are coarser, the beds are more massive and the under- 

 Page plate 313 also gives the general location of this division, 
t The original of this map by R. P. Roth well ^f. B. is drawn on a scale of 
\ Parts of these sections are reproduced on page plates 316 and 320. 
II Some columnar sections reproduced on page plates 318 and 319. 

Sr?lUh.] N. C. F. SCRANTON DIVISION. 1967 

lying shales of XI are softer and thicker throwing No. 
XII more in relief. Its thickness along the north rim of 
the basin is about 200', along the southern rim 250'* with 
perhaps a thickness of 448' at one point. Several bore 
holes, mostly for water, have cut the full thickness of No. 
XII and underlying measures, see colnnmar section sheets. 
One No. 18, sheet IX, near the corner of Prescott and Mul- 
berry streets, Scranton gives : 


6" DUNMOBB No. 3 BED, 



9" Gray sandstone, 



10" Conglomorate, 




9" Fine white sandstone, 




9'' Bluish green rock, 


0" Black slate (Campbells Ledge 

Shale,) ^ 


1" Soft red shale. 



Another bore hole also for water near the corner of 
Sanders and Stone streets, Scranton gives : — 

4'. 0" DUNMORE No. 3 BED, 

18'. 0" Sandstone, ^ 

3d'. 0" Shelly rock, \ No. XII—448'? 

395'. 0" Conglomerate, J 

20'. 0" Red shale, 

If the 20' of red shale represents the top of No. XI then 
No. XII has here a decidedly abnormal thickness of 448'. 
It seems however not unlikely that the correct parting ia 
higher up somewhere in the "395' Conglomerate. " 

The north outcrop of No. XII is only 1,000' to 2,000^ 
wide and high up on the mountain side. On the south the 
gentle north dipping rocks of XII make a barren area, 
much of it a mile and a half wide, from which all the coal 
beds have been denuded, leaving many bare exposures of 
conglomerate beds. The waters of Stafford Meadow brook 
cut deeply into this southern rim and expose the shales of 
No. XI along the valley of the stream. 

The Campbells Ledge black shale, at the base of No. XII, 
has been exposed at the Roaring brook gap on the south ; 
here coal is found mixed with the shale, and it is also found 
at the Lsggetts creek gap on the north and at several other 
points along the outcrop on both sides of the basin. 

* See Colunmar section on plate 812. 


V The structure is clearly exhibited by the cross sections 
and mine sheets. The gentle curve of the broad flat basin 
is but slightly rippled by some four or five small rolls; 
the more important of these, commencing at the north, 
are the Green Ridge, Hyde Park, Dunmore and Meadow 
Brook anticlinals. The Dunmore axis for part of its length 
shows an overlap or down throw of 50' more or less; this 
overlap is developed by the mine workings. The Lacka- 
wanna basin, which has been slowly sinking, reaches about 
its maximum depth under the river valley in the neighbor- 
hood of Providence, where the lowest coal bed — Dunmore 
No. 3 — is 600' to 700' below the surface or about Tide Level, 
from here the measures have a very gradual rise to the 

Coal Measures: — ^Probably the greatest thickness of coal 
measures in this division and in the Lackawanna basin is 
under the Hyde Park hill where the total reaches about 
950' with 11 coal beds workable for part or all of their 

The Dunmore or the Red Ash coal beds * as they are 
called further to the southwest, three of which are of work- 
able thickness, in this division, are very extensively mined 
south of the Lackawanna, and especially so about Dun- 
more ; to which fact is no doubt due the name — Dunmore 
beds. Along the north side of the basin, and north of the 
river, these beds are undoubtedly thinner and less regular, 
although the provings have not been extensive. The rapid 
exhaustion of the thicker upper beds will no doubt lead 
before long to a more thorough exploration of the Dun- 
more beds in this neighborhood. 

Dunmore No. 3 hed^ the lowest of the series lying on top 
of No. XII, reaches its maximum development in the neigh- 
borhood of Dunnmore where it is extensively worked with 
an average thickness of about 6'. A mile and one half north 
of Dunmore at the Pancoast colliery a recent bore hole shows 
the three Dunmore beds to be of workable thickness and 

* See columnar seotions on plate 318. 

^nthradtBJiegwrv ^ntkenv CocUJleleC. 


ScAla. SO- I' 

,• • 

• ( 

Smith.] N 0. F. SCR ANTON DIVISION. 1969 

anusually close together ; the record of the hole from the 
Clark bed down is as follows :* 

3' 9" 

Clark bed. 

W 0" 




77' 0" 




8' 0" 




20' 0" 


5' 11' 

Dunmore No. 


6' 0" 


5* 8" 

Dunmore No. 

B bed. 

10' 0" 




V 0" 


4' 11" 

Dunmore No. 

S bed. 

40' 0" 


The detailed section of No. 1 bed is : Coal 2'\ Slate 1' l'\ 
Coal 8," Bone ^", Coal S' 10"; Total 6' 11' \ Coal V 8." 
Of No. 2 bed : Coal 2' 9", Slate 2", Coal r\ Bone 3'\ Coal 
r', Bone 2'\ Coal 8'\ Bone &'; Total 6' 3'\ Coal V 2". Of 
No. 3 bed : Coal l'\ Slate 9'\ Coal 3' 11", Bone 2"; Total 

i" ir, Coal r 0". 

To the west and south in this division No. 3 bed is thiner 
and often split by slate partings. 

Dunmore No. 2 bed is extensively mined by the Penn- 
sylvania Coal Co. at Dunmoref and at the Green Ridge, 
the Pine Brook, the Fairlawn, the StaflFord, the National^ 
and the Meadow Brook§ collieries ; it has a variable thick- 
ness from 3' to 6', with an average of perhaps 5', yielding 
3' 6" to 4' of coal ; the interval between it and bed No. 3 is 
ordinarily about 50' composed chiefly of a fine hard sand- 

Dunmore No. 1 bed is usually 30' to 40' above bed No. 2 ; 
in the neighborhood of Dunmore it is a good bed of coal 4' 
to 8' thick, but going northwest under Scranton the bed 

*0n section 20 Col. Sec. sheet XII the bed called Dunmore No. 1 is now 
Identified as the Clark bed, the section commences with that bed. 
t Cross sections at No. 1 shaft P. C. Co., g^ven on plate 320. 
X Columner section on plate 318. 
§ Cross sections at Meadow Brook shaft given on plate 320. 


splits into two or even three parts, separated by 6' to 10' of 
slate and it has up to the present time been but little 
worked ; the bed is mined at the Greenwood colliery, below 
Scranton, in fairly good condition about 5' thick; between 
the Greenwood and the Dunmore workings the borings 
show it to be thin and dirty. 

Clark bed is probably the most extensively wrought bed 
of the division although all the larger beds are pretty 
thoroughly worked, its position low in the coal measures 
gives it a iarge area and the bed is of good thickness 
and quality for nearly or quite its whole extent. The 
interval between it and the Dunmore No. 1 bed varies from 
35' to 170' being thickest at the northeast and thinning 
toward the southwest. The bed is sometimes a double one 
with 1' to 3' of slate separating the two benches each 4' to 
6' thick. In the collieries about Hyde Park the bed is at 
its best and is there 10' to 12' thick ; in the northeastern 
part of the division about Providence and Green Ridge 
the bed is less thick, running from 4' to 8'; at the Manville* 
colliery Green Ridire, where the bed is extensively mined it 
averages about?' thick ; at the old Clark mines at Leggett's 
creek gap the bed is reported by the First Survey to be 5' 
to 8' thick. The bed carries about the average proportion 
of refuse. A section at the Manville shaft gives : Bone ^", 
Bony coal 9'\ Coal i' 0'' Slate and hone ii", Coal V ^". 
Total r V\ Coal & 1". 

New County hed^ or the Four Foot bed of the preceding 
division becomes a thick and important bed in this divis- 
ion and is extensively mined, especially so towards the 
southwest. The bed first begins to show an improved thick- 
ness in the vicinity of Providence ; at the Tripp, Mt. Pleas- 
ant, Diamond and Bridge collieries the bed is divided by 
2' to 8' of slate, the upper bench having a thickness of 
about 5' and the lower bench 3' ; further southwest at the 
Holden, Taylor, Pyne, Archbald, Continental,t Stafford 
and other collieries in this vicinity the bed runs from 7' to 
9' thick yielding 6' to 7' of coal, A section of the bed at 

* Columnar section on plate 318. 

I GroHS section through Continental shaft on plate 320. 

Anthracite J^e^ion- Vorth^nv G>alFUlcL 


IZl '[?S3 ~' 

Smith.] N. C. F. 8CRANTON DIVISION. 1971 

the Archbald colliery is as follows:— Cb^Z, 3\ S'\ Slate^ 8'\ 
Coal, r.0\ Bony Coal, 11", Coal, V i'\ Bony Coal, 4'\ 
Coal, 1\ 6'%' Total 9'. ff' Coal, 7'. Jf". The interval between 
it and the underlying Clark bed or the overly ing Big bed — 
a 100' to 150' above the Clark — is very variable, the col- 
umnar sections show the relative position of these beds at a 
number of points. 

Big bed, or the Grassy Island bed of the Jermyn-Price- 
ville division, is supposed to be the equivalent of the Balti- 
more or Mammoth bed of the vicinity of Wilkes-Barre. It 
is not only the chief bed of this division bat of the field and 
of the whole anttiraoite region. The bed is the thickest of 
the series, varying from 10' to 18' thick, fairly free from 
refuses and yielding a coal of excellent quality; its out- 
crop is shown upon the mine sheets and in this division the 
greater part of its territory has been worked over. 

The following sections will serve to show the character 
of the bed: 

1. At Mt. Pleasant shaft a section gives: Coal, i'. 5", 
Slate, (?", Coal, 10'', Bony coal, 3", Coal, J^'. 10", Bony coal, 
6", Coal l\r\ Bony coal, S", Coal, S\10"; Total, 1S'.9'\ 
Coal, 12' 4". 

2. At Diamond No. 2 shaft a section gives: Coal, l\i'\ 
Slate, 6", Coal, 5\0", Slate 6", Bony coal, 6", Coal, 5\0"\ 
Total, 12'. 10"; Coal, 11'. A". 

3. At the Belleview colliery a section gives: Slate, ^", 
Coal, V.l", Slate, G", Bone I'.l", Coal, 5'.0", Bone, V, 
Slate, I'.O", Coal, 2' 0", Slate, 6", Coal, 7", Slate, 2", 
Coal, 2\4", Slate, 9", Coal, 2\9"; Total, 18\3"; Coal, 

4. AttheCapouse colliery a section gives: Coal, I'.O"^ 
Coal, V.O", Slate, 2\3", Coal I'.G", Slate, 3", Coal, 
3'. 9"; Total, 12'. 9"; Coal, 10'. 3". 

5. At the Archbald shaft a section gives: Coal, I'.l", 
Slate, 2'\ Coal, i'.o'. Slate, 11", Coal, T.i', Bone and 
slate, .ir. Coal. 1' .3", Bone and slate .Jp\ Coal, .10'* ; 
Total, IV. 0"; Coal, 8'.8'\ 

The average thickness of the Big bed in this area may be 
safely taken to be at least 12' with 10' of coal. The in- 


terval between the Clark and the Big bed varies from 100' 
to 150'; in the neighborhood of Providence and Green 
Ridge it is about 160', while at Scranton and Hyde Park 
it is about 100' and in the vicinity of Taylorsville it is 
rather more than 150'. 

Rock bed is next above the Big bed with an interval of 50' 
to 100' between them, about Hyde Park the interval is some 
80' and quite regular. Between Priceville and Providence 
the provings show the bed to be but 2' to 3' thick, but it 
improves in thickness to the southwest and between Provi- 
dence and Taylorsville it is an important bed largely 
worked. The coal is usually in two benches ; at the Tripp 
Cayuga and Von Storch collieries these benches each 3' to 
4' thick are 2' to 10' apart; in the collieries further south- 
west about Hyde Park and Taylorsville the benches are 
close together with only a few inches of slate between, with 
a total thickness for the bed of 7' to 10' carrying about the 
average proportion of refuse, 18 or 20 %. Only a compara- 
tivel V small area of this bed is found south of the river and 
the mine workings are all on the north side. 

Diamond bed is regarded as one of the best of the Scran- 
ton division, it has throughout a good workable thickness 
of 8' to 12', coal is of excellent quality, the benches of coal 
are usually of good size 3' to 6' thick and the slate and 
bone partings not very numerous. The position of the bed 
rather high in the measures confine it to the deeper parts 
of the basin and to the high ground about Hyde Park, it 
spoons out before reaching the southwest line of the di- 
vision; it is all on the north side of the river excepting 
in the neighborhood of Throop, where it is mined at the 
Pancoast colliery. Its thickness will average about 10'. 

Note. — The identity of the Big bed at the PynecoUiery, as given on the col 
umnar sections of the ah aft and rock slope — (Nos. 2 and 3 Col. Sec. sheet X ) — 
may be questioned. According to these sections the Big bed is represented 
by 19' 5" of slate in the slope and 1' 3" of bone and coal in the shaft; it seems 
however more reasonable to suppose that the interval between the Big and 
New County beds has increased and that the so-called **Rock" bed is really 
the Big bed, than that the Big bed has grown thin and worthless in the 
short distance between the Pyne and Arch bald collieries. The rapidly ad 
Tancing mine workings will soon settle this question. 













- ,-» 



I II I m 



LrLC9. ' -tttitej at.l L . 






^illSroN 'f^ 



' - ' t 
» • • 


Smith.^ N. C. F. 8CRANT0N DIVISION. 1973 

The interval between it and the Rock bed is only 20' to 30'. 

Church Slope bed^ between the Diamond and the Olyphant 
No. 2 or Richmond bed two' small coal beds are usually 
found, the lower and thicker of these coal beds is known as 
the Church Slope bed. The interval between it and the 
Diamond in the vicinity of Providence is from 50' to 60', 
this increases to 100' at the Diamond No. 2 shaft, Hyde 
Park, where the bed has an unusual thickness of 7'. The 
bed becomes thinner towards the southwest. The only 
working of it is at the Church colliery on sheet XVI, 
where the bed has the following sections : Slate f 10'\ 
Bone 2'\ Coal 2' 6'\ Clay &\ Total 5' 6?", Coal 2' 6". 

OlpyharU No. 2 or Richmond bedis, by its highposition in 
the measures, limited to the high ground near the central 
part of the basin ; it is found south of the Lackawanna 
at the Eddy Creek mines; and under the hill north of Provi- 
dence where it is extensively worked from the Richmond 
drifts; also under the Hyde Park hill where it is worked to 
a small extent from the Richmond shaft. The bed varies 
from 3' to 7' in thickness and its coal is of good quality. The 
interval between it and the well known Diamond bed 
averages about 150', while between it and the somewhat 
irregular Church bed the distant varies from 50' to 100'. 

Olyphant No. 1 bed^ called the Brisbin bed at the 
Brisbin* colliery, is the highest workable bed of the 
division and comparatively underlies but a small area. 

The workings on this bed from the Eddy Creek colliery 
extends into this division, the bed is about 7' thick and 
in good condition ; the bed is also caught in the hill north 
of Providence and in the high ground at Hyde Park, 
but the coal lies very close to the surface. At Eddy 
creek the Olyphant beds are about 50' apart but at the 
Brisbin shaft, Hyde Park, this interval has widened to 

Jf. Pittston Division. 

The Pittston division comprises all that part of the field 
mapped on mine sheets IX to XII. t The topograpy of the 

*See columnar sectioa on plate 319. 

t Page plate 321 also gives the general location of this division. 


division is shown on the Rothwell map Scale 3200'=!'' con- 
tained in Annnal, 1885, Atlas. The general structure is ex- 
hibited by two sections across the basin. E above Moosic 
published on cross section sheets VI to VIII and D at Pitts- 
ton on sheets Ila 116 and IIc.+ Columnar sections giving the 

detailed thickness and character of the strata at various 
points within the division are given on columnar section 
sheets VI to VILJ 

The area covered by this division extends from Taylors- 
viile to a little below Wyoming, about nine miles in length, 
and the field has here a maximum width of about six miles. 
Pittston is the chief town, centrally situated along the 
banks of the Susquehanna. Moosic, Pleasan t Valley, A voca, 
Lackawanna and Wyoming are also towns of more or less 
importance within this area. 

The Susquehanna river enters the field from the north, 
through the gap above Pittston; at the town the river 
sweeps around to a southwest course, fiowing along the 
southern edge of its fiood plain — here about a mile wide — 
and near the axis of the basin. The Lackawanna river 
swinging over toward the northern rim of the field joins 
the Susquehanna only half a mile below the Pittston gap. 
North of the rivers the mountain rises back from the river 
flat with few or no preliminary foot hills, with the excep- 
tion of a little corner at the northeast of the division where 
a hill and a valley drained by St. John's creek intervene 
between the Lackawanna and the north mountain. Abra- 
hams creek enters the field at Wyoming through quite a 
deep gap. South of the rivers the ground rolls back in a 
succession of high hills or ridges and rather shallow val- 
leys to the outcrop of No. XII well up on the mountain side, 
and at Pittston some four miles southeast of the river. 
Spring brook is the largest tributary of the Lackawanna 
from this side of the field; Little Mill creek, Tompkins 
creek, Gardners creek and Mill creek with their branches 
also drain the back country. 

t Parts of these sections are reproduced on page plate 320. 
X Some of the columnar sections are given on page plate 322. 

Smith.] N. C. F. PITTSTON DIVISION. 1975 

The Lackawanna and Susquehanna have a combined fall 
in this division of about 120', from the Lackawanna at 
about 640' A. T. near Taylorsville to the Susquehanna at 
about 620' A. T. near Port Blanchard. 

Formation No, XII is somewhat thinner here than in the 
Scranton division although its general characteristics are 
practically the same. The flat dipping rocks of its south- 
ern outcrop continue to occupy a wide belt of barren terri- 
tory on the mountain's slope, the basal beds of the forma- 
tion climbing up close to the summit; and on sheet X the 
increased thiekness of the red shale gives the basin a 
double mountain rim. 

South of Pleasant Valley and one-half mile east of the 
Boston colliery we find a prominent red shale cove, formed 
by the erosion of No. XII where elevated by the Slope No. 
4, Femwaod and Mill Creek Slope anticlinals. This and 
the Ontario anticlinal at Spring Brook are the only in- 
stances in the field, where the shape of the outcrop of 
No. XII has been particularly affected by anticlinal axes 
crossing its outorop ; the axes usually expire within the 
field. The conglomerate beds at the base of XII are ex- 
posed almost continuously along the southern outcrop. 

Along the northern edge of the basin the dips are steeper, 
No. XII occupies a narrow belt, its precise outcrop is more 
difficult to fix as it is in many places covered by glacial drift, 
and No. XI which is mostly a greenish flag or shale is still 
too thin and hard to make a prominent and unmistakable 
terrace on the mountain slope. 

A number of bore holes have cut the full thickness of 
No. XII in this division; one on lot No. 41 south of Pleas- 
ant Valley gives a thickness of 167' 8", see col. sec. 6, 
sheet VIII, for details ; another at the Halstead colliery 
above Pittston gives a thickness of 235', see col. sec. 18, 
sheet VII; and a third south of the Sibley colliery, north 
of Lackawanna, gives a thickness of 163' 3", see col. sec. 
23, sheet VIL 

The Campbell's Ledge black shale at the base of XII re- 
ceived its name from being opened on its outcrop near 
• Campbell Ledge. On the south side of the basin the out- 


crop of this shale has been dag into along Spring Brook, 
alongLidey's creek, southeast of the Boston colliery, and 
along Gardner's creek. 

Oeneral Structure: The basin which has been rising 
southwest from Scranton, reaches its shallowest point 
soon after crossing the line between sheets XIII and XI, 
in the vicinity of St. Johns creek, a half mile or so north 
of Lackawanna station, where only the lowest or Red Ash bed 
retains cover with a minimum elevation of about 550' A. T. 
From here the basin sinks once more toward the southwest, 
bringing in successively the overlying coal beds, and at the 
division line near Port Blanchard the Red Ash bed has a 
depth of about 100' below tide. The rise of the ground 
south of Port Blanchard has preserved a small area of the 
Hillman bed, the highest coal of the division. 

The structure of the basin as we proceed southwest 
grows less simple and the undulations of the strata are 
more numerous and powerful, the anticlinals and syncli- 
nals, especially along the southwestern side of the field, 
effect materially the plan of mining operations. The 
principal anticlinals of this division are all south of the 
Lackawanna river, some three or four with gentle dips 
cross the Susquehanna to soon die out on the opposite 
side. The dips vary from 0*^ to 40°. A description of 
each axis seems unnecessary as their position, influence, 
importance and the observed dips can be best understood 
from an examination of the mine sheets and cross sections. 

The Coal Measures* of the Pittston division have a 
maximum thickness of about 600 feet (found under* the 
hill just south of Port Blanchard) containing some six- 
workable coal beds. Practically all the central part of the 
basin between the northeastern limits of Pittston and Wy- 
oming and Port Blanchard, contains all these coal beds ex- 
cept the uppermost or Hillman bed. As already noted the 
measures underlying the northeastern halves of sheet XI 
and XII are much thinner and embrace but one or two of 
the bottom coal beds. 

*See columnar sections on plate 322. 


» • 

JSmit/l.] N. C. F. PITTSTON DIVISION. 1977 

jRed Ash or Powder Mill bed: * The Dunmore beds 
of the Scran ton division are, on these sheets, known as the 
Red Ash or Powder Mill bed. On the northeastern halves 
of sheets XI and XII the bed is usually a tripple one, but 
as we proceed southwest seldom more than two splits are 
recognized and in some areas but one. The intervals sep- 
arating the splits are quite variable and often change con- 
siderably within a short distance; when a tripple bed the 
top and bottom splits maybe 60' to 70' apart or the three 
'splits may be separated one from the other by only a few 
feet or inches of slate or sandstone; when a double bed the 
splits are not often more than 10' to 20' apart. f 

On sheet No. XI, particularly in the neighborhood of 
Lackawanna the Red Ash is an excellant bed ; since the 
publication of the mine sheet three additional large collier- 
ies — Jermyn No. 1, William A. and Babylon — have been 
established, working this bed and a considerable territory 
has not been mined over. As a rule the bed is in three 
splits, the mine workings are mostly in the middle split 
some 7' to 8' thick, exceptionally clean and good ; when 
practicable the coal of the top and bottom splits are worked 
in connection with the middle split. The following sec- 
tion at the Babylon colliery represents fairly well the con- 
dition of the bed in the vicinity of Lackawanna: — Top 
split— CbaZ, ^' 0"; Slate, /'. / Coal 6''; Slate, 5"; Coal 
8"; Slate, r' ; Coal, r\—TotaH! 2" ; Coal, 3' 5"/ Mid- 
dle Split. -Coal, 5' Ii!' ; Slate, 2"; Coal, V li!' —Total 6' 10" 
Coal, ff' 8" /—Bottom Split:— CtoaZ, 1' 0'' ; Slate, 3" ; Coal, 
4"; Slate, 6"; Coal, r ^" / Slate 3" ; Coal, 2' &'—Total6' 2" 

Coal 5' &\ 
Jermyn No. 1 and Old Forge collieries work all three 

splits in some places. On the east side of the Lackawanna 

a new colliery, Greenwood No. 2, formerly Oak Hill, works 

* Page plate 318 illustrates the identity between the Dunmore beds of 
Soranton and the Red Ash bed. 

t See sections on columnar section sheets VI, VII and VIII. 

Note. — At the Sibley colliery mine sheet XI the mine workings printed 
in brown — the Red Ash conventional color — are now known to be in the 
Fourth or Clark bed. 


the bed the varying thickness of the splits and intervals 
here are shown by columnar sections 20 to 26 sheet VIII. 

At the Halstead shaft, south of the William A. and 
Babylon collieries, three splits are seen, but along the south- 
west line of the Halstead tract only two splits are found, each 
about?' thick with 5' to 6' of sandstone between Farther 
southwest at the Phoenix and Twin shafts the bed is a 
single one about T thick, a section at the Twin colliery 
gives:— CbaZ 1' r\ Bone o'\ Coal 3' 5'\ Bone 2", Coal 1' S''— 
Totals' 10', Coal & 3'\ At the Barnum* shaft about half-'" 
way between the Phoenix and Twin the bed appears to be 
in two splits, with 56' of ''rock" between, the top split 2' 9" 
and the bottom split 4' 4" thick. 

On mine sheet XII the mine workings are chiefly in the 
Red Ash bed : the split worked at Spring Brook, Stark, 
Central, Consolidated, Ontario and Elmwood collieries will 
average about 8' in thickness with 6' to 7' of coal. In some 
few places two splits of the bed are worked. The 
variability of the Red Ash bed is well shown by columnar 
sections 1 to 13 on sheet VIII. With rare exception at 
least one member of this bed is of workable thickness and 
quality, but theidentityof the workable member from place 
to place is often a matter of much uncertainty unless there 
are connected mine workings between. 

On mine sheet No. X only a very small area of the Red 
Ash has been worked, but owing to the near exhaustion of 
the superior Pittston bed the attention of the operators is 
being turned toward it. The Fairmount shaft cuts the bed 
in two splits, top 4' 3" and the bottom 6' thick, with 3' 6" 
between ; the new Chapman shaft of the Butler Coal Mining 
Company, on Lot 25, works the bed in two splits 25' apart, 
the upper split about 5' thick and the lower split 4'; their 
Fernwood shaft, also new, some 2000' north of the Boston 
breaker (now abandoned), works the Red Ash bed which 
was 14' on the saddle of the Fernwood anticlinal, but split 
on the north side with the upper split soft and dirty, in 
the shaft; and the lower split yielding 3' to 5' of coal. In 

*See columnar section, plate 322. 

Smith.] N. C. F. PITTSTON DIVISION. 1979 

the old workings at the Boston colliery the splits are 
together making a bed 10' to 12' thick with 8' to 9' of coal; 
the slate partings are rather numerous. 

The little patch of Red Ash coal preserved on the moun- 
tain side between Lamp Black and Gardner's creeks has 
been tested by diamond drill and by trial shafts ; two bore 
holes show but one bed with about 3' of coal, this same bed 
is exposed by a shafting along the outcrop with the 
following section : Slaie and hone 9'\ Coal 7", Slate 5", 
Coal 7'\ Slate J", Coal 2' J,,",— Total Iff 10' \ Coal S' &\ 
Near the middle of this small coal area a 5' bed has recently 
been opened; it is probably an upper split of the Red Ash 
bed, but its extent is exceedingly limited. 

At the Keystone colliery a shaft now cuts the Red Ash 
bed in two splits, the upper 2' 8" thick and 35' above the 
bottom split, some 6' 6" thick with 5' of coal. This bed with 
4' to 6' of coal is also worked by a rock slope at the Annora 
colliery close to Laflin station. 

On mine sheet IX at the time of its publication (1887) 
there were practically no workings on the Red Ash bed, 
but it is now being mined at several of the colleries, it is 
usually identified as a single bed or in two splits very close 
together, some of the columnar sections show small coal 
beds above and below the main bed. The Stevens colliery 
(new) on the James Slocum tract north of West Pittston 
mines the bed with the following section: Bone V\ Coal 1 
1", Bone ^", Coal 1' ^", Bone S'\ Goal V S'\ Slate 2'\ CoaV 
5'\Slateb'\ Coair. Totals' ff\ Coal US" \ at theSchooley 
colliery* the bed is about 8' thick with 7' of coal; in the 
Tompkins shaft bore hole 7' 11"; at No. 1 Jr. shaft?' 0"; 
and in the bore hole near No. 14 shaft 8' 7" thick. 

The approximate outcrop of the Red Ash bed is given 
upon the mine sheets. 

Fourth or Clark hed of the Scranton division is on mine 
sheets XI and XII, found at a fairly uniform distance of 
about 80' above the top member of the Red Ash bed ; 
going southwest this interval widens and on sheets XI 
and XIL where the Red Ash is a single bed, it is 

* Columnar section of air shaft on plate 322. 


about 140'. The bed, although a i)er8istent one, and 
usually of workable thickness, is apt to be rough and 
bony and high in refuse. Its thickness varies from 
2' to T or 8' with an average of perhaps 6'; and it is mined 
to a limited extent at the PhoBnix, Hillsdale, Consolidated 
and Katy Did collieries. 

Marcy^ Third or New County bed of the Scranton di- 
vision is mined extensively at the Sibley, Dunn and Oak 
Hill coUeries north of Lackawanna. The bed lies there 
close to the'surface and the southwest rise of the measure 
soon lifts it to outcrop; it has a quite regular thickness of 
T to 8'; a section of the bed at the Dunn slope shows its 
general character in this vicinity: Coal T 3'\ Bone T\ Coal 
r\ Bone ff\ Coal ir\ Bone ^", Coal 1' 10'\ Slate 7", Coal 
10'\ Coal r y\ Total 8' 0'\ Coal 6' 8'\ The fall of the 
measures southwest of Lackawanna soon brings the bed in 
again and in the vicinity of Pittston it is an important bed 
6' to 8' thick, fairly clean and regular, yielding coal of ex- 
cellent quality. It is mined at nearly all the collieries in this 
neighborhood. Southwest of Pittston the bed deteriorates 
somewhat both in quality and thickness, at No. 6 shaft of 
the Pennsylvania Coal Co. the bed is about 6' thick; at No. 
11 shaft 1' 6" to 4' 0" thick, at the Annora colliery the bed 
is 7' to 8' thick with 2' to 3' of refuse, at the Keystone col- 
liery the bulk of the product has come from the Marcy 
bed, there about 6' 6" thick with 1' to 3' of refuse. The bed 
is thin on the north side of the Susquehanna; it is now 
worked at the Schooley colliery with a thickness of 3' 6"; 
where cut by borings at a few other points on {this side of 
the river the bed has a thickness of 4' 0" to 5' 0". The in- 
terval between the Marcy and the underlying Fourth bed 
is seen to vary from 20' to 80', but 60' is 'about the usual 

Pittston or Fourteen Foot bed^ — the Big bed of Scranton 
or Baltimore bed of Wilkes-Barre ; the area underlain by 
the bed is nearly all in the southwestern half of the 
division on mine sheet IX and X although a small portion 
extends over on sheet XI and XII. The fall of the 
measures towards the southwest first brings the bed under- 


'• . 

« m 

Smith.] N. C. F. PITTSTON DIVISION. 1981 

cover in the hill south of the Halstead colliery. The outcrop 
of the bed is shown upon the mine sheets, except along the 
north in the neighborhood of West Pittston and Wyoming 
where the depth of the wash, 150' at times, makes its posi- 
tion uncertain. South and east of the Susquehanna much 
the greater part of its area has been mined over. The Penn- 
sylvania Coal Co.* own nearly all of this territory and the 
high reputation in the market of their "Pittston Coal" is 
due to the excellent quality of the coal of this bed and the 
care which was taken to exclude any bony or inferior coal 
from the product. North of the river the bed is also ex- 
tensively worked about West Pittston, at the Clear Spring, 
Exeter and Schooley collieries, but in the neighborhood of 
Wyoming a considerable area is still untouched. 

The bed is quite regular and shows a fairly uniform 
thickness throughout this division, the coal is usually in 
benches of good thickness and easily separated from the 
intervening refuse ; the thickness of the bed is seldom less 
than T. 0^' or more than 14. '0", and its average thicknesis 
about 10'. 6" with 8' to 9' of coal. The two sections follow- 
ing show the general structure of the bed : — 1. At shaft No. 
10 Jr. ; Coal, r. 0" ; Coal, 5'. 1" ; Bone, &' Slate, &' ; Coal, 
T'; Bone, 6"; Coal, e\ 9"; Total, Iff IV; Coal, 9' 5". ^. 
At Exeter colliery; Coal. 8"; Coal, V, ff'; Slate V ; Coal, 
^'.O'V Slate, <?."; Coal, 2 J ff'; Total, 9 J' 8"; Coal, 8', 8'\ 

The distance of the Pittston above the Marcy bed is 
usually about 75', although in some instances this interval 
is as little as 30' — see columnar sections. 

Checker or Seven Foot bed is the next workable coal above 
the Pittston bed ; north and east of Pittston it is about 40' 
above, but this increases toward the southwest and at the 
Tompkins shaft f below Pittston it is 121', at the Schooley 
shaft across the river it is 100', the latter interval seems to 
be maintained to the division line. The principal working 
of this bed is at the Pennsylvania Coal Co.'s collieries 
north and east of Pittston, at their Tompkins shaft below the 

* A cross seotioD at their No. 4 shaft is given on plate 320. 
t Golumner section of shaft given on plate 322. 



town, at the Seneca, Ravine, Twin and Phoenix collieries, 
and about West Pittston at the Clear Spring, Exeter and 

Schooley * collieries. In the workings the bed varies from 

4' to 8' thick but it is rather apt to carry a high proportion 

of refuse or inferior coal. Below the Schooley colliery 

about Wyoming a slight rise in the measures combined 

with the depth of the wash, often 100' or more has cut 

out the bed or brought it with dangerous nearness to 

the wash. On the opposite side of the river below 

Tonkins colliery the shaft and bore hole records give a 

thickness of 4' to 6' for this bed. 

A Coal bed some 3' to 4' thick is usually encountered 
between the- Checker and the overlying Hillman bed. 

Hillman bed 175' or so above the Checker bed is the 
highest of this division ; it underlies a small area south 
of the river in the neighborhood of Port Blanchard and is 
opened by a drift at No. 14 Shaft colliery where it has 
a thickness of about 8'; it is probably the top bed cut in No. 
6 shaft, there some 6'.0" thick. Owing to its limited extent 
it is comparatively of but little importance. 

A deposit of wasJi 50' to 130' deep, and 30' to 110' be- 
low the present level of the river, underlies nearly all the 
low ground between the river and the foot of the north or 
Kingston mountain (mine sheet IX). This deposit of 
wash, with an increase in depth, extends all the way from 
West Pittston to the Nanticoke gap and tills what is 
known as the Wyoming Burr led Valley, described by Hill 
in Annual Kept., 1885, also discussed near the close of 
this chapter. 

5. WilkeS'Barre Division. 

This division comprises all that part of the Northern 
field mapped on mine sheets V — Vlll.t Its topography is 
given on the Roth well map Scale 3200'=1" contained in 
Annual Kept., 1885, Atlas. The general structure is exhib- 
ited by two sections across the basin, C at Port Bowkley 

* At the Exeter and Schooley coUieries this bed was formerly called the 
Six Foot Bed. 
t Page plate 321 also gives the general location of this division. 


and Forty Fort and B at Ashley and Plymouth, published 
on cross section sheets Ila 116 & lie ; and by 26 short cross 
sections published on sheets III to V.f Columnar sections 

giving the detailed thicknesses and character of the strata 
at various points within the division are published on col- 
umnar section sheets I to V4 A Preliminary Report cover- 
ing this division, by Mr. Chas. A. Ashburner, will be found in 
Annual Report, 1885, Chapter VL 

The Wilkes Barre division is easily the most important 
of all the areas into which we have divided the Northern 
field ; it is the largest, the basin reaches its maximum 
depth, it has the greatest thickness of coal measures, the 
largest number of coal beds, and the thickest coal beds; 
hence its original coal contents was in excess of any of the 
other divisions and the large proportion which still remains 
to be mined is still more in excess. A number of the 
largest colliery operations in the anthracite region are 
located in this division and each year shows an increase in 
its producing capacity. Mine sheets V, VI, VII and VIII 
define the limits of the division, which extend from the 
sheet line near Plainsville and Wyoming to the sheet line 
near Wamor ran and Avondale some nine miles, and its 
width is that of the field, about 6^ miles at the northeast 
contracting to 4 miles at the southwest. Wilkes-Barre on 
the south bank of the Susquehanna and near the centre of 
the division, is the county seat of Luzerne and the chief 
city of the Wyoming basin. Plainsville, Parsons, Ashley, 
Sugar Notch, Forty Fort, Luzerne, Dorranceton, Kings- 
ton. Edwardsville and Plymouth are all towns of more or 
importance within this division. 

The broad fertile plain of the Susquehanna river, one to 
two miles wide, occupies a place a little to the north of the 
central part of the basin, and has a general elevation of 
520' to 550' above tide. The river crosses this plain twice 
in its southwest course across the division, at Wilkes- 
Barre it skirts the southeastern edge of the river flat, at 

t Parts of these sections are reproduced on page plates 323, 324 A 328. 

X Some of the columnar sections are reproduced on page plates 325 and 326. 


Plymouth the northwestern edge and opposite Avondale it 
is again seen at the southeastern edge. At time of high 
water the river overflows much of the river flats. Toby's 
creek breaks through the northwestern rim and makes the 
only low gap on that side of the fleld. Laurel run and Sol- 
omon's creek have cut rather deep notches in the south- 
eastern rim of XII, these streams and their tributaries to- 
gether with the lower part of Mill creek and Buttonwood 
creek drain the area southeast of the river. 

Northwest of the river the mountain rises back from the 
river plain without preliminary foot hills excepting those 
between Kingston and Plymouth. Southeast of the river 
there are a series of low hills or ridges filling the central 
part of the field and rising slowly back to the No. XII out- 
crop; (see Roth well's topographical map). 

The outcrops of ForTnation No. Xlly owing to 
steeper dips, occupy a narrow strip of territory but 1000' 
to 2000' wide on either side of the basin. On the south- 
eastern side there is a beautiful example of a double 
mountain rim to the field, the inner one of No. XII and the 
outer of No. XI; but on the opposite side of the field it is 
only occasionally that No. XII rocks make a separate 
mountain ridge. The materials composing XII are per- 
haps a little coarser than before. Its thickness in this di- 
vision will average about 200', although a bore hole at the 
Red Ash colliery (columnar section shest I sec. 6) gives a 
thickness of but 113' between the Red Ash bed and a 
* 'green shale" supposed to beat the top of No. XI. A sec- 
tion of No. XII* taken at Solomon's gap by Arthur Win- 
slow is as follows: (Annual Report 1886, Part IV, page 

14' Sandstone, hard, dark and compact 
19' Conglomerate, fine and silicious. 

'2,' Slate, fissile. 
24' Conglomerate. 

1' Slate, in separate seams. 
41' Conglomerate, mediam silicious. 
119' Conglomerate, coarse silicious. 

220' Total thickness No. XII. 

* Page plate 312 gives a section at Wyoming. 


The structure. — ^The basin continues to deepen toward 
the southwest and the maximum depth for the field is to 
be found somewhere in the wide, undeveloped territory 
lying between Warrior Run and the river (Sheet VI); it 
may be a few hundred feet north of Askam where a dia- 
mond drill bore hole,* in the basin north of the ''Hog 
Back" anticlinal, is reported to have cut the Red Ash bed 
at a depth of about 2200' or about 1600' below tide. As the 
Red Ash bed at the northeast line of the division is about 
100' below tide, the fall of the measures towards the south- 
west amounts to about 1600', this fall is of course not uni- 
form, owing to the rise and the fall of the measures on the 
sides of the anticlinal waves which traverse the basin 

obliquely, t 

All the more important anticlinals are found south of 
the river, although some three or four axis do cross above 
Wilkes-Barre to expire southwest under the Kingston 
flats. All along the northern rim of the basin there is a 
gentle south dip, usually from 3° to 10^, which continues 
quite uniformly for a mile or a mile and a half before the 
expiring effects of the anticlinals, which traverse the cen- 
tral and southern side of the basin, are encountered. 
South of the river the anticlinals are both numerous and 
important, dips of 20° to 30** are those commonly encoun- 
tered by the mine workings, while steeper pitches of 40° to 
60® are not unusual, and here and there vertical and over- 
turned measures are encountered. The position of the 

♦This record could not be .obtained by the Survey. 

t Not B.— Some of the deepest mine workings In this division are as fol- 
lows : The Red Ash bed at the Pettebone shaft has an elevation of 560' 
below tide ; the bottom of the Red Ash slope, Kingston colliery, near 
middle of the **Mary B. Reynolds" tract, has an elevation of 556' below 
tide ; at the Woodward colliery the slope on the Bennett bed driven south- 
east under the Kingston flats, has readied the bottom of a basin, near centre 
of lot No. 9, with an elevation of 369' below tide; a slope on the Red Ash 
bed, which is driving in the same direction, should reach this basin at 
about 660' below tide. At the Lance colliery a slope southeast on the Ben- 
nett bed has crossed under the river and reached an elevation of 322' below 
tide, 2000' beyond. At the South Wilkes-Barre shaft the Baltimore bed has 
an elevation of 440' below tide. At a number of other colliery the work- 
ings are nearly or quite as deep as some of those Just mentioned. 


anticlinal and synclinal axes are shown on the mine sheets 
by blue lines and also often by the shape of the mine work- 
ings ; the numerous cross sections help to show their shape 
and relative importance, and they are also described by 
Ashburner in Annual Report, 1885, Chapter 8.* 

The Coal Measures^ in this division have a total thickness 
of about 1800', the highest are found in the deep basins in 
the neighborhood of Askam (mine sheet Vi), but few de- 
velopments of the high measures have been made and the 
records of these are not in the possession of the Survey; 
the little information which the writer has would indicate 
that the coal beds in the upper half of the series are both 
thin and few in number. It is really only the lower half 
of the formation which is well developed and in it, in the 
vicinity of Wilkes-Barre, some eleven workable coal beds 
are found; the lower 500' of measures contain the thickest 
and most valuable of the coal bed. 

The mine sheets show two large groups of mine work- 
ings, one about a mile and one half wide along the north- 
ern rim of the basin, and the other about two miles wide 
along the southern rim, but swinging out into the centre 

* Since the publication of tlie mine sheets the extension of the mine work- 
ings hdA added some important facta to our knowledge of the anticlinal 
axes, which does not appear on the sheets, notably : 

The extension of the mine workings from the Wyoming and Midvale col- 
lieries developed the Wyoming Shaft anticlinal (overturned) southwest to 
the east line of the D., L. & W. Pettibone property ; it apparently continues 
still further to the southwest and is probable identical with the overturn 
encountered by the Kingston Coal Co. in the neighborhood of Wyoming 

The Baltimore bed workings from the Dorrance shaft develope a sharp 
axis, broadening to the southwest, under the Kingston flats, about on a line 
with the first pond holes beyond the river bridge. The natural gas which 
bubbles up at the pond holes and again in the river near the jail was for- 
merly, and as it appears correctly, supposed by many to indicate the exist, 
ence of such an axis. This axis is thought to be a continuation of either the 
Prospect shaft or the Cemetery anticlinal, but which of these it is has not 
yet been determined. 

The Buttonwood anticlinal is now known to extend northeast, at least so 
far as South Wilkes-Barre, and is probably a few hundred feet north of the 
Vulcan Iron Works, its course is about in lino with the Conyngham anti 
clinal and they may be identical. 

f Some sections are given on plates 325 and 326. 

Smith.'] N. C. F. WILKES-BARRB DIVISION. 1987 

of the basin above Wilkes-Barre, with an undeveloped 
territory, in the central part of the field, one to three miles 
wide between them. The extension of the mine workings 
since the publication of the sheets (1884) has filled in much 
of this gap southwest as far as Plymouth and South 
•Wilkes-Barre ; beyond this the condition of aflfairs remain 
as before. 

The lowest coal bed and the first to describe is the Red 
Ash bed. 

Red Ash bed in this division ranks second only to the 
celebrated Baltimore bed; it reaches its maximum thickness 
and quality in the neighborhood of Plymouth. The two 
or more splits in which this bed is seen in the divisions to 
the northwest, combine for the most part in this to form 
one large bed, or if in two members the separating interval 
is small. 

On mine sheet VIII — Wilkes-Barre sheet — southeast of 
Mill Creek, near the division line, the bed still seems to be 
in several small splits rather widely separated — see Bennett 
colliery bore hole, Section 22, Sheet V — but the bed rapidly 
improves going southwest. The Red Ash is opened by the 
Coal Brook slope, L. V. C. Co., some 800' north of the L. 
and S. R. R., at Mountain Park; tlie bed is here 10' thick 
but is much divided by seams of slate and bone; at the Oak- 
wood colliery this bed has recently been opened with a 
thickness of 16' in fairly good condition; the Conyngham 
colliery now works Red Ash bed 11' thick; at the Baltimore 
colliery it has a thickness of 14'; at the Red Ash colliery 
22' including 5' to 7' of slate in the middle; at the Hollen- 
back colliery the bed is in two splits, the top split 6' and 
the bottom split 12' thick; at the Empire,* Stanton* and 
Franklin collieries there are also two splits some 5' to 30' 
apart, the top split is about?' and the bottom split about 
10' thick. 

On mine sheet VI — Ashley sheet — the Red Ash bed is 
worked along its outcrop between Ashley and Sugar Notch 
with a general thickness of 11' to 12'. 

* Gross sections through Empire and Stanton on plate 323. Columnar 
sections (below the Baltimore bed) at the Empire on plate 325. 


On mine sheet VII — Kingston sheet — at the Woodward 
and Pettebone collieries the Red Ash bed is about 10' 
thick; at the collieries along the mountain, the East Bos- 
ton, Black Diamond, Mill Hollow* and Harry E. the bed is 
8' to 10' thick; at Kingston Shaft No. 2 the bed is about 9' 
thick^ but from there to the southwest it thickens very 

On mine sheet V— Plymouth sheet — ; at the No. 4 shaft 
D. & H. C. Co. above Plymouth the bed will average 16'; 
from here southwest to Nanticoke it easily maintains an 
average thickness of 20', occasionally swelling up to 30' or 
even 40' in thickness and but rarely dropping below 16'. 
The bed is extensively worked and supplies some of the 
largest producing collieries in the region. 

Asa rule the bed is in fairly good condition containing a 
good percentage of marketable coal; this is especially true 
in the neighborhood of Plymouth where the coal is mostly 
in thick benches easily separated from the slate and bone. 
In the northeastern part of this division the bed is some- 
times divided by numerous slate and bone partings and 
the coal is in smaller benches. 

The following sections give some idea of the general 
composition of the bed: 

1. At the Nottingham t colliery below Plymouth: Coal 
r 10'\ Coal S' <9", Bony 8'\ Coal V ^", Coal 2' 6'\ Coal 
U' 0'\ Big slate 1' 2'\ Coal S' 0'\ Slate and lone 2' 0", 
Coal r 10 '; Total 21' 10'' \ Coal 18' 0". 

2. At the Mill Hollow colliery: Coal good T ff\ Bone 
and slate 9", Coal hard T i?", Bone and slate 4", Coal 
rovgli r ff\ Coal good 3' 9'\ Total 8' 9'\ Coal 7' 8'\ 

3. At the Baltimore colliery near Wilkes-Barre: Bone 
j;\ Coal 3' r. Slate l'\ Coal & ff\ Slate 6'\ Coal 10'\ Bone 
1' <?", Coal 10'\ Total 13' o\ Coal 10' 10'\ 

4. At No. 9 colliery Sugar Notch. Coal2' lff\Bon^2' ff\ 
Coal 5' 9'\ Slate and hone 2' 6"; Total 13' 7", Coal 8' 7". 

*Cros8 section through Black Diamond and Mill Hollow on plate 324. 
t Cross section at Nottingham on plate 324. 


The probable extent of the Red Ash bed is shown by its 
outcrop as given on the mine sheets *. 

Six Foot hed^ a bed some 30' to 60' above the Red Ash 
bedisse^n along the south side of the basin between 
Wilkes-Barre and Sugar Notch, where it is called locally 
the Six Foot bed; its thickness varies from 4' to 9'; it had 
not been worked at the time of publicationof the mine sheets. 
In other parts of the division it is either missing or prob- 
ably not of a workable thickness. It is, perhaps, a split 
of the Red Ash bed. 

Moss bed is the chief bed between the Red Ash and Bal- 
timore beds, although some 4 or 5 small coals are usually 
seen in this interval. It is supposed to be identical with 
the Marcy bed of the Pittston division. In this division it 
is for the most part a quite variable bed both as to its 
thickness and composition; its greatest draw back is its 
liability to be divided by numerous partings of slate or 
bony coal. 

In the territory about Mill creek and Laurel run on mine 
sheet VIII the provings indicate that the Ross does not 
reach a workable thickness and quality ; at the Red Ash 
and Empire collieries the bed is 8' to 9' thick ; at the 
Franklin colliery (sheet VI) the bed has an abnormal thick- 
ness of 30' to 40' in the upper tunnels, but in the new rock 
slope further north its thickness is but 6' to 7'; at Ashley 
No. 6t the bed has a total thickness of 20' and is exten- 
sively mined ; at the Sugar NotchJ and MaflEett collieries 
the Ross is the principal bed and averages 8' to 9' thick. 
Along this side of the basin the interval between it and the 
Red Ash bed is ordinarily 150' to 200'. 

North of the river, on sheet VII, the Ross where cut in 
the Pettibone shaft is about 4' 0" thick ; at the Forty Fort 
and Harry E. collieries the bed is worked, above water 

*At the MiU Hollow upper drifts, now worked by the Raub Coal Co., the 
bed is found to outcrop about 1000' further back on the mountain side^than 
shown on Ihe sheet. Its dip corresponds very closely to that pf the 

t Cross section through this colliery on plate 828. 

% Cross section through these collieries on plate 828. 


level, in two splits each 4' to 5' thick with 6' to 10' of rock 
between ; at the Mill Hollow drifts the two splits unite to 
form one bed 8' to 10' thick ; at the East Boston colliery 
the bed is about 16' thick ; at the Kingston collieries about 
9' 0", and at the Woodward about 7' 0". Its usual distance 
above the Red Ash on this sheet is 60', increasing toward 
the southwest. 

In the neighborhood of Plymouth, on mine sheet V, the 
bed is for the most part quite regular in its thickness, and 
in good condition. In the collieries about the town its 
thickness varies from 7' to 9', below the town the bed 
becomes thinner with a thickness of 6' to 6' at the Avon- 
dale colliery and 4' at the Chauncey. The interval between 
the Ross and the Red Ash on sheet V varies from 100' to 

At the Parrish colliery, Plymouth, an average section of 
the Ross gives : Coall' S'^BoneG", Coal 9'\ Sulphur 3'' 
Coal 8", Bone 8'' Coal 2' 8"; Total 7' 0'\ Coal 5' r\ 

Eler.en foot hedot the Harry E., Forty Fort, Maltby* 
and Hunt collieries, mine sheet VII, was, at the time of 
publication of the sheet (1884), identified as the Bennett 
bed or Bottom split of the Baltimore bed. The near ap- 
proach of the mine workings from the Forty Fort colliery 
in the Six Foot bed, to the workings in the Bottom split 
of the Baltimore from the Henry colliery, proves, these 
beds to be identical ; and that the Eleven Foot next be- 
low the Six Foot is a coal, between the Baltimore and the 
Ross bed, which reaches an unusual thickness in this 
locality. Its thickness at the above collieries varies 
from 8' to 12,' it carries a high proportion of refuse, dis- 
tributed in numerous partings throughout the bed. 

A section at the Maltby colliery is as follows: — Coal 6" 
Slate ?J\ Coal 2' 3'\ Slate 5>", Coal 5", Bony 2' £?'' Coal 
r 0'\ Bone8'\ Coal 9J 5", Total 10' T, Oiul 6' 7". 

South of the river the '*Four Foot" bed of the Enterprise 
and"Wyoming collieries (see sections 1 and 4 col. sec. sheet 
I) would seem to be identical with the Eleven Foot bed. 
The so-called "Ross" bed of Mineral Spring colliery, only 

* Gross section through on plate 324. 

^nthracUe Region^ Jlorthern CoalFidd. 


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Smith.'] N. C. F. WILKES-BARRE DIVISION. 1991 

some 40' to 50' below the Bennett, is perhaps also Identical 
with the Eleven Foot bed of the northwest side of the 

Baltimore hed^ or Bennett and Cooper beds is identical 
with the Pittston or Fourteeu foot bed of the preceeding 
division and is the principal bed of this division and of the 
field. The bed for the most part is a double one, the two 
splits being usually so far apart as to be worked sep- 
arately ; north of the river the top split is called the Cooper 
bed and the bottom split the Bennett bed ; these names are 
also in use south of the river but not to the same extent* 
The importance of this bed is determined by its large thick- 
ness ; the excellence of its coal ; its favorable composition, 
usually in good sized benches of clean coal, easily sep- 
arated from the refuse which forms a moderate percent- 
age of the total ; and its considerable extent. Its outcrop 
given upon the mine sheets shows the area underlaid by it. 

The Baltimore was one of the first beds to be opened and 
it is now mined at a roajorit}^ of the collieries of the divi- 
sion. The first extensive working of the bed was at the 
old Baltimore colliery, just east of Wilkes-Bare, on mine 
sheet VIII, here the various benches are closely united 
forming one big bed, in places 80' thick, but witli an average 
thickness tliroughout the colliery of about 20' with 16' to 
17' of clean coal. 

A section of the bed at the Back slope, Baltimore colliery, 
gives : Bone 2", Coal 8' jIi!\ Sulphur 2'\ Coal T U\ Slate 8'\ 
Coal ,r .r\ Checkered Coal and Sulphur r 0'\ Slate 6'\ Coal 
V 6'\ Total Iff ll'\ Coal 17' 5". 

The bed commences to divide along the northeast line of 
the Baltimore workings, but to the south and west it con- 
tinues as one large bed so far as Ashley and near to the city 
line just southwest of the South Wilkes-Barre shaft* (sheet 
VI), where the new workings from the shaft find the bed 
divided into two members. 

The thickness of the bed seems to diminish slightly to the 
southwest; at the Conyngham colliery its average thickness 

* Columnar section on plate 325. 


is abont 17'; at the HoUenback* colliery 18'; and at the Em- 
pire, Stanton, Franklin, South Wilkes-Barre, Ashley and 
the new Maxwell collieries it will average about 15'. In 
the territory south and east of Wilkes-Barre its area is 
nearly all rained over and many of the workings are aban- 
doned. Southwest of Ashley on sheet VI a comparatively 
small extent of the bed is as yet rained; it is there in two or 
possibly three splits f somewhat thinner and in not so good 
a condition. 

To the north and northeast of Wilkes-Barre in the 
vicinity of Parsons, Mill Creek:]: and Plainsville the Balti- 
more bed is invariably in two splits, some 20' to 40' apart, 
the upper split or Cooper bed is here usually the larger 
with an average thickness of perhaps 9', while the lower 
split or Bennett bed will average about T thick. 

On mine sheet VI the Baltimore bed is probably every- 
where in two splits, known as the Cooper and Bennett 
beds. At the Hunt, Maltby, Forty Fort and Harry E 
colleries the so-called ''Six Foot" bed is now proven to be 
the Bottom split or Bennett bed, and the ''Four Foot" 
bed the Top split or Cooper bed ; at these colleries the 
"Six Foot" is a good, clean bed, averaging about 6' in 
thickness, and it is now the chief source of supply. A 
section of the "Six Foot" bed at the Maltby colliery is as 
follows :—(7oaZ 6'\ Bone 3'\ Coal 6' 5", --Total 6' 2'\ 
Coal 5' ir\ The "Four Foot" bed, some 4' to 5' thick, 
where cut in the shafts and tunnels, has been but little 
worked owing, no doubt, to its closeness to the bottom of 
the deep "buried valley," which crosses these properties. 
The interval between the "Six Foot" and "Four Foot" is 
about 50'. 

In the colleries to the southwest the splits are thicker; 
at the Mill Hollow and Black Diamond colleries the 
Cooper bed is & to T thick and the Bennett bed about 9' 
thick ; at the East Boston § coUery the Cooper bed is about 

* Cross section on plate 323. 

t See columnar sections on sheet II. 

X Gross section at Mill Creek colliery on plate 823. 

§ Cross section on plate 324, Columar section on plate 328. 


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Smith.] N. O. F. WILKE8-BARRE DIVISION. 1993 

6' and the Bennett bed 11' to 12' thick, with an interval of 
60' to 70' between ; this interval is much less at the King- 
ston colleries * where at times the beds are but a few feet 
apart, the Cooper is here about 8' and Bennett 10' to 11' 

Just across the sheet line, on mine sheet V, at the Boston 
shaft, the Cooper and Bennett are together making a bed 
about 24' thick, but they soon separate with the Cooper 
about 11', and the Bennett about 14' thick ; at the Dele- 
ware and Hudson Canal Co's, collieries north of Plymouth 
Junction, the splits are near together, the Cooper having a 
thickness of about 8' and the Bennett 13' ; at the Lance 
colliery* the Cooper is 7' and the Bennett 8' thick ; at the 
Dodsont colliery where they are united the bed is 14' 
thicK ; at the Gaylord collieryf when divided the Cooper 
has a thickness of 7' and the Bennett of 9.' The most 
southwesterly working of the Baltimore upon this sheet 
is at the Parrish colliery^ where the bed is about 15' thick 
with the two splits close together. The outcrop of the 
bed which has been well back on the hill side swings to 
the south and crosses the L & B R. R. about 1600' below 
the Plymouth station to be lost beneath the deep wash cov- 
ering of the Plymouth flats. 

The Survey has collected a large number of sections of 
the Baltimore bed which were used in arriving at the aver- 

* Columar section on plate 326. 

Underground slopes, from the Woodward shaft, on the Bennett and 
Cooper beds now extend far under the Kingston flats; the mine workings 
on the Baltimore bed from the Dorrance shaft are now on the Kingston 
side of the river ; the near approach of these workings at no very distant 
day will furnish an addittional verification of the idenity of the beds be- 
tween the Kingston and Wilkes Barre sides of the river. 

t Cross section on plate 324. Columnar section on plate 326. 

^A new slope on the Baltimore at this colliery is now nearly a mile in 
length and extends under the river to near the middle of the fiats on the 
Wilkes Barre side. The course of the slope is southeast with an average pitch 
of60. A slope from the Lance shaft on the Bennett bed also crosses under 
the river to a point near the Pennsylvania R. R. 

It is expected that development in progressat the Lance colliery and at 
the South Wilkes Barre colliery will in the near future bring the mine 
workings of these collieries very nearer quite together. 

 **^ ^.* ^ I*' .^^ -*" V T'. 

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age thickness given, the amount of coal in the bed can very 
safely be estimated by deducting 18 % or 20 % from the 
total for refuse. 

The interval between the Baltimore and the Red Ash — 
the two principal beds — varies from 250' to 350' but it is 
generally about 300' thick. 

Five Foot bed of sheet V, Lance bed of sheet VII or 
First bed above Ihe Baltimore on sheets VI and VIII : 
Two coal beds usually of workable thickness are generally 
found between the Baltimore and the well-known Hillman 
bed; it Is the lower of these which is called the Five Foot, 

In the neighborhood of Plymouth the most extensive 
workings on the Five Foot bed, as it is there called, are at 
the Dodson, Plymouth No. 2 and Boston collieries, where 
the bed has a thickness of 5' to 6'. Its make up is shown 
by the following section at Plymouth No. 2 : Coal 3' 0'\ 
mate and bone 1' r, Coal r 3", —Total 5' &\ Coal W 3". 
Its distance above the Cooper bed varies from 15' to 70' but 
is usually about 60'. 

This coal is called the ''Lance" bed at the Kingston col- 
lieries where it is worked with an average thickness of 
about 6'. Where cut in the Woodward, East Boston, Black 
Diamond and Pettebone shafts the bed has about the same 
thickness — 6' — and is at an average distance of 70' above 
the Cooper bed. A section at Kingston gives : Goal ^ 6'\ 
Fartmq r. Coal 1' 9J\ Slate 10", Coal V k!'. Bone 5",— 
Total 6' 5", Coal 5 \ 

Below Wilkes-Barre this bed is seen at the Stanton, Em- 
pire and South Wilkes-Barre shafts and at the Sugar Notch 
collieries; it is the *' first bed above the Baltimore and is 
usually designated in that way, it has a thickness of about 
5' and occurs 60' above the Baltimore ; at the Franklin col- 
liery where it is called the '' Sump " bed it gave the follow- 
ing section: Coal 3U^", Bone 7", Coal i' ^", Bone 6",— 
Total 5' 9'\ Coal ^' 6'^ 

At the collieries above Wilkes-Barre this coal is not 
recognized as workable. 

Old Bennett or Orchard bed of the west side of the river 

^niJirajciUll^wn'- ^ortherrv (hatlieUL 



• • • 

; • • • • 

Smith.'] Tsr. o. f. wilkes-barre division. 1995 

and The Stanton or Five Foot hed ot the east side, is the 
second of the two workable beds between the Baltimore and 
Hillman beds, although some of the shafts on the east side 
have cut still a third bed of workable thickness in this 
interval; see columnar sections. 

On sheet V this bed is worked at the Dodson, Lance and 
Plymouth No. 2 collieries where it is called the '' Old 
Bennett" bed; it has a thickness of 10' to 16' but contains 
a great deal of refuse, especially in the upper part of the 
bed. At the Gaylord colliery the coal is known as the 
Orchard bed and is about 8' thick. On sheet VII at the 
Kingston and East Boston collieries the bed is also known 
as the Orchard; it is but 4' to 5' thick and is as yet un- 
worked. The distance between it and the Five Foot, Lance, 
&c., varies from 70' to 116'. 

On the Wilkes Barre side at the collieries of the Lehigh 
and Wilkes Barre Coal Co., south and south-west of the 
city this coal is called the " Stanton" bed; it has a thick- 
ness of 6' to 6' and is mined to a small extent. At the 
Lehigh Valley Coal Co.'s collieries above Wilkes Barre and 
at their Franklin colliery below, the bed is known as the 
"Five Fo.ot." A section at the Franklin Colliery gives: 
Loal r &\ Slate 3'\ Coal f 5" Slate i", Coal f >", Slate 
fr; Total ^' //', Coal 3' 10". The interval between it and 
the Lance bed is about 130'. Above the city the bed is 
worked at Enterprise, Henry and Wyoming collieries; a 
section of it at the Henry is as follows : Bony Coal V 2'\ 
Coal 7/ 2'\ Total 5' //', Coal V £^". Its distance above the 
Baltimore bed in this vicinitv is 170' to 200'. 

Although the bed appears to be presistent throughout 
this divisicm it seems probable that for a considerable por- 
tion of its extent it is too thin or too dirty to be workable. 
The territory just east of Wilkes Barre seems to come under 
this head as 3' 11" of rough coal at the Hollenback shaft is 
the thickest coal shown in the interval between the 
Baltimore and Hillman beds. 

Hillman hed is the principal coal above the Baltimore bed, 
and occurs 200' to 300' — ordinarily about 270' — ^above the 
Top split; its good thickness, which it maintains throughout, 


and Its position in the measures, make it a prominent bed 
and it seems to have been easily and correctly identified 
throughout the division. Although rather high in the meas- 
ures it underlies a very considerable area the greater part of 
which is on the southeast side of the river. On the west 
side at Plymouth the Hillman is worked at the Dodson, 
Lance and the D. & H.'s Plymouth collieries; it is there a 
good clean bed 8' to 10' thick. A section at the Lance is 
as follows \—Coal 1' 6", Bone 3'', Coal ^ 7'\ Btme 2'\ Coal 
}^\ 0"— Totals' &\ Coal 8\ /'. To the southwest the out- 
crop is lost in the deep wash covering the Plymouth flats. 
The bed is cut in the Butzbach Landing bore hole, across 
the river, 13' thick at 260' below the surface. To the 
northeast the outcrop is back of Ross hill between Plymouth 
and Kingston, i)asses to the south of the Kingston shafts, 
is concealed by the deep wash of the Kingston flats and re- 
appears on the east side of the river above Plainsville.* 
At the Woodward shaft, below Kingston, the bed is 9' thick; 
and at the Pettebone, on the flats above, it is cut at a depth 
of 400' with a thickness of 13'. 

On the east side of the river the Hillman is extensively 
worked at the Enterprise, Henry, Wyoming, Prospect, 
Dorrance, Hillman, Conyngham, Hollenback and Hillman 
Vein collieries; in thickness it varies from 8' to 16', where 
the latter the upper is apt to carry a high per cent, of bony 
coal and slate; this is sometimes left up to form the roof. 
South of the city the bed is largely mined at the Empire 
where it averages about 9' in thickness; it is also worked at the 
Stanton, South Wilkes-Ba rre, Franklin and Sugar Notch' 
collieries with an average thickness of 7' to 8'. A section 
at Empire No. 5 slope gives :—Coal 5' 3'\ Bone S\ Coal 1' 6** 
Bone ^", Coal 2' 0" Total 9 V\ Coal 8' P". In the central 
part of the basin between Sugar Notch and the river the 
bed lies deep and its thickness is as yet undetermined. 

Kidney^ BowJcley or Plymouth Lance bed is found at 
a fairly regular interval of about 60' above the Hillman 
bed. It has a general thickness of 6' to 6', seems to be 
persistent and regular, and has an excellent reputation as 

* See cross section 27, 29 and 30, sheet IV. 


it carries rather less than the usual proportion of refuse 
and the coal is of good quality. As the mine workings 
thus far have been largely confined to the lower and 
thicker coals a comparative small area of this bed is 

At the colleries of the Lehigh Valley Coal Co., it is 
known as the '*Bowkley" bed and is worked at Prospect 
and Dorrance with a thickness of 6' to 7'; at their Franklin 
colliery below Wilkes-Barre this bed is also mined show- 
ing:— CWaZ i' 5'', Bone 6'\ Coal V ff\ Total 5' 9'\ Coal 

6' r. 

The Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Co. call it the 
''Kidney" bed; at the Empire and Stanton collieries it is 
4' to 6' thick; at the South Wilkes-Barre shaft it is but 3' 
thick; it is the principal bed of Sugar Notch No. 10 colliery 
where about an average section gives: — Coal 6' 5'\ Slate 
r\ Coal i r. Total & r Coal & *". 

The bottom bed of the Buttonwood shaft, at 512' from 
the top, is thought to be the Kidney bed ; it is reported to 
show 6' of clean coal. About Plymouth the bed was 
formerly called the "Lance" but the name Kidney is gradu- 
ally taking its place; the bed is mined at the Dodson, 
Lance and Plymouth No. 2 collieries; the coal is clean and 
good, some 5' to 6' thick. This is the highest bed mined 
on the west side of the river. 

Abbott^ Seven Foot or Hutchinson bed,—T!he Abbott 
bed of the Prospect and Dorrance colleries of North 
Wilkes-Barre is some 70' above the Bowkley bed and hag 
a thickness of 5' to 6', yielding about 6' of clean coal. 
A section at the Dorrance gives : — Coal Ji ^", Slate 2^\ 
Coal 9" — Total o J" Coal o r . The bed is also mined at 
the Franklin collery of the L. V. C. Co., where it has about 
the same thickness. 

At the colleries of the Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal 
Co. this bed is known as the "Seven Foot;" it is cut in 
the Conyngham, HoUenback, Stanton and South Wilkes- 
Barre shafts — (see columnar sections) — with a usual thick- 
ness of 6' to 6', although at Soutti Wilkes-Barre shaft it is 



but 3' 11" thick. The distance between it and the under- 
lying Bowkley or Kidney bed increases towards the south- 
west as it is 100' at the Stanton and 160' at the South 
WilkesBarre shaft. At Stanton a small leader is cut 
between these beds. 

The Hutchinson bed of the Lance shaft at Plymouth, 6 
8" thick, and 110' above the Kidney or ^ 'Lance" bed would 
seem to be identical with the Abbott or Seven Foot bed. 

Snake Island or Rock hed is opened at the Island slope 
some 2,000' south of the Hillman breaker ; it is 60' above 
the Abbott bed and seems to be identical with the Rock 
bed of the Dorrance shaft. The bed is 5' to T thick but at 
the Dorrance contains 40% of refuse. The South Wilkes 
Barre is the only other shaft cutting these high measures . 
and it is there difficult to identify this coal in the thin 
unworkable beds above the Seven Foot. 

New hed is some 80' above the Snake Island and 146' 
above the Abbott bed; it is opened above Wilkes Barre by 
a little drift along the railroad just north of the junction of 
Mill creek and Laurel run; it is apparently the 1' 10" coal 
bed cut in the Dorrance shaft 80' above the Snake Island 
or Rock bed; it is there of course unworkable and there is 
no indication of a workable bed at this horizon in the South 
Wilkes Barre shaft. 

Auble hed cut 4' 6" thick in the South Wilkes Barre 
shaft at 335' above the Seven Foot or about 190' above the 
horizon of the New bed. The bed lies close to the surface 
only 65' below the top of the shait and is not worked 

Higher coal heds—TYae Auble bed some 1800' geologically 
above the Red Ash bed is the highest bed of the Northern 
field identified and named. The deep undeveloped basins 
south-west of Wilkes Barre between Sugar Notch and the 
river contain measures much higher than this. A diamond 
drill bore hole at Askam is reported to have cut the Red 
Ash bed at a depth of 2,200' and the total thickness of the 
measures in this neighborhood is supposed to be 1800' or 
possibly 2000', leaving an interval of between 500' and 700' 
above the Auble bed of w)iich we know very little. The de- 
velopment of this territory will be looked forward to with 

Smith.] N. o. r. wilkes-barre division. 1999 

considerable interest from both a commercial and a geo- 
logical standpoint ; should these higher measures contain 
one or more coal beds of good workable thickness and 
quality, the area underlaid would probably be quite 
sufficient to be an important addition to what is now very 
valuable property ; it is also possible that the beds of these 
high measures may show some points of resemblance which 
will suggest an identity between them and the high beds of 
the Southern field 

A heavy deposit of wa^h with a maximum depth of more 
than 200\ underlies apparently all of the flats on both sides 
of the river and fills the old Wyoming buried valley, 
described by Hill in Annual Kept 1885, with additional 
notes given near the close of this chapter. 

6. Nanticoke — ShicJcshinny Division 

Comprises all that part of the Northern field mapped on 
mine sheets I to lA^,* The topography for the area cov- 
ered by mine sheets III and IV is given on the Roth well 
Map (Scale 3200'=-l'',) Annual Report, 1886, Atlas ; that for 
sheets I and II is published on the mine sheets. The 
general structure is shown by four sections across the 
basin — A at Nanticoke, published on cross section sheets 
IIA and 115; No. 4 at Glen Lyon, No. 3 at West End, No^ 
2 (Lee), No. 2 at Macanaqua, and No. 1 at Salem basins, 
cross section Sheet I ; also five short sections at Wanamie, 
Alden, Warrior Run and Nanticoke on sheet If. Colum- 
nar sections giving the detailed thicknesses and character 
of the strata at various points within the division are pub- 
lished on columnar section sheets I and V.J A Prelimi- 
nary Report covering mine sheets I and II by Frank A. 
Hill is published in Annual, 1886, Part III Oh 11, and Chas. 
A. Ashburner's Report, Annual, 1885, Chapters VII and 
VIII covers mine sheets III and IV. 

The Nanticoke-Shickshinny division comprises the 

* Page plate 321 also g^ves the general location of this division. 

t Portions of these sections are reproduced on page plates 828 and 329. 

X Several Columnar sections are reproduced on page plates 330. 


southwest end of the Northern field, extending from Avon- 
dale and Warrior Ran, where the basin is about four miles 
wide, some twelve and a half miles southwest to the spoon 
of the basin two and one-half miles beyond Shickshinny 
on the west side of the Susquehanna. Nanticoke is 
the largest town but the division also includes Warrior 
Run, Alden, Wanamie, Glen Lyon, Mocanaqua and Shick- 

The Susquehanna river crosses the north corner of the 
division, leaving the field at the Nanticoke gap to fiow in 
the red shale valley just north for some nine ^miles to 
Shickshinny, where, bending abruptly south, the river cuts 
crosses the coal measures leaving a narrow basin about two 
and a half miles long to cap the mountain ridge on the west 
bank of the river, which separates it from the main body of 
the field. A low divide crosses the field near the middle of 
sheet II; the northeast drainage is through Newport and 
Nanticoke creeks which empty into the Susquehanna above 
the Nanticoke gap, and the southwest drainage through 
Black creek which reaches the river at Mocanaqua. As the 
field narrows the surface rises and the central part of the 
basin is filled by narrow valleys and ridges all of which 
are lower than the bounding conglomerate rims *. 

FoTTMLtion No, XII forms the crest of the ridge along 
both sides of the basin, with No. XI outcropping a little 
below the crest. Along the southeastern rim, owing to the 
igenerally steep north dips of 60° to 70°, the conglomerate 
occupies but a narrow strip of territory, sometimes not more 
than 200' wide with a general elevation of 1000' to 1200' 
above tide. The south dips of the basin are more gentle 
so that the northwestern outcrop of XII is usually 600' 
to 800' wide and at 1100' to 1300' above tide. The moun- 
tain has a precipitious slope toward the river and the shales 
of No. XI are well exposed. On mine sheet I and the 
western half of sheet II erosion has removed all the coal 
beds from the shallower parts of the field, uncovering No. 

* Page plate 327 is from a photograph of a Relief Map of the southwestern 
end of the tield by Mr. E. B. Harden and shows very clearly the topo- 
graphy of the districts 


XII along the anticlinal axes within the central part of the 
basin. At Shickshinny the rivei has cut 50' to 100' below 
the basin of the conglomerate and the formation outcrops 
in cliflfs on both sides of the river. 

The upper part of the formation is more sandy with 
smaller pebbles than the lower part which is a hard coarse 
pebbly rock exposed in numerous cliflfs and ledges, under 
which the shales of XI can often be seen, making in this 
division the accurate location of the bottom of XII a com- 
paratively easy aflfair. The Conglomerate grows thinner 
toward the southwest; on sheets III and IV it has a thick- 
ness of 200' to 250', while on sheets I and II its usual 
thickness is about 150'*. 

CocU in XII. The sections of XII scattered throughout 
the field sometimes show one or two beds, but a few inches 
thick, of coal or coal and slate, occurring in the formation. 
One of these coals called "Bed A" is prevalent over a por- 
tion of this division. The greatest thickness with which it 
has been cut is at the Mountain tunnel of the Salem Coal 
Co. where its section is : Goal 1* 0"^ Slate and bon£ 1' 10"; 
Total 2' 10"; Coal 1' 0". 

The Campbell's Ledge black shale at the base of No. XII 
is reported by I. C. White (G7) as exposed at the Nanti- 
coke gap. Susquehanna Coal Co. 's diamond drill bore hole 
No. 7 (new) at Glen Lyon cuts "slate" and "8" of shelly 
coal" at this horizon. 

The Structure. — As noted, the deepest point in the Wy- 
oming basin is probably close to Askam and near the line 
between mine sheet IV and VI, where the Red Ash bed is 
reported to have a depth of at least 1600' below tide; from 
here toward the southwest the basin has a general and at 
times quite rapid rise, falling for a brief interval at the east- 
ern end of the Black Creek basin (sheet I), but rising again 
to the final spoon of the basin beyond Shickshinny where 
the Red Ash bed rounds the trough at about 1250' above 

The anticlinals are both numerous and important. The 

* See columnar sections Nos. 1, 4, 5 and 7|Sbeet V; also Shickshinny sec- 
ion on plate 312. 


crescent shape of the field brings in this division the gen- 
eral course of the axes (N 66® E) about parallel with that 
of the southern rim of the field. Dips of 20"" to 40* are 
quite common and along some of the larger axes, of which 
the Hanover Hogback is one, the north dips are often 
nearly or quite perpendicular. The probable position of 
the principal anticlinals is shown upon the mine sheets; 
the cross sections show their shape on the plane of inter- 
section and they are described by Messrs. Ashburner and 
Hill in Annual Reports for 1886 and 1886. 

The Coal Medsures * it seems probable have a maximum 
thickness of about 1800' in the basin first north of the Han- 
over Hogback and close to the line between sheets IV and 
VI. Of the upper half of the series we have but little in- 
formation ; the highest measures cut in this division are at 
the old Dundee shaft, south-east corner of sheet III, near 
the river road ; this shaft is reported to be 812' deep, with 
a bore hole from the bottom of the shaft, cutting the Red Ash 
bed 868' below or 1680' from the surface, and 1130' below 
tide. The coal beds in the shaft, with the exception of the 
one at the bottom, are said to be thin, or so dirty, as per- 
haps to be unworkable. A bore hole on the Nanticoke 
hill (N"o. 2, new, Susquehanna Coal Co.), cut 1260' of 
measures above the Red Ash bed; its highest workable 
bed, the George, is 900' above the Red Ash. All of the 
beds now worked are found in the lower half of the forma- 
tion, and apparently those of the upper half are less 
numerous and thin or dirty. The principal mine workings 
are in the vicinity of Nanticoke, Alden and Wanamie, 
Glen Lyon, and Mocanaqua ; with a considerable area of 
undeveloped territory to the east and south of Nanticoke; 
and to the north of Wanamie, between Nanticoke and 
Glen Lyon. The coal beds known to be workable for part 
or all of their extent are nine in number. 

Red Ash or Buck Mountain bed as it is called at some 
of the collieries in this division is an important bed of good 
thickness and quality. At the Susquehanna Coal Co.' s 

* Partial columnar se^'.tion on plate 830. 

PL. 32 8 

^rvtkracUe Begion^J/ort/iem (haJMeld. 



1 . \ \\ 


U i\Mt 



W.yi OOfc M4Vlt. ■<. M 

^c<iZe 800-/ 


No. 8 colliery, West Nanticoke, the bed is 16' to 20' thick 
* with an average of 14' to 15' of coal; at their Nanticoke 
collieries* the Buck Mountain bed as it is there called 
although an excellent bed and very extensively worked is 
not so thick, it sometimes reaches 10' to 12' but its average 
thickness is not more than 7' or 8'. At the Warrior Runf 
colliery on the south side of the basin the Red Ash is 
worked in two splits about 50' apart, f the top split about 
7' and the bottom split 8' thick:]:; west of Warrior Run the 
bed becomes thinner, at the Hanover tunnel the identity is 
somewhat uncertain, but where mined at Aldenf and 
Wanamie No. 18 the bed has a thickness of about 7', at 
No. 19 water level tunnel the bed, where cut, was both thin 
and poor. At the Glen Lyon West End No. 2 (now Lee) 
Dupont drift and West End No 1§ workings the bed will 
average about 9' thick, although local variation occasion- 
ally swell its thickness to 14' or 16' or reduce it to only 5' 
or 6'. A section of the bed at the Glen Lyon shaf t§ is as fol- 
lows:— Coal r\ Bone&\Coal6'\ Boned", CoalJ;, 1\ Bone 
2' 0', Coal Q'0'\ Total Q'10'\ Coal 7'!'. In the Salem basins^ c >n 
the west side of the river (sheet 1) the name Buck Moim tain 
is used; the basins are comparatively small and shal- 
low and contain only a small area of the Ross bed in addi- 
tion to the Buck Mountain which is thoroughly mined and 
robbed over nearly all of its extent; its thickness will aver- 
age about 8' with 6' of coal. 

The outcrop of the Red Ash bed is shown upon the mine 

Ross bed. — At the Chauncey colliery, mine -sheet III, 
above West Nanticoke the the Ross bed has been worked 
to a small extent and is now being reopened ; the bed has a 

* See cross section, plate 329. Columar section, plate 330. 

t Cross section on plate 328. 

X Since the publication of mine sheet IV the views as to the identity of the 
beds at the Warrior Run colliery have changed somewhat; the Ross bed of 
the mine sheet is now called the top split of tiie Red Ash bed; the Bennett 
the bottom split of the Ross and the Cooper the top split of the Ross; 
these changes are shown on section 9 cross section sheet No. 1. 

§ Cross section on plate 329 


thickness of about 4' with 3' 6" of coal ; its distance above 
the Red Ash bed is here 200' with a leader V 6" thick at 
15' below the bed. At the Susquehanna Coal Co.'s Nanti- 
coke collieries the Ross is worked with an average thick- 
ness of about 4' 6"; a section at No. 2 shaft is a follows: 
Bone 6", Coal rZ'\ Bone 10'\ Coal 2* r,— Total V 9'\ Coal 
3' 5'\ The bed is here about 170' above the Red Ash and 
three small coals 2' to 3' thick each are cut between. At 
the Warrior Run colliery, sheet IV, beds '* E and D" are 
now regarded as the Ross in two splits 50' apart ; the top 
split is about 15' thick and the bottom split 9'; at the Alden 
and Wanamie No. 18 collieries the Ross bed is about 7' 
thick at 140' above the Red Ash. At Wanamie No. 19 
slope, sheet II, the bed has thickened to 20' or 25' in places 
and has an average of at least 15' in thickness. The Ross 
is now worked in this same basin, on the adjoining prop- 
erty, of the Susquehanna Coal Co., by means of a long 
tunnel south from Glen Lyon No. 6 shaft level ; the tunnel 
cuts the bed in two splits so close as to be worked together 
at times, but the distance between them widens towards the 
southern outcrop; the thickness of both splits is rather 
variable but will average perhaps 8' of coal each. The 
interval between the lower split and the Red Ash is only 
40' to 50'. 

At the Glen Lyon shaft and water level tunnel the Ross 
bed has an average thickness of about 10' and is only 15' to 
25' above the Red Ash. An upper split of the Ross 3' 10'' 
thick some 3' to 4' above the main bed is seen at both the 
shaft and tunnel (see columnar sections 8 and 11 sheet V) ; 
on these sections the bed now identified as the Ross is 
called the Buck Mountain bed. Further to the west on the 
West End Coal Co.'s property the Ross is opened at the 
*' Upper drift" where it is 7' thick and at the ''Golden 
drift" 5' 6" thick with an interval of 100' between it and 
the Red Ash bed. 

Twin or Wanamie ^^ Baltimore^ ^ bed is the next work- 
able bed above the Ross ; the name Twin is local to this 
division and the idenity of the bed is still a matter of 

^ritkrcxxuie Region^ JVort/^ Coallield. 



{ S ! 

wpoRT CKuniK AimriJXAi, 





MnnruMM. ■* 


] . j 

5occ?e 800 

• « 

• 1 


some uncertainty ; in its position above the Red Ash bed 
it corresponds very well with Baltimore bed of the Wilkes 
Barre division, but its general thinness, variability and 
unreliability are in direct contrast with the Baltimore bed 
characteristics, and it is commonly supposed to belong below 
the Wilkes-Barre Baltimore although this is not yet cer- 
tain. At No. 2 Shaft Nanticoke the Twin is seen 140' 
above the Boss in two splits, 6' apart the upper one 6' 3" 
thick and the lower?' 1" thick ; the '^Upper Twin" is 
worked to a small extent and has an average thickness of 
about 4' 9" ; at No. 1 shaft and in the bore holes near the 
southern line of the Susquenanna Coal Go's, property some 
four or five thin coals are cut between the Ross and the 
Forge bed, one or two of these coals no doubt represent 
the Twin bed but all of them are too thin to be workable ; 
the workable area of the Twin at the Nanticoke collieries 
is ap)parently quite limited. 
The Twin bed of Alden seems to be identical with the 
I Twin bed of Nanticoke; here it is a fairly good single bed 

6' to 7' feet thick, at 130' above the Ross, and has been mined 
rather extensively. The "Baltimore" bed of the Wanamie 
collieries at 90' above the Ross is shown by the mine work- 
ings—the properties adjoin — to be identical with the Twin 
bed of Alden; it is a good bed averaging about T thick and 
is worked to a considerable extent; it was supposed to be 
identical with the Baltimore bed of Wilkes-Barre and it is 
still possible that this identity is correct. At Glen Lyon 
No. 6 shaft the bed identified as the Twin, the first above 
the Ross and 130' higher in the measures, is about 6' thick 
' with 3' 6" of coal; in the next basin south, that of slope No. 

19 Wanamie, the Twin is 3' 7" thick and only 40' above the 
Ross.* The Church drift bed of the Black Creek basin, 
I mine sheet I, has a thickness of about 5' 6"; it is 110 above 

i the Ross bed and would appear to be identical with the 

\ Twin. The Salem basins west of the Susquehannna are too 

shallow to contain this coal. 

* On cross section No. 4, sheet I, the upper split of the Ross in this basin 
is incorrectly called Twin bed. 


Bennett^ Forge or JE, although not a thick bed is fairly 
regular and ^persistent throughout this division. As the 
name indicates it is supposed to be the Bennett or Bottom 
split of the Baltimore bed; it is found 60' to 100' above the 
Twin and 350' to 400' above the'Red Ash bed. At the Nanti- 
coke collieries the bed is extensively worked and has an aver- 
age thickness of about 6', a section at No. 12 slope is as fol- 
lows: Bo7i€3\ Coals' r\Bon€9'\ CoalS' S'\Toial& V\ Coal 
6'if';^t Alden colliery it is also extensively worked with a 
thickness of about 4' 6" with 4' of coal ; at Glen Lyon No. 
6 colliery the Bennett 6' thick is worked ; at the Lee col- 
liery (formerly West End No. 2,) new shaft, in the Pris- 
cilla Lee No. 1 basin, this bed is reported to contain 7' of 

Cooper hed, found 30' to 40' above the Bennett or Forge 
bed, in the vicinity of Nanticoke is 8' to 10' thick but is not 
worked on account of the large amount of refuse which it 
contains ; at Alden shaft, if the identity be correct, the 
Cooper bed is only 9" thick ; At Glen Lyon No. 6 colliery 
the bed is about 6' thick, improved in quality and is worked; 
it is also mined at the new shaft Lee colliery, where it is 
reported to have 7' of coal. Beds above the Cooper are 
worked only at the Nanticoke and Glen Lyon collieries. 

Lance or Four Foot bed^ as the coal some 40' above the 
Cooper at Nanticoke is called, is 4' to 5' feet thick, high in 
refuse and not mined ; at the Alden and the Glen Lyon 
shafts this bed is less than 3' thick and unworkable. 

Hillman Slope or O bed^ some 60' above the Lance bed, 
is one of the chief beds of the Nanticoke collieries, where 
it will average 7' to 8' thick ; it has about the same general 
thickness at the Glen Lyon colliery, where it is also a good 
bed, the southwestward rise of the measures causes it to 
finally outcrop about half a mile west of the Glen Lyon 

Mill's, Orchard^ Slope No. ^ or H bed, some 70' higher 
in the measures, is also an important bed at Nanticoke, 
worked even more widely than the Hillman ; the bed is 
quite regular, coal of good quality and has an average 
thickness of about 7' 6"; a section at No. 4 slope is as fol- 

I ^nthracUcJiaiion ¥crthem, GiaJLFieM. 


lows : Rock r\ Coal 1' 5'\ Bone 2'\ Coal V %'\ Bone S'\ 
Coal r 6'\— Total 8' ; CoalT. The first bed cut in the 
Glen Lyon shaft, 6' 6" thick, is identified as the Mills bed. 

George^ Diamond or I hed is the highest bed mined in 
this division ; it is worked at No. 1 shaft, Nanticoke, with 
an average thickness of about 7', but it is a rather dirty 
bed. In the interval between it and the Mills bed, some 
176' to 200', two small ''leaders" are usually found. 
Owing to the rapid westward rise of the measures, it is 
probable that the George bed makes its final outcrop be- 
fore mine sheet I is reached. 

Coal above the Oeorge bed, — The George, some 900' above 
the Red Ash, is the highest bed explored in this division. 
Of the 900' or more, of mostly undeveloped measures, 
above the George, found in the deep basins east of Nanti- 
coke, there is little or nothing to add to the notes 
given a few pages back. 

A brief description of the Wyoming buried valley^ a 
small area of which is seen above Nanticoke in this divi- 
sion, also of the buried valley of Newport creek, on mine 
sheet II and III, follows within the next page or two. 

Division 7. The LoyalsocTc and Mehoopany Coal Field 
in Sullivan and Wyoming Counties. 

On the North Mountain plateau some 25 miles to the 
north and west of the Northern coal field, several small 
areas of anthracite coal have been preserved from erosion 
in the high table land and along the troughs of the shallow 
basins. These coal areas lie about the lieadwat-ers of the 
Loyalsock and Mehoopany creeks in Sullivan and Wy- 
oming counties and are known to the Survey as the Loyal 
sock and Mehoopany coalfield.* The tonnage from the 
only colliery in this division, that at Bernice, is now in- 
cluded with the tonnage of the Wyoming region (Northern 

*The name Western Northern coal field is also sometimes applied to these 


Bernice basin. 

The Bernice basin, in Sullivan county, about the head- 
waters of the Loyalsock creek, is the largest and most 
important of the coal areas of this division. It has a 
general elevation of about 2000' A. T. 

In 1884 Mr. Charles A. Ashburner made an examina- 
tion of the Bernice basin and his report is published in 
Annual Report 1885, Ch. XI; the report is accompanied by 
a Topographical and Geological map of the basin (see At- 
las to 1885 Annual) from surveys by Mr. E. B. Harden 
in conjunction with those of the State Line and Sullivan 
R. R. Co., also by a page plate illustration (reproduced 
as plate 333) showing in a general way the location of 
all the areas comprising the Loyalsock and Mehoopany 
field. The description following is chiefly from Mr. Ash- 
burner's report and the quotations wholly so.* 

The North mountain may be considered the eastern exten- 
sion of the Allegheny mountains ; back and to the north of 
the mountain frontier the strata are comparatively horizon- 
tal, possessing the low dips which are universally found all 
through the State back of the Allegheny crest ; the coal 
measures are found only existing on the higher summits. 
*'The dip of the coal measures in some of the areas covered 
by the map coincide so nearly with the slope of the surface 
of the ground that it has been impossible with any degree of 
accuracy to geometrically construct the approximate out- 
crops of the coal beds or conglomeraie, where but few ex- 
posures were found and almost no explorations had been 

There are two coal beds found in the Bernice basin, called 
A and B. Bed A, the lower of the two, at no point opened, 
has a thickness of more than 1' to 1' 10" of coal and of course 

* Report G2 published 1880 contains an earlier report on the Bernice basiu 
by Mr. Franklin Piatt * * Notes on the Bernice basin" by Clarence R. Clag- 
horn are pablished in Transactions A merican Institute Mining Engineers 
Vol. XVII p. 606. 

Smith.] BERNICE BASIN. 2009 

is commercially unworkable. Bed B is an imjjortant coal 
with an average thickness of about 9' and occurs 60' higher 
in the measures. 

Information No. XII. — There are but few exposures of 
the strata and it is difficult to obtain a complete section. 
Mr. C. R. Claghorn states that the interval between bed B 
and the top of the Mauch Chunk red shale No. XI does not 
exceed 180 feet ; Mr. Franklin Piatt G* makes this interval 
about 250'. 

Messrs. Ashburner and Claghorn regard both beds A and 
B as occurring in No. XII! and identical with the Lykens 
Valley coals of the Southern and Western Middle fields ; 
the chief reason advanced by them for this identity is a 
resemblance in the composition of these coals. It seems to 
the writer that bed B is much more likely to be identical 
with the Red Ash or Buck Mountain bed at the top of 
No. XII instead of a coal within the conglomerate forma- 
tion. The nearest workable coal beds in No. XII are found 
at Shamokin 60 miles away, while in the Northern field but 
25 miles distance, one thin coal with a maximum thickness 
of 2' 10" at Shickshinny is found. This coal corresponds 
very well in its position and size with bed A of the Bernice 
basin and there are a number of points of resemblance be- 
tween bed B and the Red Ash bed. As to the change in 
the composition of the coal it is not exceptional ; the coals 
of the Southern field from Tremont westward to Dauphin 
show a similar and quite as decided a change.* 

If bed B as seems to me wholly probable is at the top of 
No. XII, the formation then has a thickness of about 180', 
or practically the same thickness as in the Northern field. 
It is composed of the usual sandstones and conglomerates. 
Mr. Ashburner gives a section of the upper part of the No. 
XII, as exposed in the Jackson air-shaft, as follows: 

♦The courtesy of Mr. David White, of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey, permits me to state, in advance of publication by him, that the evi- 
dence from his recent collection and study of fossils from the Bernice is 
wholly in favor of the coal measure age of Bed B and of the Conglomerate 
age of Bed A and that the three foot bed of the Mehoopany region would 
seem also to be in the Conglomerate (Apr. 11, 1895). 


L Soil, 6' 

2. Gray, micaceous, shaly sandstone, 6' 8" 

3. Gray slaty shale, 2 0" 

3. Coaly top bench, 4' 0" 

5. Slate and bony coal, ..... 0' 9" 

6, Goal, middle bench, 1' 2" 

A t, yy , 1. ^ n 7. Slate and bony coal, 1' 3" 

4-11. Coal-bed B, j ^ ^^^^^ / ^, ^„ 

9. Sandy slate, (V 3" 

10. Coal, bottom bench, 3' 10 ' 

11. Fire-clay, 4'+ 

12. Interval, 5' ' 

13. Sandstone and conglomerate, 46' 0'' 

14. Black slate, 6' 0" 

15. Coal-bed A, 1' 11 ' 

16. Slate, 0' 8" 

17. Fire-clay, 7-8' 0" 

18. Hard sandstone, 22' 0" 

19. Conglomerate and sandstone, 30' 0" 

Total, 148 


Bed A has been drifted upon at three points in the Ber- 
nice basin, Mylert, Jackson and Hess openings. At the 
Mylert drift Mr. Claghorn reports the bed 2' 4" to 2' 5" 
thick with 1' to 1' 2" of coal ; at the Hess drift the bed 
"varies from 10" to 2' in thickness, is very mach faulted 
and the rocks are false-bedded." 

"The principal points of interest in bed A are (1,) its 
variable composition, at the Jackson opening according to 
the usual classification the coal is bituminous and at the 
Mylert drift but a mile and a half distance the coal is a 
semi-anthracite, showing a change in the carbon ratio from 
4,4 to 8.4; (2,) "in proving the existence of a bitumnious 
coal bed underlying the bed which is mined, which is a 
semi-anthracite; and (8,) in showing a remarkable pecul- 
iarity which the coal possesses of re-absorbing water after 
it has been once driven oflf." 

Bed B: — "The principal economic interest which is 
attached to this portion of the Loyalsock field is the exist- 
ence here of a valuable workable semi-anthracite coal-bed. 
The bed occurs under geological conditions similar to those 
which generally obtain throughout the bituminous regions 
of the State, but the coal has a composition which of itself 

Smith.] BEKNIOE BASIN^. 2011 

would entitle it to rank higher in the trade than some of 
the softer coals mined from the anthracite region proper ; 
yet the Bernice coal has the physical properties and struct- 
ure of many of the Pennsylvania bituminous beds, and is 
itself underlaid by a bituminous bed. This anthracite bed 
has been explored and extensively mined in the vicinity of 
Bernice. The area under which this coal bed is supposed 
to lay is shown by the darkest shade on the accompanying 
map (see Atlas of Annual Report,) and the area of the bed 
which is worked is shown by a map of the mine placed in 
its properposition relative to the surrounding topograph- 
ical features.'- 

Bed B has an average thickness of 8' or 9' of coal in three 
benches, the top bench usually about 3' 0" thick, the mid- 
dle bench V to 2' thick, and the bottom bench 3' to 5' thick ; 
at the ends of the basin the benches are separated from each 
other by only a few inches of slate or fireclay, but towards 
the centre of the basin these partings thicken very mater- 
ially until there are 40' of strata separating the top from 
the middle bench and 20' separating the middle from the 
bottom bench* the bed has 60' to 90' of cover. The area 
underlaid by bed B is about 4 miles long, east and west, 
with a maximum width of about one mile ; practically all 
this area is owned or controlled by the State Line and Sul- 
livan R. R. Co. 

Composition of bed B: — **The coal from the Bernice basin 
is probably more marked than any other coal mined in 
Pennsylvania, having the structure and physical appear- 
ance of a bituminous coal and the composition of an anthra- 
cite coal. 

''The high percentage of fixed carbon in this coal, the 
small amount of gas which is evolved upon heating, and 
the non-coking properties of the coal render it an unsatis- 
factory fuel to bituminous consumers. 

"Not until the Geological Survey had made numerous an- 
alyses of the Bernice coal, and had shown that it possessed 

*This spUtting of the bed is characteristic of the Red Ash bed of the North- 
em field. 


a composition which would entitle it to be called an anthra- 
cite more than some of the softer anthracites mined from 
the western part of the anthracite region, and until the 
operators had designed a mechanical method of preparing 
the coal, and had succeeded in removing the prejudice of 
the coal trade and consumers against the coalj which they 
had always been disposed to regard as bituminous and not 
anthracite, was the coal rated by the trade either as a com- 
peting fuel of the soft anthracite or as a specialty. 

"The free-burning character of this coal, the property it 
possesses of continuing to burn under conditions in which 
fires made of other coals would go out, the easy, complete 
combustion of the carbon in the coal, and the open like ten- 
dency of the ash, which results from combustion, and 
which seldom has a tendency to clinker, renders the coal a 
desirable fuel." 

'' Specimens of the three benches of coal in bed B, as 
mined at Bernice, were forwarded to the Laboratory of the 
Survey for analysis. They yielded as follows (A. S. Mc- 
Creath), taking the general average of all the benches to- 
gether as they are shipped to market. 

"The coal is bright, shining, compact, and shows consid- 
erable charcoal andiron pyrites." 

Water, 1.295 

Volatile matter, 8. 100 

Fixed carbon, 83.344 

Sulphur, 1.031 

Ash, a230 


Color of ash, gray. 

Carbon ratio, 1: 10. 3 

Of course it makes no coke, but it is a trv£, anthracite^ and 
the above analysis represents fairly the character of the coal 
as furnished in quantities from the Bernice mines." 

"But while the Bernice coal from bed B is thus clearly 
an anthracite, according to the trade classification, and a 
semi-anthracite, according to the classification suggested in 
this report, and is used for exactly the same purposes and in 
the same way as the other Pennsylvania anthracite coals, 


yet in its appearance and stracture it differs mach from 

"It has a dull luster, instead of the well-known shining 
luster of the other anthracites, and it entirely lacks the 
conchoidal fracture which is possessed by every other Penn- 
sylvania anthtacite." 

''So different is it in physical structure that it cannot be 
passed through an ordinary anthracite breaker. (See Report 
GG, page 183.) Such a breaker would so crush it as to leave 
little beside slack and pea coal." 

Mehoopany coal basins. 

East of the Bernice basin and in Wyoming county the 
rocks of No. XII cap the high summits lying between the 
main Mehoopany creek and its North branch, and between 
the Mehoopany and Bowman's creeks; within the former 
area a three-foot coal bed is opened and worked to a small ex- 
tent to supply the few settlers along Mehoopany creek. 

"While Mr. E. B. Harden was surveying the Sullivan 
county part of this area, Mr. Frank A. Hill made a re- 
connoisance of its eastern end with a view to the exten- 
sion of the Survey eastward into Wyoming county. This 
reconnoisance was commenced at Mehoopany, August 27, 

Mr. Hill's notes are appended to Mr. Ashburner's report 
on the Bernice basin and in part are as follows : 

**Up the South branch, about a mile above Forkston, is 
Squire Spaulding's house. 

''The easternmost coal opening (No. 1) is about half a 
mile from Squire Spaulding's house, on the crest of the 
mountain west of the South branch. 

"Another coal opening (No. 2) (F. Chrisman) is on the 
mountain crest between Stony brook and Spring brook. 
Here a gangway has been driven 390 feet, and a number of 
breasts have been turned. The operators report 1000 tons 

"The bed is quite regular, thus: 



At mouth: 

Top, massive conglomerate. 

Coal, 2' 10" 

BoLie, O 7" 

ij ire-clay, 4' 4' 

260 feet in the gangway: 

Top, massive conglomerate. 

Fire-clay, 6" 

Coal, 3' 2' 

Bone, C 6" 

Bottom, fire-clay. 

Section of the bed at face, 390 feet from the mouth: 

Top, massive conglomerate. 

Coal, 2' 6' 

Bone, 0' 4" 

Bottom, fire clay. 

*'This (No. 2) Chrisman opening is about 2100 feet above 
tide, or more than 200 feet higher than the lowest coal-bed 
atBernice, a good argument for the Chrisman coal-bed being 
above the Mauch Chunk Red Shale No. XI, and very 
probably in the body of the Pottsville Conglomerate, No. 

"The rise of the measures eastward justifies Professor 
White in assigning the whole of Wyoming county east of 
the Susquehanna river to the Catskill formation, No. IX. 

"Daddow's opening, (No. 3), mentioned by Mr. Piatt in 
Report of Progress GG, page 205, is at the west end of this 
same coal area (between Stony and Spring brooks), where 
the decent is westward to the head springs of the Loyal- 
sock, near the county line. This is in fact the highest 
land of this part of the region. 

*'Daddow's opening is more than a mile west of Chris- 
man's opening, and the outcrop is continuous between 
them, there being another opening (No. 4) on the coal half 
way between them." 

There are certainly several hundred acres underlaid by 
this three foot coal bed and perhaps considerable more. Its 
identity with the beds of the Bernioe basin is uncertain,the 


40' of conglomerate which overlie it rather suggests bed 
A; but it is not at all improbable that it is identical with 
bed B or perhaps with only the bottom bench of the bed 
which may be here widely separated from the upper 
benches. Mr. Piatt calls the coal a semi anthracite. 

''There are two conglomerates in these areas, both spec- 
ially well defined on Stony brook; one above the coal-bed 
coarse and heavy; the other under the coal bed, less coarse 
and interleaved with sandstone beds. 

"The upper or roof conglomerate has a thickness of 40 
feet where best exposed. The lower conglomerate and 
sandstone mass seems to be from 250 to 300 feet thick. 

"In the midst of this lower mass is seen ^little coal a 
few inches thick." 

It was reported to Mr. Hill that coal or coal smut was 
found on the South Mountain between Mehoopany and 
Bowman's creeks; the writer paid a brief visit to this lo- 
cality during the summer of 1894 and ascertained that a 
"coal bed" opened near the wagon road crossing the 
mountain was but one or two inches thick, irregular and 
disappearing altogether, probably identical with the few 
Inches of coal seen in the lower conglomerate mass. The 
high summit near the wagon road is apparently a little too 
low to catch the "Chrisman" coal. 

A topographical map of the whole North mountain re- 
gion, with detailed measured sections would throw much 
needed light on the geology of this region, the extent of 
the coal areas, the identity of the coal beds and of the con 
glomerates, the place of the top of No. XI and other quesi 
tions on which opinions have differed for many years. 

Special Features of the Northern Field. 


The great ice sheet of the Quarternary period covered 
deeply the whole Northern field, its markings are plainly 
seen on the highest summits ; the terminal moraine crosses 
the Susquehanna river some six miles south of the south- 
west end of the field. The glacier has left an undesirable 


legacy in the shape of great deposits of drift, which partly 
fill many of the valleys and often cover the gentle sloping 
hillside to a depth of 75 to 100 feet. 

" The depth of this drift and the location of pot-holes in 
areas underlaid by workable coal-beds, is a matter of great 
practical importance to coal operators. The depth and 
character of the drift have a direct practical bearing upon 
the sinking of shafts, from which to work the coal beds. 
The thickness of the rock roof over the mine workings 
between the top of the workable coal-beds and the bottom 
of the drift, is no less important as affecting the possibilities 
and safety of mining enterprises. 

*'The location of points where the outcrops of worked 
coal-beds will be covered by a considerable depth of drift, 
and the location of pot-holes is of value to the miners of 
coal, since the running of gangways and breasts into the 
drift may not only involve unanticipated cost, but may in- 
volve the loss of lives. 

*'The position and depth of the glacial drift at any one 
point in the valley, and the location of pot-holes, can only be 
determined by boring holes, sinking shafts, or by the more 
undesirable and hazardous plan of driving the mine work- 
ings into the drift." (C. A. A.) 

The Archhald Pot-holes ^ described by Mr. Charles A. 
Ashburner, Annual Report, 1886, page 616, are two oval 
holes 40 to 60 feet deep and 20 to 30 feet in diameter, cut 
down through the rock to the bottom of the Archbald coal- 
bed, which were encountered by the mine workings of Jones, 
Simpson & Co.'s Eaton colliery near Archbald. Rounded 
pebbles and gravel filled the bottom o f the holes. With 
reference lo the formation of holes Mr. Ashburner says: 

"In only two ways is it possible for me to conceive of 
these holes being formed : 

First. By the water which always flows underneath a 
glacier, particularly near its terminus. 

Second, By water flowing over the edge of the retreating 
ice, at the terminus of a glacier." 


Buried Valley of Newport Greek. 

The valley of Newport creek (mine sheets II and III) is 
filled with drift to the depth of about 100 feet, the valley 
having been originally that much deeper than now ; the 
drift also covers deeply the sides of the valley and at some 
points a vertical depth of more than 200 feet of wash or 
drift is encountered. 

It was the unexpected tapping by the mine workings of 
a depression in this drift-filled valley which occasioned the 
Nanticoke mine disaster of December 18th, 1885, by which 
twenty-six men lost their lives, described by Mr. Ashbumer 
in Annual Report, 1885, page 627. 

This buried valley where it exists on the Susquehanna 
Coal Co.'s property not only at Nanticoke* but at Glen 
Lyon, near the head of Newport creek, has been thoroughly 
explored by the drill and its exact depth at several hundred 
points is now known. Mr. J. H. Bowden, the chief en- 
gineer for the company, has had constructed a very inter- 
esting and valuable map showing the shape of the rock 
floor of the buried valley by contour lines 10 feet vertically 
apart, f 

This map shows a northeast fall in the buried valley of 
about 170 feet (600' A. T. to 480' A. T.), in the four miles 
between Glen Lyon and Nanticoke, taking the lowest point 
developed at each place. It also confirms Mr. Ashburner's 
opinion that the depression in the buried valley, which 
caused the Nanticoke disaster, was in the nature of a whirl 
pool rather than a pot-hole as was supposed by many at 
the time. 

Wyoming Buried Valley. 

Mr. Prank A. Hill in Annual Report, 1886, pages 637 to 
647, tells what was then known of this very important fea- 
ture of the Wyoming basin. Mr. Hill says: — ''The Lacka- 
wannock mountain forms the northern border of the Wyom- 

*See cross section through No. 1 and Na 6 shaft plate 829. 

t Mr. Bowden has kindly famished the Survey with a blue print copy of 
this map, and it is hoped that its publication can be made in the near 


ing coal-basin, so that the river enters this basin at Pitts- 
ton, leaves it at Nanticoke, and crosses it again at Shick- 
shinny. Along its course lies the Wyoming Buried Valley. 
Its history is one of the greatest interest, its present condi- 
tion one worthy of study, while its future record will be 
largely dependent upon the influence of engineering fore- 
sight and skill. 

''The buried valley is the work of ages of erosion, an ero- 
sion which has obliterated at least three workable coal-beds 
from an unknown area, and cut a channel through the Wy- 
oming basin greater in depth than the highest artificial 
point within its boundaries. 

"The study of this valley is one of the greatest economic 
importance, as its presence is a constant menace to life and 
property. The determination of its boundaries is a matter 
of vital importance to land owners, operators, and miners." 

Following this Mr. Hill describes the boundaries of the 
buried valley and gives detailed information as to the depth 
of the wash as determined by shafts and bore holes. The 
paper concludes as follows: — 

''There have already been several accidents from the con- 
tract of the mine workings with this hidden channel, all 
either fatal to life or destructive lo property. The work- 
ings from a number of collieries are now approaching the 
Buried Valley areas. Whatever of risk there has been be- 
fore will be multiplied proportionally by the number of 
new breasts and gangways that enter this comparatively 
unknown territory, while the possible shifting of the pres- 
ent river will add to the element of danger. 

To guard against a hidden danger is always most difficult. 
Such a danger is here, and its avoidance is a question to be 
solved by the engineers and superintendents of the region." 

Since 1886 many new borings, a large number of which 
were made simply to determine the depth of the wash, 
have added materially to our knowledge of the buried val-. 
ley. From this information the following additional state- 
ments can be made. 1. The limits of the buried valley — 
the area within which the rock floor has an elevation lower 
than that of the present riverbed — are practically thelimits 

« » < 


of the broad river flats, which extend from West Pittston 
to the Nanticoke gap, with a narrow and comparatively 
shallow area extending a couple of miles up the Lacka- 
wanna valley (see page plates 331 and 332,) 2. The slope 
of the sides of the buried valley is as might be supposed, 
quite variable and very similar to a modern valley. 3. The 
channel* or line of greatest depth of wash, although not 
fully determined, appears to be close to the north side of 
the river under the flats between West Nanticoke and 
Plymouth, just south of the river between Plymouth and 
Toby's Eddy, under the borough of Kingston, north of the 
D. L. and W. R. R., at Forty Fort, then perhaps swings 
southeast to follow close to the north bank of the river to 
West Pittston or possibly continues close to the foot of the 
mountain to the gap above West Pittston. 4. The maxi- 
mum depth of the wash thus far encountered in the vicin- 
ity of West Pittston is about 130' or 400' A. T., near Forty 
Fort 215' (Tripp B. H. No. 1) or 335' A. T., near Kings- 
ton (Woodward farm B. H. No. 2) 202' or 318' A. T., oi)po- 
site Plymouth a depth of 300' of wash was recently re- 
ported f which would make the rock floor there about 230' 
A. T., at Avondale near the river 189' if wash was found or 
rock at 337' A. T. 

The facts cited above in connection with those given by 
Mr. Hill show very clearly the important bearing which this 
buried valley has upon present and future mining opera- 
tions beneath it. The compilation, by the Survey, upon a 
map of working scale, of all the information obtainable 
bearing upon this subject would undoubtedly be of much 
service to the mine operators and help to solve some of the 
questions of economic and geologic value connected with 

The origin of this buried valley is diflicult to account for; 

* At least one prominent mining engineer, who has studied the buried 
valley in special localities, is inclined to think that it has no connected 
channel but that the deep places along its bottom are formed by a series of 
pot holes. 

t The writer is unable to make an authoratlve statement of this although 
he has no reason to question the correctness of the information. 


its known great depth — certainly 192' and probably nearly 
300' — below the present level of the river makes it hard to 
conceive of an outlet for it, and Prof. Lesley now regards 
his theory of sub-glacial erosion as wholly inadequate; his 
discussion of this subject in preface to Report G 7 is as fol- 

^^ Bitried river cJiannels appear in this as in preced- 
ing reports by Mr. White; and he gives interesting details 
of the old channel of the Susquehanna river underneath 
the Kingston flats, opposite Wilkes-Barre. Bore-holes 
through 210' and 212' of drift, struck the old river bed at 
18o' and 180' below the present river level; i. e., at 340' A. 
T., whereas the river level at Wilkes-Barre is now 525' A. 
T. (See pages 24, 25 G 7.) 

" What renders the depth of this ancient channel of the 
river embarrassing, is the fact that a rock-dam lower down 
the river, at Bloom sburg, crosses its bed 450' A. T. (pages 
26, 303, 307, 350, 352 G 7), and another near Sunbury, at 430' 
A. T., apparently to the exclusion of any possible side 
channel. Even at the Dauphin county line the rocky bed 
of the Susquehanna is 385' A. T. ; i. e., 45' higher than the 
bed of the ancient channel at Wilkes-Barre. Did the 
ancient river flow northward then into New York state? 
That were hardly possible, in view of the character of the 
Tunkhannock canon, which would require for this purpose 
to be deepened at Tunkhannock about (580di — 340' — 
40'=) 280 feet; and at the New York State line about 
(780± — 340' — 200' =) 640 feet, which is utterly in- 

I think we are shut up to the explanation of subglacial 
erosion — rivers beneath the ice-sheet, charged with angular 
drift materials, ploughing deep valley -grooves in the softer 
Coal Measures as far as Nanticoke, and in the soft red shale 
from Nanticoke to Shickshinny." 

Limestone Beds. 

The occurrence of limestone beds interstratified with the 
shales, sandstones and coal beds of the coal measures, al- 
though characteristic of all the bituminous measures of the 

Smith.'] LIMK8T0NB — PEAT BOG MIN^EKAL. 2021 

State, are quite rare in the anthracite region. The only lo- 
calities where clearly defined and persistent limestone beds 
have been located by the Anthracite Survey are in the Wy- 
oming Valley. 

A ''Report on the Wyoming Valley Limestone Beds," 
by Charles A. Ashbumer, is published in Annual Report, 
1886, Chapter X. Some four thin beds of limestone, 1' to 
3' thick, are exposed at different points in the valley, but 
chiefly in the vicinity of Wilkes-Barre. They occur near the 
middle of the 1800'=*= of coal measures contained in the 
Wyoming basin and at about 10', 169', 305' and 332' respect- 
ively above the Hillman coal bed. 

''These beds are of special interest to geologists and 
palaeontologists, on account of the number of fossil re- 
mains of water shells found in one of the most persistent 
of the beds, and which I have named the Mill Creek lime- 

A "Description of the Fossils Contained" in these lime- 
stone beds by Professor Angelo Heilprin accompanies Mr. 
Ashburner's report. 

Peat Bog Mineral. 

The "Description of a new substance resembling Dop- 
plerite from Post-Glacial Peat Bog at Scran ton," by Profes- 
sor H. C. Lewis, is published in Annual Report, 1885, pages 
647 to 657. 


Eastern Middle Coal Field. 

The Eastern Middle* lies ten miles to the south of the 
Northern field and is separate from it by the great Wap- 
wollopei^ arch, which elevates Formation X to outcrop and 
form the high plateau lands between the fields. This field 
is the smallest of all and is contained mostly in southern 
Luzerne, with smaller areas in Carbon, Schuylkill and Col- 
umbia counties. It consists of a number of small coal areas 
lying about the high watersheds between the Susquehanna, 
Lehigh and Schuylkill rivers; preserved from erosion in the 
comparatively shallow troughs between seven or eight near- 
ly parallel anticlinals which cross this divide. These anti- 
clinals are in the eastward range of the great Shade Moun- 
tain axis of Northumberland, Snyder and Mifflin counties, 
and apparently represent that axis separated into a number 
of minor folds before it flattens east under the Pocono high- 
lands of Monroe county. 

The maximum length of the Eastern Middle field, some 
26 miles, is along the course of the anticlinals or about N. 
70° E., and its greatest width some 10 miles is near the 
centre of the field. There are large areas from which all the 
coal measures have been eroded, leaving only Formation 
No. XII; so that the total area underlaid by workable coal 
beds is only about 33 square miles. 

The surface of the principal coal basins has a general 
elevation of 1400' to 1700' A. T., with the ridges which lie 
between them 100' to 300' higher. The greatest range of ele- 
vation is from about 950' A. T., along Black creek near 
Gowen to 1932' A. T. at Back Knob some 4 miles west of 

*Small map of the field on plate 334. 






3'T 1 ''^i^* »CD SctUm 300'/' 



The largest drainage basin is to the Susquehanna by way 
of Black and Catawissa creeks ; the next is to the Lehigh 
via Pond, Sandy, Hazle and Beaver Meadow creeks ; with 
but a small area draining south through the Little Schuyl- 
kill. The position of the coal basins high on the divide 
gives favorable grades for railroad outlets in practically all 

The strtccture of the field is for the most part quite sim- 
ple, and consists of a succession of anticlinals, with usually 
broad flat crests ; and rather shallow basins between, the 
dip of whose sides range from \(f to 40°. The basins are 
not all perfectly regular and the larger ones are often more 
or less corrugated by shorter anticlinal flexures, some of 
which sharply upturn the coal beds or even exhibit in few 
cases the breaking oflf and "thrusting" of the broken ends 
of a bed one beyond the other forming an '^overlap." The 
favorable situation of the beds for mining because of the 
large extent of outcrop exposed and the comparative shal- 
lowness of the basins (the deepest is 400' or 600' A. T. 
at the lowest point), has led to a very extensive develop- 
ment of the field and its structure is practically fully de- 
termined. The numerous cross sections published by the 
Survey, some of which are reproduced on page plates 340 
to 345 are especially valuable as there is but little of the 
theoretical in the structure shown by them. 

Erosion has denuded the crests of some of the anticli- 
nals sufficiently to exposes, here and there patches of red 
shale, mostly long and narrow, within the conglomerate 
country. The principal anticlinals, all but the last of 
which form prominent ridges, are : — from the north, Free- 
land, Black Creek Ridge, Council Ridge, Catawissa Ridge, 
Pismire Ridge, Spring Mountain and Messrs Run ; a detail 
account of each is rendered unnecessary as the mine and 
cross section sheets show clearly their extent, shape and 
relative importance. 

Formation No, XII* outcrops in the ridges separating 
the coal basins and covers a considerable area of highlands 

* Section of No. XEI on page plate 330. 


from which all the coal measarea have been eroded. The 
spoon of its basins make long, high, and often narrow, con- 
glomerate capped ridges, which project out into the red 
shale country, both, to the east and to the west. * 

The formation is made up of coarser materials here than 
in the Northern field ; some of the conglomerate beds are 
composed of pebbles nearly or quite all of which are of egg 
size. The thickness of the formation is given at but 200' 
along the northern rim of the field, but it shows a decided 
increase towards the southwest and along the southern 
limits in the Silver Brook basins its thickness is about 500'. 
The field corps while locating the outcrop of the top of No. 
XI encountered at a number of places in the northern half 
of the field, and north of the Catawissa Ridge axis, a ^ 'lower 
conglomerate" below the first beds of red and yellow shale, 
which were taken by them as the top of No. XI. Several 
points where this *' lower conglomerate" was found is noted 
upon the mine sheets. The rapid increased thickness of 
No. XII towards the southwest might be explained by the 
disappearance of these upper shales and the coming together 
of the "upper" and "lower" conglomerates. 

A thin bed qfcoal^ the Alpha bed, 60' to 100' below the 
top of XII is nearly always present and at the west end of 
the Beaver Meadow basin it is locally of workable thick- 

Coal Measures.* — But little coal above the Mammoth 
bed is found in any of the basins; the Hazleton basin con- 
tains the greatest thickness of measures, about 700' with 
one workable coal (the Primrose bed), above the Mammoth. 
The Mammoth although of less extent than the underly- 
ing beds, by reason of its excellence and large thickness, 
20' to 80', is easily the most important; the Buck Mountain 
at the base of the coal measures, while quite variable in dif- 
ferent parts of the field, sometimes 14' to 15' thick and 
again thin and worthless, ranks next ; and the Parlor, 
Wharton and Gamma beds are of varying size and moment 
in different localities. The outcrops of the Mammoth and 

* Section 8 of measures below the Mammoth bed are given on page plate 

y^tthradiaJ^lon^Fa.'it^riJfuldle CoalFteld'. 



Buck Mountain beds are given upon the mine sheets and 
details as to the local thicknesses and value of all the beds 
are soon to follow. 

The proportion of r^tcse in the coal beds of this field is 
somewhat greater than in the Northern field. An average 
of the bed sections collected by the Survey give 77% of the 
thickness of the beds as merchantable coal; 75 %will be a 
little more convenient for use as well as safer. 

For convenience in description the field is divided into 
a number of smaller areas, whose limits are chiefly deter- 
mined by the natural divisions. They are as follows . 

Division 8— Upper Lehigh-Pond Creek baaina. 

<• 9"— Woodaide and Grosa Greek basina. 

« 10— Little Black Greek baain. 

" 11— Big Black Greek baain. 

" 19— Black Greek, Roberta Run and McGauley baaina 

" 18 — Hazleton baam. 

*< 14 — Dreck Greek and Beaver Meadow baaina. 

** ]&— Green Mountain baaina, Noa. 1-5. 

'* 16 — Spring Mountain and Silver Brook baaina. 

Division S. Upper Lehigh-Pond Creek hasiiis. 

This is the most northeastern of the divisions and it is 
mapped on mine sheets Nos. Ill and IV,* the structure is 
shown by cross sections Nos. 30, 31, 32 on cross section sheet 
IV t and sections Nos. 1 to 12 on columnar section sheet 
IV t give the strata cut at different points in the division 

There are three separate coal areas or basins in this di- 
vision, all north of the Freeland anticlinal; the principal 
one, the Upper Lehigh-Pond Creek basin lies in the valley 
of Pond creek, which drains east to the Lehigh; it is some 
6 miles long and 500' to 3000' wide, narrow along the east- 
ern half and widening out at the west end. High on the 
mountain a mile northeast of the Upper Lehigh end of the 
large basin two small basins of Buck Mountain coal are 

Formation No. XII outcropping about the Upper 
Lehigh-Pond Creek basins, makes a rim 1000' to 2000' wide. 

* Page plate 334 gives the relative location of the division. 

f Page plate 338 gives two reduced cross sections. 

X Page plate 337 gives reduced columnar sections at Upper Lehigh. 


Its eastern outcrop spoons aboat a mile and one-half east 
of Pond Creek village and caps the high ridge on the east 
bank of the creek; repeated explorations have failed to 
find any Back Mountain coal on this ridge, a short anti- 
clinal which lifts the red shale to the surface along its axis 
probably explains the absence of the coal beds. The noth- 
ern outcrop of XII overlooking Butler Valley is plainly 
marked by prominent cliffs and ledges of coarse conglom- 
erate, Prospect Rock and Cloud Point on either side of 
Hell Kitchen run are notable examples; along the southern 
outcrop, on the north flank of the Freeland anticlinal, the 
exposures are less numerous and the outcrop is often ob- 
scured by a rather deep covering of wash. 

The thickness of No. XII is cut by two bore holes ; bore 
hole No. 1 (sec. 1 col. sec. sheet IV) is close to the Upper 
Lehigh breaker and gives a thickness of 180' for the forma- 
tion, from the bottom of the Buck Mountain bed to "15' 
green shale" overlying red shale. The upper 60' is mainly 
sandstone with the lower 130' nearly all conglomerate. 
Two coal beds are cut, one T 3" thick at 36' below the Buck 
Mountain bed and the other the Alpha bed 4' 11" thick at 
62' below. 

Bore hole No. 1* Pond Creek (sec. 11 sheet IV) gives a 
thickness of only 165' to red shale, but one coal bed is cut, 
and that 1' 0" thick at 40' below the Buck Mountain bed. 

Basin No. 5, as the larger of the two coal areas northeast 
of Upper Lehigh is called, is about a mile long and 1000' 
wide near the middle; its greatest depth is perhaps not 
more than 150'; the north dips are quite gentle, 10° or lesp, 
but the measures turn up rather sharply to make the north- 
ern outcrop and the south dips are 36° to 40° (see cross sec- 
tion 31, sheet IV). The Buck Mountain is apparently the 
only workable coal, certainly the only one developed, the 
mine workings cover nearly the whole extent of the bed, 
but additional coal is now had by stripping. The thickness 
of the bed is exceptionally large as it will average perhaps 
20' with 15' or 16' of coal, bore hole No. 14, sec. 9, col. sec. 
sheet iV, cuts 22' 7" of coal in a thickness of 31'. 

* Reproduced on page plate 339. 

.Jnthradi&MegijyTiScisternJ&cidjIe GviiFieLC: 

Ml J I M" I 




The little has in just south of basin No. 6, and on the 
south side of a gentle axis which separates them, was only 
partly developed at the time of publication of the mine 
sheet (1888). The basin was thought to be 300' or 400' 
wide and perhaps half a mile long, the cover over the Buck 
Mountain bed is very light. 

Upper Lehigh — Pond Greek basin is about 6 miles long, 
600 to 800' wide at its eastern half and expanding to 3000' 
wide in the western half. Seven short anticlinal axes, 
slightly oblique to the general course of the basin, have 
been developed by the mine workings. The dips as a rule are 
gentle, although some overturned dips have been encount- 
ered. Nearly two miles in length, of the narrow part of 
the basin, between Pond Creek and the Upper Lehigh' col- 
lieries, belonging to the Highland Coal Co., is wholly un- 
developed ; a heavy deposit of wash make the precise loca- 
tion of the outcrop here uncertain. 

Alpha bed in formation No. XII, is quite variable in its 
thickness, its best showing is 4' 11" in bore hole No. I, at 
Upper Lehigh, the bed however cannot be regarded as 
workable except possibly for a very limited extent. 

Biick Mountain bed has been extensively mined at the 
two collieries (Upper Lehigh and Pond Creek) in this ba- 
sin ; at Pond Creek colliery the bed is in two splits about 
18' apart, the upper split 5' thick and the lower split T to 
8'. The Buck Mountain is the only bed here and the ba- 
sin is only about 120' deep at the most. * The Upper Lehigh 
Coal Co., have practically mined over all their Buck Moun- 
tain area and are now getting additional coal by stripping. 
The average thickness of the bed here is about 12' with 9' 
to 10' of coal. 

The maximum depth of the basin some 250 feet with 200 
feet of coal measures is found at Upper Lehigh and it con- 
tains three coal beds above the Buck Mountain ;t — a three 
foot bed at 60' above, another three foot bed 26' higher and 
35' above this the Wharton bed some 6' thick. A shaft 

* See Pond Creek cross section on plate 338. 

t See Upper Lebigh columnar section on page plate 337. 


has recently been sunk and gangways started on all three 
of the beds, the largest, the Wharton, has but little cover 
and is not extensive. 

^' Division 9 — Woodside and Cross Creek basins. 

The area embraced in this division covers part of mine 
sheets I, III and Y\* sections showing the structure of the 
basins are published on cross section sheets I, II, and lY 
sections 1 — 8 and 33 & 34;t columnar sections are given on 
columnar section sheets I & IV:};. 

The Woodside and Cross Creek basins lie between the 
Freeland and Black Creek Ridge anticlinals. 

The Woodside is a long narrow hasin% of Buck Mountain 
coal along the southern flank of the Freeland axis. Origin- 
ally it was no doubt part of the more important Cross Creek 
basin on the south, but erosion has long since removed the 
coal bed from the saddle of the small axis between. The 
basin is about 2 miles long and not over 800' wide, its 
eas'tern end is near the borough of Freeland; it has a depth 
of about 150', the north dips are about 30°, but the south 
dips are much steeper, 60° to 70° or more. The mine work- 
ings are confined chiefly to the eastern half of the basin > 
toward tlie west end the bed thins and goes below a work- 
able thickness. Where worked the B%bcJc Mountain bed 
is 10' to 14' thick. No. XII, 260' thick, mostly conglom- 
erate and barren of coal beds, is cut by a bore hole (sec. 2, 
Col. Sec. sheet I.) 

Cross Creek basin, in the synclinal between the Freeland 
and Black Creek ridges is really the eastern continuation of 
the Little Black Creek basin or vice versa, and the 
north and south township line between Hazle and 
Butler is in this instance used to separate them. The east- 
ern limit of the Cross Creek basin 4 miles away is deter- 
mined by the spoon of the measures a mile and one-half 
beyond Sandy Run; the width of the basin is 3000' to 4000' 

*Page plate 334 also shows relative location of the division. 
fPage plate 338 gives redaced cross section of the basin. 
^Page plate 337 gives a reduced columnar section of the measures. 
§ See cross section of Woodside basin on page plate 338. 

\ \ Piiii!n!fii|i!M!.',Kl!liiM || 


i\\ I 'i^iliih' 


tllPf ^f [^! j 

ii i I hiiii I 

"lEiaip^ if 

ii I' 


*' f I fhiiliiiiil^lii i! ' 

I Iri! t !■ 

Smith.] E. M. C. F. CROSS CRKEK BASIN. 2029 

but narrows to the spoon and towards the division line. 
Southwest of Drifton the Buck Mountain bed saddles the 
Black Creek Ridge axis and dips down into the Hazleton 

The Lehigh-Susquehanna divide crosses the basin, Sandy 
run drains to the Lehigh, and Cross creek cuts south across 
the Black Creek Ridge axis to join Big Black creek. Drifton 
and Sandy Run are mining towns within the basin. 

The structure in general is that of a broad rather shallow 
basin, but it is broken here and there by short sharp anti- 
clinals which turn the strata up at abrupt angles and some- 
times overturn; the axes are seldom extensive, quickly 
dying down as a rule (see cross sections on page plate 338). 
At Drifton and to the west the dips steepen and the basin is 
considerably deeper, the maximum reached is about 800'. 
The total thickness of the coal measures is about 400', the 
Mammoth is the highest and the Buck Mountain the 
lowest workable bed. 

No. XII has been drilled through at several points 
and has a thickness of 200' to 260' made up mostly of 
coarse conglomerate. 

Alpha bed is cut in two or three of the bore holes 
and is absent in the others. In bore hole No. InearKo. 
2 slope Drifton it has a thickness of 3' 10'' at 76' below 
the Buck Mountain bed; this is the only point in the 
basin where it shows a workable thickness. 

Biick Mountain'^ is B,n excellent bed of large thickness 
and good quality and practically its whole area in this ba- 
sin is under development. Its thickness ranges from 10' to 
20' with an average of about 14' with nearly 11' of mer- 
chantable coal ; the partings of slate and bony coal as a 
rule are not large, but they are scattered through the 
whole thickness of the bed. 

Gamma bed is worked at the Sandy Run colliery, near 
the eastern end of the basin, it is there 45' above the Buck 
Mountain bed and has a thickness of about 6' much parted 
by slates ; further west, at the Highland and Drifton col- 

♦Bed sections on page plate 339. \ * ]": ^ 



lieries the bed apparently does not reach a workable thick- 
ness and in some places is entirely absent. 

Wharton bed^ about 200' above the Buck Mountain bed, 
ranges from 4' to 14' thick, but for the most part is high in 
refuse and probably does not average more than 5' of good 
coal ; it is novs^ worked at the Drif ton aad Highland col- 
lieries ; at Drif ton the Mammoth and the Wharton are sep- 
arated by only 10' to 15' of slate, but at Highland this in- 
terval is 90' with three small coals between. 

Mammoth bed* is found in the deeper part of the basin 
about Drifton, it also underlies a small area of the High- 
land property where it is now mined by ''stripping." 
The bed is 20' to 35' thick, slate partings 1' to 2' thick di- 
vide the bed into two or three large benches ; its average 
thickness is perhaps 25'. 

Primrose bed; — Bore hole No. 8 at Drifton cuts just under 
30' of wash a coal bed 8' thick, but as this boring is prob- 
ably veiy near the deepest part of the basin the extent of 
this bed must be quite limited. 

Divisio7i 10 — Little Black Greek basin. 

The area covered by this basin is mapped on the northern 
part of mine sheets I and II ;t its structure is shown by 
sections 9 to 14 on cross section sheet II ;:t:and columnar 
sections of the measures are published on columnar section 
sheet I. 

The Little Black Creek basin lies in the valley north of 
Black Creek ridge and is the western extension of the Cross 
Creek basin, it has a length of 3 miles with a width of one 
half a mile. Little Black creek flows west in the basin 
then turns and cuts south through Black Creek ridge, Lat- 
timer, Milnesville and Hollywood are mining towns with- 
in its borders. The deepest part of the basin is at Latti- 
mer where the Mammoth bed is about 400' below the sur- 
face at the syncline ; the basin widens as it raises towards 
the west and is divided into three or four sub-basins by 

* Bed sections on j)age plate 339. 

t Page platA 3^^ a^ shows relative location of the division. 

X Page platd ^Ogives reduced cross sections of the basin. 


^rdhrcLciielleffiori^Easiern Middle CoalReid. 



.V t. I ft I ■• / \ 

POND CREF.KB.\.SINS^.I»()\n VW.VAi (.OLUhUnt' 

•vi« ■■WWwr fto * 




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Mm ,«.!< rWtr 

Jfnthrad&S^wrv-EasterfvMcklU CaalFteld'. 



SmithJ] E. M. c. F. LirrLE black creek basin. 2031 

the introduction of the same number of anticlinals, one of 
which is overturned, the cross sections illustrate this quite 
fully, the basin terminates in two prongs. 

No, XII has been drilled through at the La t timer colliery 
(see sec. 12 col. sec. sheet I) with a thickness of 240' to 
"green sand rock and red shale," it is composed mostly of 
conglomerates with but little sandstone; two small coals 
5" and 12" thick are cut at 80' and 110' below the Buck 
Mountain bed. 

The workable coal of this basin is confined almost exclu- 
sively to the Mammoth bed. 

Buck Mountain bed, which, by reason of its large extent 
and good thickness, is the principal bed of the Cross Creek 
basin, grows rapidly thinner towards the west and here, 
for the most part at least, is unworkable. Bore hole records 
give it a thickness of from 7" to 3' 2". 

Between the Buck Mountain and the Mammoth some 
three or four thin coal beds up to 3' 10" thick are seen, but 
not one of them maintain a persistent workable thickness. 

Mammoth bed. — The coal deposits of this basin have 
centred in the Mammoth bed, which ranges from 36' to 
60' thick, contains a rather small proportion of refuse^ 
and will average about 30' to 35' of good coal.* The coal 
is mostly in large benches, the bottom bench is called the 
"Wharton" and it seems highly probable that this is the 
Wharton bed of the Cross Creek basin which at Drifton is 
but 10' below the Mammoth (see bed'sections 15, 17 and 19 
columnar sheet I). 

The nearness of much of the bed to the surface permits a 
great deal of the coal to be won from " strippings, " and 
they are now very extensive. Near the spoon of the basin in 
some places a perpendicular thickness of 100' or even more 
has been exposed; this is due to the doubling together of the 
bed at the synclinal axis and is of course not its true thick- 
ness. The many reports which have been in circulation of 
a coal bed 100' tMck in this basin were founded on these 
local thickenings. 

* See bed seotions on page plate 339. 


Above the Mammoth the cross sections indicate a thick- 
ness of about 150' of measures where the basin is deepest, 
but the Survey has no record of what they consist. 


Division 11 — Big Black Creek basin. 

Mine sheets I, II and Y map this basin ;^ its structure is 
shown by sections 15 to 21, and 35 -and 36 on cross section 
sheets II and IV ;t sections of the measures are published 
on columnar section sheet II. 

This one of the largest and most important of the basins 
of the field, it lies in the synclinal valley between Black 
Creek and Council ridges. Eckley, Poundryville, Jeddo, 
Oakdale, Ebervale and Harleigh are mining towns within 
its limits. Nearly all the drainage goes west through Big 
Black creek; Sandy run a tributary of the Lehigh is seen 
at the extreme eastern end of the division. 

The Big Black Creek basin is about 7 miles long and for 
much of its length 3000' to 4000' wide; it terminates at the 
west in two prongs, caused by the introduction of a small 
anticlinal, which brings in a little basin of Buck Mountain 
coal just south of the main basin; at the east it ends in a 
long, narrow trough. The floor of the eastern half of the 
basin is traversed by some 3 or 4 small anticlinals; the Eckley 
overturn is the chief one of these. At one point along its 
course the Buck Mountain bed has been'broken oflf and the 
«nd8 shoved by each other forming an overlap; the mine 
workings have fully demonstrated this. The western half 
•consists of a simple basin with its sides dipping from 10° to 
40°. The maximum depth, some 600' to 700' to the Buck 
Mountain trough, is found in this half. The cross sections 
and mine sheets illustrate very clearly the structure. 

Formation No. XII has been drilled through in at least 
two places, one at Jeddo and the other at Harleigh (see sec- 
tions 26 and 34 col. sheet II); both holes give nearly the 
same thickness, 290' and 295', made up largely of conglom- 
erate with a few layers of sandstone. These and other 

*Page plate 334 also gives relative location of the divisioD. 
\ Page plate 341 gives reduced cross sections of the basin. 

^nt/iTitciieJle^ioruEctshrn JfiddJe GialMeld. 




\\\ I j 





jSctClZj^ ?dO0.-/' 


Smith.] E. M. G. F. BIG BLACK CREEK BASIN. 2033 

borings which have cut below the Back Mountain bed show 
one thin coal, Alpha bed, 9" to 2' 3" thick at a distance 
ranging from 50' to 115' below the Buck Mountain bed. 

Bicck Mountain bed, in the eastern half of this division, is 
a large and valuable coal; but in the western half, particu- 
larly beyond Jeddo, No. 3 slope is thin, unreliable and per- 
haps nowhere of workable thickness and extent. It so hap- 
pens that the thinning of the Buck Mountain bed takes 
effect near the first appearance of the Mammoth bed, and 
as the intervening beds are of but little value, the basio 
practically contains but one workable coal, the Buck Moun- 
tain in the eastern half and the Mammoth in the western. 

The Buck Mountain bed at Jeddo, Nos. 2 and 5, at Eckley 
and at Buck Mountain No. 4 slope, has a thickness of 10' 
to 25', the increase being towards the east. At the No. 4 
slope the bed is worked in two splits which are separated 
by 2' to 10' of slate. The average thickness for the work- 
able area is perhaps 15' with 12' of coal. 

Oamma and Wharton beds are mostly thin, or unrelia- 
ble and apparently only a small portion of the area under- 
laid by them is workable. No effort has been made to work 
the Oamma bed. The Wharton is opened, at the Harleigh 
colliery, 5' to 7' thick at 20' to 30' below the Mammoth ; it 
seems to be workable as far east as slope No. 3 Ebervale, 
but nothing very encouraging has been developed beyond 

Mammoth bed* basin has a length of some 3^ miles with 
an outcrop width of about 2000'. The bed here, as else- 
where in the field, has a large thickness and the coal is of 
excellent quality; its thickness varies from 20' to 36' di- 
vided mostly into large 6' and 7' benches of solid coal, and 
carries in all a fairly small percentage of refuse. The bed 
in this basin probably averages 20' in thickness of good 

AboDe the Mammoth there are 200' to 300' of measure at 
the most, with the exception of the first 100' the Survey has 
no record of them. 

* Bed section on plate 339. 


West of the spoon of the Black Creek basin and between 
Black Creek and Council ridges, three or four SToall patches 
of Coal Measures are found. These measures have been 
tested at a number of points by trial shafting and diamond 
drillings which have found some 2 or 8 coal beds, but all 
thin and worthless (see records on columnar sheet II). The 
most southern and western of these areas is shown on mine 
sheet XI as perhaps containing along Stony creek the Buck 
Mountain coal bed (and named the Stony Creek basin), but 
as no coal has been opened here, its value and extent, if it 
exist, is of course unknown. 

A drainage tannel 15,100' long, commencing in Butler valley at the north* 
taps the Little Black Creek and the Big Black Greek basins between the 1040' 
and 1060 A. T. level, and will furnish an outlet ior a large body of water 
imprisoned in the old workings and continuous drainage for the new work. 
Mr. John Markle, President of the Jeddo Improvement Company, which 
constructed the tunnel, is preparing a paper descriptive of the tunnel for 
publication in the Transactions of the Am. Inst. Mining Engineer and the 
full details will probably then be given. 

Division 12 — Black Creek — Roberts Run basins and Mc- 

Cauley basin. 

The coal areas covered by this division are mapped 
on mine sheets XI, XIII, Xllla, XIV and XlVa* ; the 
structure of the basins is shown by sections 46 — 50 on cross 
section sheet Vlf ; sections of the measures are published 
on columnar section sheets VI and VII:!:- 

Some two miles west of the Big Black Creek basin, in 
the same general synclinal and underlying the valley of 
Black creek, three long narrow coal areas, briefly separated 
by short sharp anticlinal axes, are found. These areas are 
known as the (East) Black Creek, (West) Black Creek and 
Roberts Run basins ; their combined length is 11 miles with 
a maximum width of half a mile. 

McCauley basin is a wholly separate coal area, caught 
near the top of the McCauley synclinal mountain, some 
four miles northwest of the Roberts Run basin. 

^ Page plate 334 also gives relative location of this division, 
f Page plate 342 gives reduced sections showing structure. 
X Page plate 337 gives a reduced section showing measures. 






.SI I I 


I 4 BAatBiaB 




Black creek turning north at Gowen has cut a deep gorge 
through West Buck mountain and flows out of the coal 
measures on towards the Susquehanna. Roberts run drains 
the short, rather steep valley of coal measures as they rise 
west of^Gowen. Black Ridge, Tomhicken, Derringer and 
Gowen are small mining towns in the Black creek valley. 

The rim of No. XII^ surrounding the Black Creek ba- 
sins is a broad one, especially so on the north, where it is a 
mile wide to the saddle of the West Buck Mountain anti- 
clinal, and another mile to the outcrop of XII on the north 
side of the shallow basin, beyond. This basin west of the 
Black creek gorge, along Falls run, is perhaps deep 
enough to contain a small area of the Buck Mountain bed, 
although ,it has not been demonstrated. !No. XII where 
cut through at Gowen has a thickness of 200' of coarse con- 
glomerate and sandstone to a green sandstone taken to be 
the top of No. XI. 

{East) Black Greek basin* has at its eastern end an over- 
turned axis which causes the basin to terminate in two 
prongs, the southern one being the longer ; westward this 
axis soon dies down. The basin is about 8 miles long and 
1200' wide, with south dips ranging from 20^ to 40® and 
northerly dips of 10° to 20°. 

The same thin and mostly worthless state of the Buck 
Mountain bed, which was noted in the Little Black Creek 
and in the western half of the Big Black Creek basin, pre- 
vails throughout the eastern part of this basin ; but near 
the west end at the Tomhicken colliery the bed once more 
reaches a workable condition and has a thickness of 4' to 
8', but is still inclined to be irregular. 

Oamma bed is not recognized in this basin. 

Wharton bed is unusually near the Buck Mountain and 
interval of only 20' to 40' separating them, it is worked at 
the Tomhicken and Black Ridge collieries with an average 
thickness of about 8', but at times it is high in refuse. 

Mammoth bed only some 30' above the Wharton is at the 
Black Ridge colliery in two splits, 40' apart, the upper 

* See cross sections at Black Ridge colliery page plate 842. 


split is about 6' thick and the lower one 8'; at Tomhicken* 
The splits are together making a bed about 12' thick. The 
Mammoth is the highest bed of this basin and there are only 
about 60' of measures above it. 

The greatly reduced interval between the Mammoth and 
Buck Mountain beds and the total absence of the Gamma 
bed makes the identification of the beds of the (East) Black 
Creek basin, as assumed, a matter of some uncertainty, 
although it appears to be the most probable one. 

( West) Black Creek basin is just west of the (East) Black 
Creek basin and separated from it by a short anticlinal 
axis along whose side the Buck Mountain bed outcrops. 
It is the largest of the three basins and is some 6 miles long 
and about 2000' wide. Two anticlinal axes range along its 
central and western part, the northern and large of these 
exhibits a very pronounced overturn (see section 48 and 49 
cross section sheet VI). It is this overturned axis which 
divides the long narrow western prong of the (West) Black 
Creek basin from the Roberts Run basin lying to the north 
and west. 

Alpha bed of No. XII is represented by a few inches of 
coal but suggests no probability of a workable thickness. 

Buck Mountain is the chief bed of the basin owing to an 
improved condition and its greater extent, its thickness 
varies from 4' to 10' and it will probably average 6' of coal 
for the'area. 

Oamma bed at 30' to 60' above the Buck Mountain is but 
2' to 3' thick and not worked.' 

Wharton bed here 100' to 150' above the Buck Mountain 
is a good bed averaging about T 6" in thickness and exten- 
sively mined at both the Derringer and Gowen collieries. 

Mammoth bed has a small basin narrow and long north 
of Derringer colliery, and another little area south of 
Gowen ; its thickness varies from 10' to 14', at places in two 
splits with a thin slate between, the upper split is rarely 
worked, the average yield of the bed is perhaps 8' of clean 
coal. The Mammoth is the'highest coal of the basin and 
is found 30' to 50' above the Wharton bed. 

*See croBS section page plate 342. 


•SithrevdUR^um-EastemJIidcUe CoalMdd. 

Smith.] E. M. C. F. MCCAULET BASIN. 2037 

Moherts Run basin* extends from Gowen up the valley 
west for at least two miles (the precise spoon of the basin 
is not yet determined) with a general width of about 800'. 
The north dips of the basin are from 60° to 60** and the 
south dips 30° to 40°; the structure is simple; one small 
roll near the trough of the basin has been developed. The 
coal beds have much the same section as in the preceding 

Bvx^Jc Mountain bed is still further improved in size and 
is 11' to 12' thick. 

Gamma bed thin and unworkable. 

Wharton bed diminished to abont 5' in thickness. 

Mammoth bed has an average thickness of about 11'. 

The Mammoth, Wharton and Buck Mountain beds are 
worked by the Gfowen colliery. The surface and the meas- . 
ures rise rapidly towards the west. 

fMoCauley fta^m;— Pour miles northwest of the Rob- 
erts Run basin the McCauley synclinal mountain, sur- 
rounded on all sides by the red shale country, looms up 
prominently. Formation No. XII which caps this moun- 
tain has preserved in its trough a deep narrow basin of 
Buck Mountain coal more than a mile long and about 400' 

Bu^Ic Mountain bed has here an average thickness of 
about 14'; its area has been almost wholly mined over; the 
workings develop a curious overturn or overlap of the bed 
(see section 60 cross section sheet VI). 

A thin coal (Alpha bed) below the Buck Mountain has 
been opened, at several places on the mountain, east of the 
Buck Mountain outcrop, in what have thus far been un- 
successful efforts to find additional areas of Buck Moun- 
tain coal ; it is quite possible that an undiscovered area of 
the bed may exist but its extent certainly cannot be very 
great or some of the numerous trial shaftings would have 
found it. 

*See cross seotion on page plate 342. 
f See cross seotion on page plate 342. 

• • •*• 

• • V * 

• • • • 



Division 13 — Hazleton basin. 

This division is mapped on mine sheets I, II, V and IX*; 
the structure of the basin is shown by sections Nos. 22-29 
cross section sheet III, No. 36 sheet IV and No. 45 sheet 
Vt; sections of the measures are published on columnar 
sheet Hand VI t 

The Hazleton is the largest of the Eastern Middle basins, 
both in surface area and estimated coal contents. It lies 
in the synclinal valley between Black Creek and Council 
ridges; its length is 14 miles extending from within 4 miles 
of the Lehigh to 4 miles beyond Hazleton; the greatest 
width, one mile, is at Hazleton; the basin narrows slowly 
in both directions; from Lumber Yard east it is a long 
narrow trough which widens out somewhat before spoon- 
ing. The Lehigh-Susquehanna divide 1600 A. T. crosses 
the basin at Hazleton, the principal town of the field. 
Hazle creek drains east and Cranberry creek and Long run 
drain west into Black creek. Stockton, Crystal Ridge and 
Humboldt are small mining towns in this division. 

The basin reaches its maximum depth under Hazleton, 
where the Mammoth in the trough is 1000' below the surface; 
the total thickness of the coal measures is about 700'. The 
mine workings in this neighborhood have developed an un- 
usually confused and distorted condition of the strata at 
the bottom of the basin (see cross sections 25§ and 26 sheet 
III). West of Hazleton the measures rise rapidly, the dips 
lessen, two or three well developed anticlinals appear and 
the basin terminates in a double prong. Regular dips up 
to 50^ or 60° are common; the south dips are generally th^ 
steeper; the numerous cross sections show clearly the gen- 
eral structure. 

Formation No, XII is pierced by three bore holes (49, 
60 and 61, col. sheet III) in the neighborhood of Hazleton ; it 
has a thickness of 260' to 290' to the first * 'green sandstone," 

*Page plate 334 gives relative location of this division, 
t Page plate 343 gives reduced sections showing structure. 
{Page plate 337 contains a reduced section of the measurea 
§ Section 26 is given on page plate 343. 

ft • 
• • • • 
;••• • • 

^ • w • • 

« • * • • 


Smith.] K. M. 0. F. HAZLETON BASIN. 2039 

which is probably, but not certainly, at the top of No. XI. 
The Alpha bed, thin and unworkable, is cut at a number of 
points; it is not always persistent. 

Block Mountain bed, as is usual in this field, has its 
greatest thickness at the east near the Lehigh; here the old 
Buck Mountain colliery* worked the bed in two splits each 
10' to 15' thick with 10' to 20' of slate between; the Lumber 
Yard-Buck Mountain axis is developed in these workings; 
it is here overturned, and at one point there is an important 
''overlap," so that south dip workings are under north dip 
workings, and the two parts of the bed nearly parallel for 
several hundred feet. At the next colliery west, the Hazle 
Brook, the Buck Mountain bed is extensively worked; on 
the north side of the basin the bed is in two splits, each 
6' to 8' thick, dipping 35° to 70°, on the south side of the 
basin the splits unite and make one bed 6' to 10', dipping 
80"* to 40°. West of the Hazle Brook colliery— which is 
near Lumber ^ard — the bed is generally conceded to be 
thin and poor, and much of its area is certainly unwork- 
able. Since the publication of the mine sheete a tunnel 
has been driven to it at the Hazleton colliery, also one at 
the Humboldt colliery (recently abandoned). The bed runs 
up at times to 6' and 8' in thickness. 

Oamma bed, some 30' to 60' above the Buck Mountain, 
is throughout the basin a thin, dirty bed, 2' to 7' thick, and 
although now worked to a small extent at a number of the 
collieries is as a rule poor, and quite variable as to its thick- 
ness and yield of coal. 

Wharton bed is in fairly good condition for its whole 
extent and will probably average 6' in thickness; it is par- 
ticularly good at the west end of the basin, and at the 
Mt. Pleasant and Humboldt collieries it is T to 9' thick. 
Nearly all the collieries mine this bed; the interval between 
it and the Buck Mountain varies from 100' to 150'. 

* Messrs. Goxe Bros. A Go. are re-opening this colliery and expect to win 
a great deal of coal, chiefly by stripping. Their explorations have developed 
an error in the location of the east gangways so that the basin is really a 
couple of hundred feet wider near the east end, and it is now known to ex- 
tend 1000' d: further east, than is shown on the mine sheet 


Parlor bed some 10' to 30' above the Wharton is gen- 
erally supposed to be a split of that bed. West of Hazel- 
ton it appears to be persistent as a separate bed through- 
out this basin ; but east of Hazleton it is rarely seen and is 
of little or no consequence. Thus far it has been worked 
only Jo a small extent, its thickness varies from 3' to 8', 
and it is apt to carry considerable refuse. 

Mammoth bed easily maintains in the Haadeton basin its 
well merited reputation for thickness and excellence of 
quality, the bed is 20' to 40' thick and will average 20' of 
marketable coal. Mine workings now practically develop 
its entire extent,* the shape of its basin is accurately shown 
on the mine sheets by underground contouring. The large 
thickness of thej^Mammoth offers special inducements for 
the ''stripping" of the bed and where ever practicable this 

The changes in thickness of the interval, consisting 
mostly ol sandstone, between the Mammoth and Wharton 
bed are worthly of special note ; at the east end of the ba- 
sin this distance is about 80', near the middle of the basin 
about Hazleton the interval is only 40', but from here to 
the west spoon, only one and a half miles beyond, the in- 
terval shows a rapid and regular increase and at the west 
end of the basin the beds are separated by a distance of 
200't. The mine working prove conclusively that varia- 
tions in this interval is due to a difference in the quantity 
of material deposited and not to local rolls or bulging of the 

Primrose bed is found in the deeper parts of the basin 
about Hazleton at 140' to 160' above the Mammoth, it has a 
thickness of 4' to 8', rather variable in its composition ; the 
bed is worked to a small extent. 

Another coal bed is found about 100' above the Primrose, 
not always of workable thickness, at the best it is but 4' to 
5' thick, and has been opened at but two or three places. 

^ince the publication of mine sheet I a shaUow basin of Mammoth coal 
was discovered between the Hazle Brook colliery and the eastern spoon of 
the main Mammoth basin, the coal lay Jast under the wash and was mined 
by stripping, this basin is about 2000' long and 200' wide at the most 
Cross section on page plate 343 illustrate this. 


• • • 
• t 

• • 

Smith,'\ E. M. C. F. DRECK CREEK BASIN. 2041 

Above this there are at the deepest part of the basin per- 
haps 200' of measures^ apparently without workable coal 

Division H — Dreck Creek and Beaver Meadow basins. 

Mine sheet VII, VIII and X map the area covered by these 
basins ;* the structure is shown by sections 37 to 42 on cross 
section sheets IV and V;t sections of the measures are pub- 
lished on columnar sheets IV, V and VI4 

Dreck Creek basin is next south of the Hazieton basin 
and high up in a shallow synclinal valley between the Cata- 
wissa and Pismire ridges. The Buck Mountain bed is sup- 
posed to throw a narrow saddle over both these anticlinal 
ridges and thus form a connecting link between the im- 
portant Hazieton and Beaver Meadow basins. Dreck creek 
flows east through the eastern half of the basin and four 
small branches of Cranberry creek either cross or originate 
in the western half. The basin is supposed to be about 5 
miles long and about 2000' wide, with gentle dips of 10° to 
20'' on both sides, its depth at the most is 300' to 400' and 
it probably contains the Buck Mountain^ Oamma and 
Wharton beds. There are no mine workings in this basin 
and the developments are confined to some three or four 
bore holes and about the same number of trial shaftings on 
coal. Three bore holes along Dreck creek (see sec. 17 sheet 
V, sec. 5 and 7 sheet VI) cut three or four thin coal beds, 
none of which however are workable. Some explorations 
have also been ^nade in the western part of the basin but 
apparently without better results. 

Beaver Meadow basin is used to designate all of the 
large coal area south of Pismire ridge, between it and 
Spring Mountain. Several anticlinal axes divide this area 
into a number of sub-basins and the name Beaver Meadow 
basin is often used in a more restricted sense. 

Beaver Meadow, Coleraine, Tresckow, Jeansville, Auden- 
ried and Beaver Brook are mining towns within this area. 

* Page plate 2M. also gives relative location of the division. 

t Page plates 344 and 345 give reduced sections showing structure. 

X Page plate 337 gives sections of the measures. 


The Lehigh-Susquehanna divide crosses the basin between 
Jeansvilleand Audenried ; Beaver creek drains east, Beaver 
brook and Hunkidori creek flow west. 

The total length of the coal basin is about six miles and 
for much of its length it has a width of one mile. It is 
broken up into a number of smaller basins by numerous 
anticlinals of varying length and importance, some of these 
axes are sharply overturned and a number of ''overlaps" 
occur.* What, at first glance at mine sheet VIII, appears 
to be an impossible state of affairs is seen north of Tresc- 
kow, where the overturning of the Yorktown axis makes it 
appear as if the mine workings of the Wharton bed passed 
from the Coal Measures into Formation No. XII, when 
really the coal bed is for a short distance vertically below 
part of XII although of course in geological order still above. 
The shape and extent of the sub basins are best understood 
by referring to the mine and cross section sheets. 

No, XII sends eastward a long narrow basin, some 4 
miles beyond the coal measures, which terminates east of 
Hazle creek; its southern rim varies from a few hundred 
feet to half a mile in width, depending chiefly on the de- 
gree of dip; the broad western spoon lifts out about the 
headwaters of Spies run a mile beyond the Buck Moun- 
tain outcrop. Outcrops of No. XI surround the basin on 
all sides except the north. No. XII has a thickness of 
about 300'; section IH columnar sheet V gives a complete 
section; the lower 200' is almost wholly conglomerate; 
''black slate" followed by "green sandstone" seems to in- 
dicate the bottom of the formation, while the "green sand- 
stones" and thin "conglomerate beds" which follow might 
properly be classed as transition measures. 

Alpha bed in No. XII reaches a workable thickness at 
the northwestern spur of the basin beyond Beaver Brook; 
the full extent of the workable thickness is not yet devel- 
oped; where cut by bore holes Nos. 1 and 2 it is 4' to 6' 
thick; it seems to be presistent over the whole basin but 
generally not more than a foot or two thick. 

* See cross sections on page plate 334. 


Smith.] E. M. C. F. BEAVER MEADOW BASIN. 2043 

Buck Mountain bed can hardly be regarded as first class 
over any considerable area in this basin. The most exten- 
sive working of it is at the Beaver Brook collieries at the west 
end of the basin, and at the new Evans colliery northeast of 
Beaver Meadow on the Robert Clark tract. The bed has 
been proved by borings at a number of points scattered 
over the basin (see columnar sections); about Audenried 
it- frequently reaches a thickness of 6' to 8' or even 
10' but much of tliis thickness is composed of slate and 
bony coal; near Beaver Meadow the borings show from 
3' to T of coal in the bed. The eastern limit of the bed 
along Beaver creek is only approximately known and is 
supposed by some to extend further east than is shown 
on the mine sheet. 

Gamma bed i^ioxxnd, 50' to 100' above the Buck Moun- 
tain; it is generally a double bed; the two benches 2' to 6' 
thick each are sometimes 20' apart; its thickness and coij^- 
position are quite variable and it seldom yields more than 
3' or 4' of good coal. At the time of publication of the 
mine sheets (1889) the bed was practically untouched; since 
then it has been opened at several pointe; where now 
worked at the Beaver Meadow colliery the bed is 5' to 10' 
thick with about 3' of slate separating the two benches. 

Wharton is a good, reliable bed throughout the basin 
and is extensively worked at all of the operating collieries. 
Its thickness varies from 6' to 12' with probably an average 
of 8' with 6' of coal. In general the bed contains but 2 or 
3 partings of slate or bone and the benches of coal are of 
good size. At Beaver Meadow the Wharton bed is about 
100' above the Gamma and 100' below the Mammoth; going 
west the total distance between the Gumma and the Mam- 
moth beds (200') remains about the same but the interval 
between the Wharton and Mammoth gradually decreases 
and at Jeansville and to the west they are but 10' or so 

Mammoth bed is extensively mined for its whole extent, 
and wherever practicable it is worked by stripping. The 
bed is in good condition and has a large thickness probably 
averaging for its entire area 30' or 35' and occasionally is 


found 60' thick; mnch of the coal is in large benches some- 
times 10' or 12' thick. 

Above the Mammoth in the deeper parts of the basin 
there are perhaps at most 200' of measures, which however 
are not known to contain any workable coal beds. 

15. Oreen Mountain basinSy I^os. I to 6. 

The area covered by this division is mapped on mine 
sheets X, XI and XII;* its structure is shown by sections 
43 and 44 on cross section sheet VI. f Three sections of the 
measures are published on columnar sheet YI. 

Formation No. XII occupies the high ground of the Green 
mountain which extends out into the red shale country, 
west of the Beaver Meadow basin, for some 8 miles with a 
general widtli of 2 miles. Several anticlinals, the most 
prominent of which is the Pismire Ridge axis, traversing 
tjie measures parallel to the general strike, have thrown 
them into a series of waves, along whose crests No. XI 
sometimes appears and in whose hollows the Buck Moun- 
tain and some of the overlying coal beds have been pre- 
served. These coal areas are known as the Green Mountain 
basins; the principal areas are numbered 1 to 5; their prob- 
able shape and extent is shown on the mine sheets. 

The drainage is all towards the west through Tomhicken 
creek and its branches. The new settlements of Oneida and 
and Nelson City are the only towns of the division. 

iVb. X2I outcropping forms high cliflfs and ledges along 
the brow of the mountain. Only the upper 200' of the for. 
mation has been drilled through, this is composed largely 
of hard conglomerate with some thin layers of sandstone ; 
the cross sections give the full thickness of No. XII at 
about 300'. 

Alpha bed has been shafted at several points but is thin 
and unworkable. 

Basins Nos. 1, 2 and 3 are south of the Pismire Ridge 

Basin No. i is a little outlying patch of the Buck Moun- 

* Page plate 334 also gives relative location of this division, 
f Page plate 345 gives two sections showing structure. 

Smith,] E. M. C. F. GEEEN MOUNTAIN BASINS. 2045 

tain bed, near the south brow of the mountain, whose exis- 
tence is proved by a couple of trial shaftings. The basin 
is suppose to have an extent of perhaps 1200' or 1500' in 
length and 200' wide in the middle. 

Basin No. ^*, incorrectly marked No. 3 on mine sheet 
X, is about a mile northeast of No. 1, its length is about 2 
miles and width 1000' with a sharply overturned anticlinal 
throwing a narrow strip of coal just to the north of the 
main basin. The Buck Mountain bed has a maximum 
depth of about 600', the dips towards the ' north are 60° to 
70°, while those towards the south are 40° to 46°. The 
Green Mountain slope of the Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre 
Coal Co., is the only operation in |the basin. The Buck 
Mountain about 10' thick is the principal bed, on account 
of its size as well as its much greater extent ; above the 
Buck Mountain three coal beds 5' to 10' thick are found, 
the middle one of these 6' to 7' thick is worked. 

Basin No. 3 lies west and in the next trough north of 
No. 2, it is 2i miles long and at most 1200' to 1500' wide 
and also has a narrow overturned basin along its northern 
rim. The basin has a maximum depth of about 600' with 
dips of 40° to 45° on both sides. The basin is opened by 
the Oneida No. 2 slope on the Buck Mountain bed and a 
new slope Oneida No. 3, near the line between the James 
Smith and the Christian Troxel tracts, on the south dip of 
the Gkmma bed ; tunnels from the slope open the Wharton 

Buck Mountain is a good bed with an average thick- 
ness of about 10', but as a rule the coal is in rather small 
benches separated by slate partings 3' to 4' thick. 

Oamma hed\B quite variable, its average thickness is 
perhaps 5', on the south side of the basin it is in two 
splits with 3' to 10' of slate between ; the interval be- 
tween it and the Buck Mountain is about 120'. 

Wharton bed some 80' above is a thin but quite regu- 
lar bed with a thickness of 4' to 5' in the workings. 

In the 250' of measures above the Wharton bed ; found 

*Gross section on page plate 345. 


where the basin is deepest, four rather thin bnt prob- 
ably workable beds have been cut, it is supposed that 
some or all of these coals represent the Mammoth, split 
into several small beds; owing to their high position in 
the measures of this basin the extent of the beds is com- 
paratively small. 

In the basin next south of No. 3, on the Christian Troxel 
warrant, a little area of Buck Mountain bed exists, which 
has been opened by a small trial slope. This basin is not 

Basin No, Ji* is an important area of coal lying along the 
Big Tomhicken creek in the first basin north of the Pismire 
Ridge axis. The coal area is about 3 miles long with a 
width of 1200' near the west end and narrowing to 400' or 
500' towards the east. Both sides of the basin dip about 
40°. Oneida No. 1 slope (mine sheet XII) opens the coal 
beds. The Buck Mountain is a good regular bed 10' to 
15' thick with an average thickness of about 12'. The 
Oamma bed 130' above is 3' to 6' thick. The Wharton^ 
40' to 60' higher, is a a small bed about 3' thick; neither the 
Gamma nor Wharton beds are worked. The Mammoth bed, 
formerly identified as the Wharton, is 20' to 25' thick in two 
splits with about 10' of slate between. A tunnel north from 
No. 1 slope opens the Mammoth. 

Basin No. 5 is a long, narrow trough of Buck Mountain 
coal lying along the northern side of Basin No. 4 and only a 
couple of hundred feet away. It is formed by a sharply 
overturned axis with the north dips bent over until they in- 
cline 46° south. The coal in the south dip is found in 
good condition and it is mined by a tunnel from Oneida 
No. 1 slope. 

Division 16 — Spring Mountain and Silver Brook basins. 

The Spring Mountain basin is mapped on the southern 
part of mine sheets VIII and X; the Silver Brook basins 
are mapped on mine sheet Villa and IX;t no cross sections 
of these basins are published. 

* Cross section of page plate 845. 

I Page plate 3S4 also irives relative location. 

^JntfiraxuleJteffVonJE^^ Middle CoalKdd. 




HONITV linoOK U.VSINS.SKC110X No.42.'I'HK()l'(in ACnENRIKD COrj.IF.RY No ."> 

ii : f . 

M «! 
11 \\\ 


ttoMCv unooRfiMcnruMAii. 












A.vrit I.INAI. 

SodZe JSOO'/' 

Smith.] E. M. C. F. SILVER BROOK BASINS. 2047 

Capping the high lands between the Beaver Meadow and 
Silver Brook basins there is a long narrow basin of No. XII, 
apparently with all the coal measures which it once con- 
tained carried away by erosion; it is called the Spring 
Mountain basin. Three diamond drill (sections 8, 9 and 
10 on columnar sheet VI) located on the headwaters of 
Spies and probably at or very near the deepest part of the 
basin cut only No. XII measures with the Alpha bed of 
that formation having a thickness of 2' at the most. 

Siloer Brook basins'*'^ three in number, are found on 
Head Mountain two miles south of the Beaver Meadow 
basin. The drainage is mostly south through the Little 
Schuylkill river. Silver Brook, Old Silver Brook and 
Lofty are small towns within the division. 

No. XII is estimated to be between 300' and 400' thick, 
but no complete section of its measures is available. 

Silver Brook basins Nos. 1 and 2 form a coal area about 
4 miles long and 2000' wide, split at the west by an over- 
turned anticlinal which flattens and dies out eastward. 
The basin north of the overturn is called No. 1 and the one 
to the south No. 2. 

Buck Mountain 6' to 8' thick is the principal bed, occasion 
ally it is quite irregular. It is worked extensively from No. 
1 colliery and is now also opened by a new slope, on the 
south dip of No. 1 basin, and 1000' west of the site of the 
Old Silver Brook breaker. 

A bed supposed to be the Skidmore{ov Wharton) is also 
opened by a new slope, at Silver Brook No. 2 colliery, 
1000' southwest of the old breaker ; this bed is 6' to 7' thick 
but rather dirty. 

Mammoth bed of this basin lies for the most part just 
below the wash and is extensively mined by "stripping;" 
its normal thickness is i)robably 30' to 40' but where double 
together along the axis of the little basins or pots it 

^Although included in the Eastern Middle tbe^e basins belong more 
properly to the Western Middle field, as they are within the outcrops of 
No. XII surrounding that field, and are separated from the other basins of 
the Eastern Middle by two anticlinal axes which expose the Mauch Chunk 
red shale lor their whole length. 


sometimes has a vertical thiokness of 100^ In addition to 
the Mammothjarea given upon the mine sheet the bed has 
been found and worked by stripping in basin No. 2, west 
to near the little village of Old Silver Brook. 

Basin No. J is a long narrow coal area, about half a mile 
south and west of basin No* 2, and south of the Lofty an- 
ticlinal axis. The limits of this basin are only approxi- 
mately known, but it is supposed to be about 600' wide and 
2 miles long. There are no mining operations, the two or 
three provings of the Buck Mountain bed cut it with a 
thickness of 6' to 6^ 



i a 

s S 

I I J . 1 I 


• r 


Western Middle Coal Meld. 

The Western Middle field * is about evenly divided be- 
tween Schuylkill at the east and Northumberland at the 
west, with Columbia county cutting out a central block 
four or five miles in length. The field is south and almost 
wholly west of the Eastern Middle basins with which it is 
closely associated at the east. It is one large coal area 86 
miles long and 4 to 5 miles in width, narrowing at the ends, 
with two prongs or fingers jutting out a couple of miles 
eastward from the central portion of its northern rim. The 
eastern end of the field outcrops on the high divided be- 
tween the Schuylkill and the Susquehanna, while the 
western end rounds out in a beautiful high prow 10 miles 
west of Shamokin and within 5 miles of the Susquehanna. 
Geologically the Western Middle basins are in the great 
Shamokin synclinal between the Shade Mountains and 
Tuscarora anticlinals both of which flatten and divided as 
they come east from the Susquehanna. 

The eastern half of the field is drained by Mabanoy creek 
which breaks through the Mahanoy mountains south of 
Ashland and continues its westward course in the red shale 
valley on the south. Shamokin creek drains the western 
half of the field and escapes north through the deep gap at 

The mountain rim of conglomerate inclosing the basin 
has a general elevation of 1500' to 1700' A. T. with a max- 
imum elevation of 2100' A. T. at Bears Head north of Del- 
ano ; the lowest points in the field are at the Ashland gap 
850' A. T. and at the Shamokin gap 700' A. T. Locust 
mountain, with an elevation equal to that of the outer rims, 
crosses the field diagonally and forms the divide between 

* A smaU map cf the field is given on plate S46. 


Mahoney and Shamokin creeks ; the Phila. and Reading R. 
R. crosses at Locust Summit, the lowest point in this divide 
1246' A. T. Several ridges, only a couple of hundred feet 
lower, are found in the interior of the field, the surface of 
which is in general hilly and broken with rather narrow 
valleys which have steeply sloping sides. The field is third 
in size and contains about 94 square miles underlaid by the 
lowest or Lykens Valley coal bed. 

Structure — The Western Middle field is comprised in two 
principal basins, divided by the great Locust Mountain 
anticlinal, along whose arch No. XII is exposed for nearly 
its whole length. This axis which forms the Locust Moun- 
tain enters from the southwest, making a red shale cove in 
the southern rim, crosses the field diagonally at an angle of 
10° to 20° with the sides, and with lessened dips passes out 
of the field into the red shale on the north. 

The two basins into which this axis divides the field are 
of nearly equal size depth and importance. The Mahanoy 
basin at the east is about 25 miles long from Delano to the 
spoon some 4 miles west of Locust Gap and some 2i miles 
wide near Shenandoah, with a maximum depth of about 
2000' to the basin of the Buck Mountain bed. The Shamo- 
kin basin is about 30 miles long from the east end of the 
Centralia sub-basin to the west end of the field three miles 
beyond Trevorton, and some three miles wide near Shamo- 
kin ; the greatest depth of the Buck Mountain bed is per- 
haps 1800'. Each of these large basins is divided by anti- 
clinals of more or less importance into a number of smaller 
or sub-basins, (for position and shape of these see mine 
sheets and cross sections). 

Formation No, XII^ as we have said, surrounds the field 
with a high mountain rim, made more prominent by the 
deep red shale valleys which frame the basins, save for the 
brief spaces at the east where No. XII connects with the 
Eastern Middle and with the Southern fields. The average 
thickness of the formation is about 850'; the upper half is 
composed almost entirely of beds of coarse conglomerates, 
hickory nut and egg size ; in the lower half some beds of 
gray and greenish sandstones and shales appear. One of 

KjStthracl^Ee^iexi- Wes6an J^lMk^cdJ&id. 




the best and a complete section is exposed by the East Ma 
hanoy K. B. tunnel through the Mahanoy mountain at the 
east end of the field; the formation here has a thickness 
of 830'.* The published cross sections show No. XII to 
vary from 600' to 1200' in thickness, but it seems probable 
that this wide difference is largely due to insufficient infor- 
mation or to individual preferences in fixing the limit be- 
tween No. XII and XI, where the transition beds permit 
of considerable latitude. 

Coals of No. XII or the Ly kens Valley Nos. I and II 
beds both of which occur near the central part of the for- 
mation and 800' to 600' below the Buck Mountain bed. 
They reach their best development near the west end of the 
field; at the east they are generally thin aud often but one 
of them is present. Sometimes one or two additional thin 
ibeds of coal, but nowhere of workable thickness, are seen 
n the formation. The place and thickness of the Lykens 
Valley beds at various points is given in the detail report 

The Goal Measures have a total thickness of 1200' to 
1500' and contain 10 or 12 workable coal beds. The lower 
300' to 600' of measures are the most productive and the 
mining operations have been chiefly confined to them. 
Nature has been very lavish in this field and especially so 
in the Mahanoy basin, the beds are nearly all of large size 
and the intervals between them comparatively small ; the 
Mammoth bedf alone frequently contains 30' to 60' of coal. 

Condilion of the coal beds : The beds are more steeply 
inclined in this than in the preceeding fields, perpendicu- 
lar and overturned dips occur along many of the axes ; the 
average dip for the field is perhaps not less than 35° or 40°. 
The sharp and close folding of the strata exhibited in many 
of the basins has not been without its effect upon the con- 
dition of the coal beds. As the coal is softer than the 
neighboring slate, sandstone and conglomerate beds, the 
sliding and shifting of the strata caused by the uplifting 

* This section is given on page plate 847. 

t Plate 848 gives two photographs of the Mammoth bed along its outcrop. 
Plate 349 gives mine interior views. 


and folding has had a tendency to crush the coal, to reduce 
it to a soft dirt, to mix it with the partings of slate and 
bony coal and to occasion pinched and swollen places in the 
bed. The steep dipping beds of a close fold may be counted 
upon to contain a greater proportion of small sized coal, 
than the same beds on the gentle dips of an open fold. 
Some of the collieries working the steep dipping beds send 
half of the coal hoisted into the breaker to the dirt bank. 

An average of 1144 bed sections well distributed through- 
out the field, eliminating all refuse, including bony coal in 
the refuse, gave an average of 77% of coal and 28% 
of refuse; but as the best beds are the ones selected 
to be worked first, it is quite possible that this average 
is too high and that to estimate 75% or even less as the 
average proportion of coal, in the beds of this field, is 

For oomparsion with the Northern field where the coal 
beds are but little disturbed, it should be remembered that 
in this field the benches of coal of a steep dipping bed are 
often so much shattered as to make a large proportion of 
waste in preparation, although their appearance in the 
mine may properly justify their classification as good coal; 
this still more increases the difference in favor of the 
Northern field. 

For convenience in description we have divided each of 
the principal basins into two divisions, making for divisions 
of the field as follows : — 

17. Mahanoy basin, Delano-Shenandoah Division. 

18. Mahanoy basin. Lost Creek-Locust Gap Division. 

19. Shamokin basin, Centralia-Mt. Carmel, Division. 

20. Shamokin basin, Shamokin-Trevorton, Division. 

17. Mahanoy Basin. Delano-Shenandoah Division, 

This division comprises all the Mahanoy basin from the 
east end of the field near Delano to the west line of sheet II 
a mile beyond Shenandoah; it is mapped on mine sheet I, 
la and II*. The structure is shown by sections 1 to 5 on 

* Page plate 346 gives the relative location of the division. 

I  k: 3wq 

I Jlnthrartfe Jhawn. We.ftfrn J^u/d/e (halFi^/dy. \ 


cross section sheets I and II* and by the contouring of the 
floor of the Mammoth bed on the mine sheets. Sections 
of the measures are published on columnar sheet-s V, VI 
and Vllf. Topographical sheets I and II give the surface 
elevations in 10 foot contour lines. A Preliminary Report 
by Hill is found in Annual, 1886, Part III, Ch. III. 

Mahanoy City and Shenandoah, both large and prosper- 
ous mining towns, are the principal places of the division. 
The drainage is all towards the west through Mahanoy creek 
and its branches. Mahanoy creek proper is in the valley 
close to the southern rim of the field. Shenandoah creek 
the principal tributary drains a shorter and nearly parallel 
valley a mile to the north. The surface of the basin is 
hilly and the valleys are rather narrow with steep sides. 

StrtLcture. — The field is closed at the east by a high rim 
of No. XII, the dip of the measures toward the west is quite 
rapid. The Mahanoy basin (general) is in this division com- 
posed of three principal sub basins; the Shenandoah basin 
on the north and the Mahanoy sub-basin on the south ex- 
tend the full length of the two sheets while between the 
Middle Mahanoy basin on sheet I gives place in a measure 
to the Ellengowan basin on sheet II.:]: Overturned meas- 
ures are quite common. The Bear Ridge overturn or the 
Mahanoy axis is the most important; it commences at the 
east with regular north and south dips, but going westward 
the north dips grow gradually steeper becoming perpen- 
dicular, and then overturned, until the regular south dip 
and the inverted north dip are parallel, both inclining 
about 60® south. The general rise of the measures is towards 
the east or falling towards the west, the deepest point 
reached in this area is supposed to be in the Mahanoy sub- 
basin near Gilberton (sheet II), where the Buck Mountain 
bed at the axis is about 1600' below the surface and 400' be- 
low tide; the other basins have a depth of perhaps 300' or 

* Page plates 351, 352 and 354 contain selected portions of the cross sec- 

t Page plates 353, 355 and 356 contain selected columnar sections. 

X Shape of the basin is perfectly shown by cross sections on plates 351, 352 
and 354, also by plate 350. 


400' less. The published cross sections and the contouring 
of the floor of the Mammoth bed on the mine sheets show 
very clearly the structure of the division. 

Vormaiion No. XII shows a marked increase in its 
thickness since leaving the Eastern Middle field. The East 
Mahanoy Railroad tunnel on (sheet 1) furnishes a com- 
plete section of No. XII,* also of 300' of measures at the 
top of No. XI and of the Coal Measures to above the 
Mammoth bed. The section measured by the Survey 
makes No. XII 830' thick; the upper 600' is composed 
almost wholly of beds of coarse conglomerate with pebbles 
of pea, hickory nut and walnut size, the lower 230' has 
less conglomerate and beds of green and grayish sandstone 
some of them shaly. One coal bed 3' thick is seen at 4L6' 
from the top. 

The outcrop of No. XII on the south side of the field is 
about one-fourth of a mile wide. The Buck Mountain coal 
bed outcrops about half way up the mountainside, the 
conglomerate makes the crest and extends about half way 
down the southern slope to meet the shales of No. XI. 
The dips towards the north are 30'' to 50°. South of 
Mahanoy City the Western Middle and Southern fields 
are connected by a broad band of conglomerate, which 
saddles over the axis to dip under the New Boston basin 
of the Southern field. 

On the north side of the field a broad outcrop of con- 
glomerate, a mile in width with gentle dips, caps the 
mountain; the Buck Mountain outcrop is low down on the 
south side, and the Mauch Chunk red shale about half 
way down the northern slope overlooking the Catawissa 
valley. This broad sheet of conglomerate extends seven 
or eight miles northeast of Delano and beyond the limits 
of the Western Middle field and holds the coal basins at 
Silver Brook which are included in the Eastern Middle 
field. Bears Head, a knob of No. XII, a mile north of 
Delano, has an elevation of 2100' A T and is one of the 
highest points in the anthracite region. 

* Given on page plate 347, original on col* section sheet VIII section II. 


Coal Measures of this dinsion have a maximum thick- 
ness of about. 1000' and contain ten or eleven coal beds of 
workable thickness. That part of the field covered by 
mine sheet II is probably richer in coal than any similar 
area in the anthracite region. Twelve workable beds, all 
over 6' thick, counting three splits for the Mammoth, have 
an aggregate average thickness of 113', containing about 87' 
merchantable coal ; and the greatest depth of the lowest 
coal bed is but 1500'. 

Coals of No. XII: — The Lykens Valley beds, usually two 
in number, reach their best development near the west end 
of the field. In this division they are represented by a 
single bed found 400' to 500' below the Buck Mountain; the 
bed although thin appears to be persistent, the coal as a 
rule is soft or shelly. At the East Mahanoy R. R. tunnel 
its thickness is 3' ; a bore hole for water, drilled horizon- 
tally, south from the face of Pott Run tunnel, cut *'3' 8" of 
shelly coal" at 500' below the Buck Mountain. This coal 
is also shafted along its northern outcrop and has there a 
thickness of 2' 6" to 3' 6", but at noplace opened does it 
give good solid coal for its full thickness and, of course, 
at present cannot be regarded as a workable bed. 

Buck Mountain bed^ lying on top of No. XII, is a large 
and valuable coal, worked at nearly every colliery in this 
division. Its outcrop — given approximately upon the 
mine sheets* — usually makes a well defined terrace below 
the first prominent exposure of conglomerate around the 
inner rim of the field. On mine sheet I the bed is usually 
10' to 18' thick, with an average of about 13', with say 10' 
of merchantable coal ; at the east end of the Mahanoy sub- 
basin the bed is in two splits, both of them worked, with 
at times 20' of slate between. Towards the west the thick- 
ness of the bed diminishes ; on the east half of mine sheet 
II it is 10' to 14' thick, on the west half 6' to 10' thick, with 
an average for the sheet of about 10' with 8' of coal. 

* Recent mine workings from Park Na 2 colliery (mine sheet I) show 
that between the breaker and Delano, the bed saddles the anticlinal on the 
south and makes a small basin of Buck Mountain coal not indicated on the 
mine sheet 


Seven Foot bed, or the Gamma bed of the Eastern Middle 
field, is at the eastern end of the division a thin coal but 2' 
to 3' thick ; it improves however towards the west and at 
the collieries about Mahanoy City it is worked quite 
largely with a thickness of 4' to 8'. On mine sheet II the 
bed is as yet but little worked, owing chiefly to the abund- 
ance of coal in thicker and more reliable beds. It varies 
from 3' to 10' in thickness, with an average of perhaps 5' to 
6', but occasionally the bed is missing altogether. The 
interval between it and the Buck Mountain bed shows con- 
siderable variation, but in general it is about 80'. 

SkidTTvoie bed, or Wharton bed of the Eastern Middle 
field, is perhaps less variable in its thickness than the 
Seven Foot, but the workings in it as yet are not extensive-; 
it nins from 3' to 10' thick, having an average of about 6' with 
4' of coal. On sheet II in the Mahanoy sub-basin, this bed 
is as a rule but 2' to 4' thick. Its distance above the Seven 
Foot is about 60'. 

Mammoth bed easily stands first among the coal beds of 
this field, as well as of the region, and the greater part of the 
total product of the Western Middle field has been furn- 
ished by this bed. 

On mine sheet I the Mammoth is usually in three splits, 
with an interval of 150' to 200' between the top and bottom 
splits. The Bottom split is locally known as the *'Ten 
Foot" bed, the Middle as the "Four Foot" bed, and the 
Top as the ''Mammoth" bed. The Middle and Bottom splits 
are not in good condition about the eastern end of the 
Mahanoy sub basin, and the Buck Mountain bed is there 
worked in preference to them ; towards the west the con- 
dition and thickness of the bed improves,* and at the 
collieries north of Mahanoy City the Mammoth is exten- 
sivly wrought. The Top and Bottom splits have here a 
combined thickness of about 30', sometimes one being the 
thicker and again the other ; the Middle split is as a rule 
but 3' to 4' thick and only occasionally worked. 

On mine sheet II the bed maintains a large thickness 
throughout, the intervals separating the splits grow less and 

* Just the reverse of the Buck Mountain bed. 

^.^thraciteJi^wrv^J^s&rn'J&icde (haLRelct. 

i i ! ' s 

- ' ' ' -• 1 \\ ill ! • !U 




^rvthrcuuieRegum^fVest^^ Middle (hciLRelcl. 



W. Mil tf tJWi-'? "* ' 






Mr axais 

\ \ \ \\ iUMJumr ajsar 

^ I I 

i i i wJiU 

5 «im«r1 I 5 L^ia^P^>r* 



i I 

• « 

:V-.- • 


Smith.'] W. M. C. F. DELAl>rO-SHENANDOAH DIVISION. 2057 

the distance between the top and the bottom of the bed is 
seldom over 100'. The middle split is often absent or united 
with one of the others; along the western edge of the sheet 
the splits practically unite and form one great bed 40' to 60' 
thick. For the sheet the bed has an average thickness of 
about 40' with say 30' of good coal. The sections of the 
bed show many variations but as a rule the benches of coal 
are large with small slate partings between; the well known 
excellence of the bed is fully attested by the very extensive 
mine workings. The bottom of the Mammoth bed is usually 
60' to 80' above the Skidmore and about 250' above the Buck 
Mountain bed.* 

A small coal bed between the Mammoth and the Holmes 
bed sometimes reaches a workable thickness of 3' or 4'; it is 
worked at the Bear Run colliery and called there the '*Four 
Foot" bed. 

Holmes bed^ about 150' above the top of the Mammoth 
bed, has but a limited extent on mine sheet I, most of which 
has been mined over; the bed is 12' to 14' thick and yields a 
good clean coal. t The deepening of the b&sin towards the 
west gives on mine sheet II a considerable area of the 
Holmes bed. It has a thickness of 8' to 14' with an aver- 
age of IV yielding 8' to 9' of clean coal; on the eastern part 
of this sheet the bed is cleaner, a little thicker and mined to 
a greater extent than at the west. 

Primrose bed about 100' above the Holmes is practically 
confined to mine sheet II ; it is worked at a number of 
places scattered over the sheet and is as a rule a fairly good 
bed, although occasionally split by a 2' to 3' parting of 
slate ; its average thickness is perhaps 8' to 9' with 6' to 7' 
of merchantable coal. 

Orchard bed about 10' thick, Diamond bed about 8' 
thick and Tracy bed about 7' thick are preserved in the high 
measures along the trough of the Ellengowan basin and 
are mined to a small extent between Mahanoy City and 

* See sections of the measures between the Mammoth and Buck Moun- 
tain beds on plate 355. 

t The mine workings on this bed, shown on the mine sheet by a full green 
line, are locally marked Primrose' ' bed. 


Shenandoah. The Orchard bed is about 140' above the 
Primrose, the Diamond bed some 85' higher and the Tracy 
bed about 75' still higher. The Little Orchard bed 2' 10" 
thick is cut at the EUengowan colliery some 20' above the 

Little Tracy bed about 1000' above the Buck Mountain 
bed is caught for a very limited area, in the highest meas- 
ures of this division, south of EUengowan colliery. 

18. Mahanoy Basin^ Lost Creek — Locust Oap Division. 

The area covered by this division is mapped on the lower 
halves of mine sheets III, IV, V and VI, and it comprises 
the west half of the Mahony basin extending from the west 
line of sheet II near Shenandoah to the spoon of the basin 
beyond Locust Gap. The structure is shown by cross sec- 
tions 6 to 14 on sheets III to VI and bv the contouring of 
the Mammoth bed on the mine sheets. Columnar sections 
of the measures are published on sheets II to V. Topo- 
graphical sheets II and III cover the eastern part of the 
division. A Preliminary Report by Hill is published in 
Annual Report 1886 Pt. Ill Ch. III. 

Mahanoy Plane, GHrardville, Ashland, Locust Dale and 
Locust Gap are the principal towns. Drainage is west 
through Mahony creek and its principal branches, Shenan- 
doah creek and Big run. The Mahanoy creek leaves the 
coal field by a deep gap in the Mahanoy mountain at Ash- 
land; a mile and a half west Big run cuts a second gap not 
so deep, in the southern rim and joins the Mahony creek 
in the red shale valley below. The extreme western end of 
the basin is drained by the headwaters of Ix)cust creek 
which find a northern outlet through a shallow gap in the 
Locust mountain. 

Locust Mountain jutting out from the southern moun- 
tain rim makes a long diagonal ridge across the field and 
joins the mountain on the north just north of^Shenandoah. 
The Mahanoy basin in the preceeding division embraced the 

* Page plate 346 gives the relative location of the division. 

t Page plate 357 and 358 gives selected portions of the cross sections. 

X Page plate 359 contains a selected columnar section. 


• •• . 

^nt/tra£iJB.&gio7V^ T^ienv^Mdjcile (halMe&L 

Smith.'] W. M. 0. p. LOST CREEK-LOCUST GAP DIV. 2059 

full width of the field, but iu this it gradually narrows and 
rises until it lifts into the air where Locust Mountain 
branches off from the Mahanoy Mountian. 

Structure: — The surfaQe of the basin is for the most part 
a single longitudinal valley, although the structure of the 
basin itself continues to be compound. The Mahanoy sub- 
basin with steep dipping sides extends the whole length 
with one or more shallower basin, sometimes with over- 
turned dips, along the north.* The length of the basin in 
this division is 12 miles and the maximum width 2 miles is 
at the east end. The deepest place in the Mahonoy basin 
is probably at Ashland close to the P. & R. R. R. station, 
the Mammoth bed, at the basin, is here estimated to be 1460' 
below tide or 2250' below the surface, with of course the 
Buck Mountain and Lykens Valley beds at a still greater 
depth. The Buck Mountain bed saddles the Locust Moun- 
tain axis in two or three places connecting the Shamokin 
and Mahanoy basins by broad bands of workable coal. 
The Lykens Valley beds are below the surface along this 
axis for most of its length. 

Formation No, XII does not expose a complete section 
at any one point within the division. The cross sections 
indicate about the same thickness here as at the east Maha- 
noy tunnel or about 830'. Its hard conglomerate beds 
make the Mahanoy mountain on the south and arch 
the crest of the Locust mountain on the north. At some 
places two Lykens Valley coal beds have been exposed; 
one of these has been worked to a small extent. 

The Coal Measures are at most about 1500' thick and 
contain 12 coal beds of workable size; the mine workings 
thus far are confined almost wholly to some 5 or 6 of these 
beds in the lower part of the formation. 

LyJcens Valley beds: — ^Two coals are cut by a bore hole 
in No. XII at the Locust Run colliery (col. sec. 15 sheet 
III). The upper 2' 10" thick at 240' below the Buck 
Mountain bed, and the lower 1' 6' thick 85' lower. Two 
Lykens Valley coals were also cut in the new Centralia 

* See cross sections on plates 267 and 368. 


drainage tunnel but both are thin, poor and worthless, on 
the south dip, in this basin. From the Centralia tunnel to 
the west end of the Mahanoy basin, two coal beds in No. 
XII are usually found; one of these at times is of a work- 
able thickness. 

The Lower Lykens Valley bed has been worked in the 
Mahanoy mountain, west of Big run gap at the Gordon, 
Helfenstein and Ben Franklin collieries; all now abandoned. 
The thickness of the bed varies from a few inches up to 10' 
or 12' but the bed is faulty and much of the coal is soft or 

BticJc Mountain bed is large and in good condition, along 
the south dip of the Locust Mountain anticlinal, and is 
worked extensively as far west as Ashland; its thickness 
will average 14' or 16', fairly clean, yielding 11' to 12' of 
coal. It is also of good thickness on the opposite dip and 
to the south in the Mahanoy snb-basin where the bed aver- 
ages about 10' in thickness, but at times carries considerable 
refuse. West of Ashland, in this division, the bed grows 
thinner and there is little or no working of it, although the 
provings are quite too few to determine fully its value ; at 
the gap south of Ashland it is but 4' to 5' 6" thick. • 

Seven Foot bed is not yet worked in this division |and is 
for the most part thin and dirty; its best development is on 
sheet III in the vicinity of Packer No. 5 and Bear Ridge 
collieries where th« bed has a thickness of about 6' with 
4' of coal; west of this the bed is much thinner, only 2' to 
3' thick. The provings of the bed are not very numerous. 

SkidTOore bed is mostly thin and not much worked; the 
so-called Skidmore bed of Merriam, Monitor, Locust Springs 
and Locust Gap collieries (mine sheet V), some 40' to 50' be- 
low the Mammoth bed, has been proven by the extension 
of the mine workings to unite with it and it is now regarded 
by the mine operators as the Bottom split of the Mammoth 
bed. The Skidmore bed proper where cut in the tunnels 
and bore holes varies from 2' to 6' thick; the best develop- 
ments of it are at the Merriam colliery where the bed is 
worked 8' thick with 6' of coal and at the Lawrence colliery 
where the bed is 6' to 8' thick. 

Jlnlhraaie Re<jUm ffcstem Middle &alFieltl 



i ili'ili'ill 1 \M ^^ 

\ \h li 4L\i\i^ 

* < 

Smith.'] W. M. 0. F. LOffl CREEK-LOOUST GAP DIV. 2061 

Mammoth bed :— It is easy to see from a very brief in- 
spection of the mine sheets that thus far the Mammoth and 
some portions of the Back Mountain bed have received 
nearly the exclusive attention of the mine operators. On 
mine sheet III in the Mahanoy sub-basin, which is especi- 
ally narrow and steep at the Girard colliery, the Mammoth 
is a single bed 20' to 40' thick ; to the north in the William 
Penn basin the bed in places separates into two splits 
sometimes 100' apart ; the average thickness of the bed for 
this sheet is about 30', with 26' of coal. On mine sheet IV 
the Mammoth is mostly a single bed 20' to 30' thick, swell, 
ing locally now and then to 40' or more; its average for 
the sheet is perhaps 25'. On mine sheet V and VI, 
the Mammoth is usually in two splits ; at Locust 
Spring and Locust Gap colleries three splits are found, the 
average total thickness of the bed is perhaps 20'. The in- 
terval between the Mammoth and the Buck Mountain 
beds, in this division, is about 200'. The Mammoth ig 
usually a clean and good bed with much of its coal in large 
size benches. 

HolToes hedis 120' to 150' above the Mammoth bed ; it is 
worked to a small extent at a number of the collieries, but 
perhaps most on mine sheet III, where although the bed 
has a general thickness of about 10' it seldom yields more 
than 5' or 6' of coal and that is pretty well scattered through 
the bed. West of sheet III the bed has a thickness of but 
3' to 5' and is notjmuch worked. 

Primrose bedy 50' above the Holmes at the east and 150' 
above towards the west end of the division, is opened 
at a dozen or so scattered places with a usual thickness of 
4' to 5', high in refuse. At the Merriam colliery (sheet 
V) the Primrose is worked on both dips of the Mahanoy 
sub-basin, from a |,new tunnel ; it has here a thickness of 
about 7' and is in fairly good condition. 

Orchard bed where cut in the long tunnel at Packer No. 
6 colliery is 8' thick with about 4' of good coal, at Preston 
No. 2 the bed was worked with a thickness of about 6' and it 
was also worked a little at the Diamond colliery (aban- 



doned) ; the new tunnel south across the basin, at the Locust 
Spring colliery, cut the south dip of the Orchard in *'fair 

Little Orchard^ Diamond^ Little Diamond^ Tracy and 
Little Tracy beds range from 3' to T thick where proved 
by the three or four tunnels which cut the high measures ; 
but as none of the beds are now worked no very definite 
conclusion as to their value has been reached. 

Sliamokin hasin. 

The Sharaokin basin is larger than the Mahanoy basin, 
lies to north and west and they are separated by the 
Locust Mountain anticlinal. Its length is 30 miles, between 
Mt. Carmel and Shamokin the basin is 3 miles wide ; west of 
Shamokin it slowly narrows, terminating in two short 
prongs, near the junction of Zerbe run and Mahanoy creek; 
to the east the basin narrows but little ending in three long 
prongs or fingers the two northern ones making ridges 
which project out into the red shale ; the southern one a 
long narrow trough raises out on the fiat crest of North 
Mahanov mountain seven miles further east. 

19. Shamokin Basin, Centralia — Mt. Carmel Division. 

The area comprised in this division is the east half of the 
Shamokin basin and is mapped on mine sheets II, Ila, 
III, Ilia, IV, TV a, V and Va.* Cross sections 9 to 13 on 
sheets IV to Vllf and the contouring of the Mammoth bed 
on the mine sheets show the structure of the basin. Sec- 
tions of the coal measures are published on columnar sec- 
tion sheets II and III. The shape of the surface at the 
eastern part of the division is shown by Topographical 
sheets II and III. A Preliminary Report by flill is pub- 
lished in Annual Report, 1886, Pt. Ill, Ch. III. 

The drainage with the exception of the Centralia basin 
is to the west through Coal run and the North and South 
branches of Shamokin creek; the Centralia basin is drained 
by Big Mine and Ravens runs which fiow south through 
gaps in the Locust mountain to Mahanoy creek. 

* Page plate 846 gives the relative location of the division. 

t Page plates 360 and 361 gives selected portions of these cross sections. 

^ttiJiraciteJiegiofiL Jfestern^Jl^ddJkChcdR^ 



V? 5 5"^ J r 



LAWfienct coLLitur 


•r/iff Hioct Mi^LLicitr 




1 1 'li'-i; 

111 1 L 

/ ^cd<: BCK>-r 



Centraliaand Mt Carmel are the principal towns; Ravens 
Run« Montana, Alaska and Green Ridge are smaller towns 
within the division. 

Structure- — The Sbamokin like the Mahanoy basin is a 
compound one and owing to its greater width has still more 
sub-divisions; in general the sides of the basins are not quite 
so steep and this is especially true in this division which 
includes the eastern spoon of the sub-basins; dips up to 40° 
and 50° are quite common but no important or extensive 
overturns have been developed. The measures are deepest 
along the western edge of the division ; they have a general 
and at times a rapid rise to the east ; this eastward rise 
brings up No. XII along the crests of the principal axes to 
form ridges which rise to join the mountain rim. Still 
farther east the removal of all of No. XII from the Red 
Ridge and Coal Ridge axes leaves two synclinal conglom- 
erate spurs holding the lower coal measures and project- 
ing out from the rim of the field for a couple of miles into 
the red shale country. 

The most southern and eastern of the sub-basins is the 
Centralia,* a long narrow trough of coal measures 6 or 8 
miles in length and half a mile wide.f A narrow strip of coal 
measures connects it with the Mt. Carmel basin at the 
west. Other basins to the north are the the Pennsylvania 
or Coal Ridge or Montana, the Black Diamond, the Coal 
Run and the Natalie basins. The mine and cross section 
sheets show the shape and extent of each. 

Formation No. XII surrounds the division on the 
northeast and south. Its thicknes is probably 600' or 
800', but it is difficult to fix it exactly even when the 
measures are exposed, as thin beds of red and 
greenish shale are scattered through the lower part of the 
formation. A diamond drill bore hole on the Wm. Elliot 

* A tunnel about a mile long, has recently been completed, to drain the 
collieries in this basin. The tunnel commences along Big Mine colliery 
and extends northwest through Locust mountain to the Hazel Dell and 
Centralia collieries, tapping them at about the 1000' A. T. level ; this is low 
enough to drain nearly all the Mammoth coal in the basin. Drainage con- 
nections have been made with other collieries. 

t See cross sections on plate 360. 


tract near the Natalie colliery went 816' below the Buck 
Monntain bed or about 74(y across the measares ; the last 
250' cut a number of thin beds of green sandstone, greenish 
shale and red shale, with the bottom of the hole in sand- 
stone with some thick beds of conglomerate close above. 

The Goal Measures proper have in this division a maxi- 
mum thickness of 800' to a 1000' and contain 8 or 10 work- 
able coal beds. The mining developments have been con- 
fined almost exclusively to the Mammoth and underlying 

Lykens Valley coal beds two in number show some im- 
provement, but owing to the abundance of coal in the 
thicker and more reliable beds above cut little attention 
has been given to them. The beds are 30' to 100' apart 
and sometimes one of them is missing. The Centralia drain- 
age tunnel cut No. II or the upper bed on the north dip of 
the Centralia basin with a thickness of ''3' to 4' of good 
coal." A tunnel at Belmore colliery cuts 2' of dirty coal at 
150' and a 3' 2" coal bed at 230' below the Buck Mountain, 
bed. The No. II bed has been worked in a couple of water 
level drifts on the Wm. Elliot tract near Natalie, the bed in 
places was 8' or 9' thick but contained very little firm hard 
coal, dip is 30° to 40° degrees to the south; the deep bore 
hole 2000' south cut at 260' below the Buck Mountain a 
T 9" bed with 4' 6" of coal; this is identified as No. II bed 
although no coal was found below and a thin worthless bed 
is cut 40' above. A mile and one half east of the Leisin- 
ring drifts on the Wm. Elliott, recent shafts (summer of 
1894) have opened two Lykens Valley beds 100' apart the 
upper with '^9' of coal and the lower T 6'' of coal," looking 
fairly firm for the outcrop, dip 60° south; the shafts are on 
the north side of Big Mountain a couple of hundred feet 
below thft summit. These recent explorations prove the 
Lykens Valley outcrop to be continuous along the northern 
slope of the mountain and that it does not curve in to 
saddle the Hickory Swamp and Hickory Ridge anticlinals 
nearly so much as represented upon mine sheet Ya. 

One of the chief obstacles to a successful working of the 
Lykens Valley beds is the usual crushed and unsound con- 

I .JntftrojdieJleffwtt- ^ster, 



' *. 

' / 


J > ■> 

cxmuuA. HAZEL ifu. 



Smith. \ W. M. 0. F. CENTRALIA-MT. CARMEL DIV. 2065 

dition of their coal. It seems likely that where the beds 
are bat little disturbed and are still in nearly a horizontal 
position that the coal will be found in a more satisfactory 

Buck Mountain bed ranks next to the Mammoth in size 
and productiveness. The most extensive working of it is 
in the Centralia basin where the bed varies from 10' to 20' in 
thickness with an average of about 16', with 11' or 12' of coal; 
in the Montana and Black Diamond basins* to the north at 
the Morris Ridge, Reno, Monroe and Mid valley No. 2 the 
bed has practically this same thicknessf. Approaching 
the western edge of sheet IV and on sheet V the bed seems 
to be much thiner, at Mid valley No. 1 ; on sheet IVa the 
bed is about 6' thick, further west on sheet Ya the Natalie 
colliery mines the bed about 9' thick with an average of V 
of good coal. South on sheet V about the only exploration 
of the bed is by an inside bore hole at the Black Diamond, 
now Ferndale, colliery where a thickness of 5' was cut. 

Seven foot bed is not worked in this division and would 
seem rarely to contain more than 2' or 3' of coal; the tunnel 
at the Logan colliery and rock slope at the Hazel Dell show 
an exceptionally thickness of about 8' for this bed. 

Skidmore bed is worked along the north flank of the 
Locust mountain at the Alaska and Reliance collieries and 
is there about 9' thick with 7' of coal. Elsewhere in the 
division where proved by bore holes or tunnels in the Cen- 
tralia basin and at the Belmore, Mt. Carmel, Midvalley No. 
Ij Black Diamond and Natalie collieries the bed is thin and 
poor varying from 2' to 6' thick and containing considerable 

Mammoth is in one large bed in the Centralia basin and 
is about 200' above the Buck Mountain; its area here is 
nearly all mined over; the bed is quite uniform in thickness 
and the coal in good sized benches; it will average about 23' 
in thickness with 19' of coal. To the west on sheets V and 

* Cross seotionson plate 860. 

fOn the Rea tract at the extreme eastern end of the Blank Diamond baain 
there is a comparatively small area of the Buck Mountain bed 10' to 15' thick 
which is not indicated on mine sheet Ila. 


Ya the Mammoth is usually in two splits, worked separate- 
ly, with an interval up to 100' between. At the Mt. Car- 
mel colliery* a third split is found and worked; the relative 
thickness of the splits varies, sometimes the Top split and 
at other times the Bottom split will be the thicker; the 
combined thickness will average about 18' with 14' of coal. 

Holmes bed is found at about 150' above the Mammoth 
bed; it is opened at only a few places in this division and 
appears to be a rather variable bed. It is worked at Mid- 
valley No. 1 with 6' of clean coal; also worked to a small 
extent at the Pennsylvania colliery f with a thickness of 4' 
or 6'; where cut in the Alaska shaft it is 3' 9" thick with 3' 
of coal. 

Primrose bed is not opened in this division; it is cut at 
the Bel more colliery 6' thick and at the Alaska shaft 5' 

Orchard bed is the highest coal tested; it was cut in a 
drill hole at the Belmore colliery (sec. 12 col. sec. sheet II) 
with a thickness of 6'. 

Still higher coal beds, the Little Orchard, Tracy, and 
Little Tracy are probably contained along the axes of the 
deep basins, but they areas yet wholly undeveloped. 

i?0. ShamoJcin * Basin, Shamokin — Trewrton Dimsion, 

Mine sheets VI, Via, VII, Vila and VIII map the area 
covered by the division. i The structure is shown by cross 
sections 14 to [18 on sheets V to VIII and by the Mam- 
moth bed contours on mine sheet VI. § Sections of the 
measures are given on columnar sheets I and II. || 

This division includes the western half of the Shamokin 
basin. Shamokin mountain bounds it on the north and 
Locust mountain on the south; it has a length of about 15 
miles with a width of 3 at the eastern end, slowly taper- 
ing to a point some four miles beyond Trevorton where No. 
XII lifts into the air. 

* Cross section on plate 361. 

f Cross sections through this colliery on plate 361. 

X Page plate 346 gives the relative location of the division. 

§ Page plate 362 contains selections from these cross sections. 

II Page plate 362 contains a selected columnar section. 

» « 

» V 

Smith.'] W. M. C. F. SHAMOKIN-TBEVORTON DIV. 2067 

Shamokin, with about 16,000 inhabitants, is the town 
of chief importance; Trevorton, a small mining village in 
the red shale, near the western end of the field; is fre- 
quently referred to. 

Most of the area is drained by Shamokin creek and its 
western lateral Carbon run which find a northern outlet 
through the deep gap 700 A, T. at Shamokin. Six miles 
west, near Treverton, Zerbe run has also cut through the 
Shamokin mountain and furnishes a drainage outlet for 
the west end of the field. The southern barrier, Locust 
mountain, carries an unbroken crest line 1600' to 1700' 
A. T. across the division. The surface of the interior of 
the basin is rather broken and hilly, but the highest of 
the ridges are a couple of hundred feet lower than the con- 
glomerate rim. No. XII at the west end rounds out very 
beautifully, and seen from the east resembles the bow of 
a gigantic canoe. 

Structure: — The deepest part of the basin is under the 
southern part of the town of Shamokin where the Mam- 
moth bed is estimated to be about 600' below tide or some 
1300 or more below the surface. The Mammoth over much 
of the central portion of the basin is undoubtedly more 
than 1000' deep. Although dips of 60* to 70° are not un- 
common, few perpendicular or overturned measures have 
been encountered. 

The mine workings on sheet VI, Via and the eastern 
part of VII are very extensive and the structure of the sub- 
basins is here pretty well understood. Between Shamokin 
and the North Franklin colliery near Trevorton there is a 
gap of about 4 miles practiaally undeveloped save for a few 
trial shafts ; the surface is covered with brush and timber 
and there are few exposures. At the west end of the field 
(sheet VIII) the North Franklin mine workings show 
clearly the simplified structure* of the narrowed basin. 

About Shamokin the most extensive developments are in 
the shallower basins along the southern rim were consid- 
erable coal is found on gentle dips of 10° to 20°, although of 

* See cross section on page plate 362. 




course, the beds are often much steeper. On the north side 
of the basin the workings are also numerons, a portion of 
them are on beds dipping 50® to 60** south. The steep dip- 
ping beds contain more refuse than those which have been 
less disturbed.* See the mine and cross section sheets for 
the details of structure. 

The area covered by Formation No. XII has a width of 
only 1000' to 2000' owing to the steep dips along its out- 
crop ; as usual the central or upper part of the formation 
makes the mountain crest ; the Lykens Valley beds usually 
make benches a little below the crest on the outer slope 
and the red shale outcrops about half way down; the 
Buck Mountain terrace is usually pretty well defined high 
up on the inner slope. The thickness of No. XII as meas- 
ured at the Shamokin gap is 760' composed chiefly of beds 
of coarse conglomerate containing two recognized beds of 
coal (see section 16, cross section, sheet VII or page plate 

The Coal Measures have a maximum thickness of 1200' 
or 1800' in the deep basins about Shamokin and contain 
eleven coal beds, all of which have been worked to a 
greater or less extent within the division. The beds of 
this basin were originally numbered and they are usually 
designated by these numbers, although the equivalent 
names are now in use. 

Lykens Valley coal heds^ although considerably im- 
proved, as to thickness, are but little worked on account of 
the high proportion of soft or unsound coal that they usu- 
ally contain. At Cameron collieryf in the Shamokin gap 
the Lower or No I bed, 800' above the red shale, is opened 
by a short drift, it is 2' to 8' thick, in poor condition ; on the 
No. n bed, some 60' higher, a slope 800' deep was sunk 
and the bed worked for half a mile or more, both to the 
east and the west ; the thickness of the bed varies from 2' 
to 7', and in places it yields good, sound coal ; the working 

* A carefuUy kept record at a colliery operating on a steep dip shows that 
50 per cent of the material hoisted out of the mine as coal goes _to the dirt 

f Cross section through Cameron workings on plate 362. 


!M|!!fciIiA=;.i™r • " h "i 



Smith.'] W. M. C. F. SHAMOKIN-TREVORTON DIV. 2069 

of this bed is now abandoned ; slope pitches 40** to 50® 
south. At the Luke Pidler colliery a bore hole (record 
given on mine sheet Via), cut the No. II bed & 5" thick in 
good condition ; the dips here are quite gentle and it is 
thought that the coal will continue to be good over the un- 
disturbed area ; the No. I bed is absent in this bore hole : 
two thin coals are cut between No. II and the Buck 
Mountain bed, 400' above. On the south side of the basin 
the Enterprise Coal Co. have reopened the Margie Frank- 
lin colliery workings on the No. II bed, which is there re- 
ported to have a thickness of 6' to 10' good coal. Pour 
miles west a small slope on the Wilson and Dewart tract 
opens a Lykens Valley bed 10' thick ; its outcrop is a 
couple of hundred feet below the crest of the Locust 
Mountain on the south side. 

At the Zerbe run gap (mine sheet VIII) the North Frank- 
lin No. I colliery (now abandoned) was established to pre- 
pare exclusively the Lykens Valley coal; four beds are 
opened, three of which were mined. The lowest, No. 0, is 
reported 6' 6"? thick with 1' 6" of slate in the middle; this 
bed was not worked. Bed No, /, about 100' higher, was 
worked above water level and by a slope below for half a 
mile or so on either side of the gap. The bed when sound 
contained 10' of coal. The gangways stopped in ''fault." 
Bed No. 11^ about 150' above No. I, is worked above water 
level for half a mile east of the gap; the coal is consider- 
ably crushed and pinched; at its best the bed is 6' to 8' thick. 
Bed No. Ill, 120' still higher and about 200' below the Buck 
Mountain bed, was worked i mile east and f mile to the west; 
its thickness varies from 5' to 10' and in common with the 
others contains a large proportion of soft and crushed coal. 
There is a little colliery mining a Lykens Valley bed for local 
use at the extreme western end of the basin. 

Buck Mountain or No. V bed is known as No. IV bed 
on mine sheet Via and Vila. The bed when opened on 
gentle dips is usually a good one yielding 6' or T of coal; in 
the steep dipping measures it is much less reliable and is 
often thin or worthless. It is now the chief source of 
supply at the Hickory Ridge and Hickory Swamp 


collieries and yields 5' to 7' "of coal. The Corbin, a new 
colliery, works the Back Mountain were it saddles over 
the Big Mountain anticlinal on the east side of Shamokin 
creek; here the bed is in two splits each about 5' thick with 
a 10' interval between. At Enterprise colliery the bed 
is about 6', at Burnside* and Bear Valley collieries it runs 
from 2' to 10' thick and will average about 6' to 6' of 
coal. At the Cameron in the Shamokin gap the bed is 
not so good and is but 3' to 4' thick. At Zerbe run gap 
(sheet VIII) the bed is opened by two or three short drifts 
and although reported to be a thick bed is apparently 
esteemed of little value. 

At the Hickory Ridge, Hickory Swamp and Cameron 
collieries a three foot bed about 80' above the Buck Moun- 
tain bed is worked to a very small extent and called on 
mine sheets Via and Vila. Bed No. V; it is perhaps a 
split of the Back Mountain bed' 

Seven Foot or No. VI bed is worked only at the Cameron 
colliery where it has a thickness of 3' to 6' but is not in 
good condition. The bed seems to be thin throughout the 
division; it is not recognized as a workable bed on the south 
side of the basin. 

Skidmore or No, VII hed is worked quite extensively 
at the Cameron and at the Enterprise collieries; at each it is 
about 5' thick and in pretty good condition. Some provings 
not altogether conclusive at the Luke Fidler, Hickory 
Swamp, Hickory Ridge, Burnside and Bear Valley collieries 
indicate that it is generally thin and unworkable. 

Mammoth^ or Nos. VIII and IX beds as its two splits are 
called, is extensively mined on both sides of the basin about 
Shamokin although it is not yet touched in the deep 
troughs in the middle of the valley or in the long blank 
space between Shamokin and North Franklin. The splits 
are usually about 25' apart but this interval varies from 10' to 
60'; both beds are usually in good condition yielding a 
clean coal with only a moderate proportion of refuse. On 
mine sheets VI and Via bed No. VIII will easily average 

* Gross section on plate 362. 



Smith.'} W. M. 0. F. 8HAM0KIN-TREV0RT0N DIV. 2071 

8' and No. IX 7' in thickness; further west the bed is of 
larger size, at Bear Valley colliery the combined thickness 
of the two splits is about 20'. On sheet VIII in the exten- 
siye working of the Mammoth at the North Franklin No. 
2 colliery each split has an average thickness of about 12'. 
The Mammoth is the highest bed worked at the Trevorton 
end of the field. At Cameron colliery a third split some- 
times encountered below No. VIII is called No. Vlli bed. 
The distance from the Buck Mountain bed up to the bot- 
tom of the Mammoth is from 260' to 300'. 

A coal bed V to 6' thick is usually found between No. 
IX and No. X; the bed is not mined although it may 
prove to have a workable thickness and quality in some 

Holmes or No. X bed is wrought quite largely at the 
Cameron, Luke Fidler andNeilson collieries; it is a fairly 
good bed 5' to 8' thick with 4' to 6' of coal. It is also 
worked at Henry Clay*, Burnside and Bear Valley col- 
lieries on the south side with a general thickness of about 
9' with 7' of coal. 

Primrose or No XI bed is opened at Cameron, Neilson 
and Dan'l Webster (abandoned) collieries with a thickness 
varingfrom 5' to 10' though in general about 7'; where cut 
in the Burnside tunnel it is 4' 3" thick. Its distance above 
the Holmes is about 150'. 

Orchard No. XII with a thickness of about 5' is mined 
only at the Neilson colliery. 

Little Orchard or No. XIII bed 5' thick ; Diamond or 
No. XIV bed about 6' thick ; and the Little Diamond or 
No. XV bed 5' thick, have all been drifted upon at one or 
more points along Shamokin creek south of the town. 

Tracy No. XVI bed probably the highest of the division is 
worked in the hill southwest of Shamokin at the Eureka 
colliery. The bed has an average thickness of about 6' and 
a considerable quantity has been mined from it. 

* Cross section on plate 362. 


Soxithern Goal Field. 

The Southern is the largest of the four great divisions of 
the anthracite region. Its lowest workable coal bed under- 
lies an area of about 181 square miles or 6 square miles more 
than that of the Northern field. Its length is 70 miles from 
Mauch Chunk on the Lehigh to Dauphin on the Susque- 
hanna, and its maximum width is 8 miles in the neighbor- 
hood of Pottsville. 

The wide central portion of the field which includes the 
Broad Mountain coal basins is about 20 miles long; at Tus- 
carora the field is but 2 miles wide and it continues about the 
same for the remaining 20 miles east to the Lehigh; at the 
west beyond Tremont the rapid western rise of the great 
Selins Grove anticlinal from beneath the Coal Measures, 
wedges the field into two long narrow basins or prongs, of- 
ten called the North and South Pisht.ails; the former is 
15 miles long and the latter 30 miles long. The great 
body of the Southern field lies in Schuylkill county; about 
half of the eastern prong or head in Carbon county; the 
western ends of the Fishtails in Dauphin and a central por- 
tion of the southern tail in Lebanon. 

The Schuylkill river may be said to have its rise in the 
Southern field and it drains rather more than the eastern 
half; tributaries of the Susquehanna, of which Swatara 
creek is the most important, drain the western part. 

Sharp mountain, the southern boundary of the field, 
runs in long, straight stretches from the Lehigh to the 
Susquehanna, with but one turn or loop, that east 
of Middleport. Its sharp and narrow crest has a general 
elevation [of 1200' to 1500' A. T. On the north, Locust 
mountain at the east has mostly a narrow summit, then 
comes the high table land of the Broad mountain with a 



general elevation of 1600' to 1700' A. T., 3 and 4 miles 
wide with projecting ridges into the red shale at the east 
and west ; and last the Thick, a single but rather wide 
crested mountain which bounds the Wisconisco basin. Both 
the North and the South Fishtail are elevated longitudinal 
valleys with higher mountain rims on either side. 

The central part of the basin is hilly and broken; the 
principal valley is along the foot of the Sharp mountain ; 
to the north the surface is seamed by numerous valleys 
made by the streams, rising upon the southern slope of 
the Broad mountain, cutting down across the measures 
to find an outlet through one of the gaps in the southern 
barrier. The Gate ridge or Red mountain, a couple of 
hundred feet lower than Sharp mountain, parallels it from 
Tremont to Port Carbon. The Mine hill, an important con- 
glomerate ridge, about 15 miles long from the West 
Branch to Big Creek, is next south of the southern slope 
of the Broad mountain and at times is nearly as high. 

The lowest elevations are found at the gaps in the Sharp 
mountain; the Little Schuylkill below Tamaqua is 780' A. 
T., the Schuylkill below Pottsville* 600' A. T., the West 
Branch below Westwood 660' and the Swatara below Tre- 
mont 700' A. T. 

The Southern field is most advantageously situated as to 
tide water markets; it is only some 93 miles from Pottsville 
to Philadelphia with gentle and favorable grades all the 
way. This was one of the first basins to be developed and 
for a number of years between 1830 and 1850 its product 
exceeded that of any of the other divisions ; but as it be- 
came known that the coal beds of the other fields, generally, 
contained less refuse and were more reliable, its relative 
production grew less and it now stands at the foot of the 

The exhaustion of the cheaper mined coals in the other 
basins will no doubt in time place the Southern field, by 
reason of its great extent and enormous coal content, once 
more in the front rank. A tendency in that direction is 

* Page plate 864 gives view looking west from the gap. 


already seen. The better utilization of the small sizes of 
coal is also of material assistance to the Southern operators. 


The field consists of a number of connected basins, which, 
commencing on the north with the comparatively shallow 
basins of the Broad* mountain and its southern flank, erow 
successively deeper with more steeply inclined sides to 
culminate at the south in the exceeding deep, sharply com- 
pressed and at times overturned basins along the foot of 
Sharp mountain. 

The general strike of the measures in the central part of 
the field is about N. 65° E. to N. 70° E. and that of the 
anticlinals is much the same, although there is a tendency 
to approach the basin's southern rim. 

The shape and importance of all the many waves into 
which the strata of the Southern field have been thrown 
is not fully known. The position and probable extent of 
the principal anticlinal axes, with the observed dips, are in- 
dicated upon the mine sheets, and the probable shape of 
each and of the basins as well is shown by the cross sections. 

With but few exceptions the north dips are much steeper 
than the south ones. 

Among the many important flexures of the field, prob- 
ably none are more important than the Mine Hill and the 
Gate Ridge anticlinals ; each in the past has had a decided 
influence in fixing the shape and extent of the field, and 
each in the present is an important factor in the mining 

The Mine HillAxis^ or an equivalent, appears first span- 
ning a red shale cove in the Broad mountain west of Mt. 
Pleasant and disappears as a gentle flexure in the side of 
Sharp mountain at Summit Hill. Centrally it forms a 
broad high conglomerate arch, which steepens as in dips into 
the valuable Heckschersville coal basin on its north flank ; 
but on the south often carries a moderate pitch for some 
distance, before turning down into the deep basins between 
it and the Sharp mountain. 

The Oate Ridge Axis^ the eastern representative of the 


Selins Grove anticlinal, is first seen in the Smoky Hollow 
cove at the junction of the fish tails. It parallels the 
southern boundary for more than twenty miles to pass out 
through Sharp mountain, east of Middleport, forming the 
Devils Kettle or Cove as it goes. The strata all along its 
crest, save where it enters and leaves the field, is sharply 
compressed ; with perpendicular, overturned, or confused 
dips towards the north. The south dips usually range 
from 20° to 50°. A double crest to this axis, seen at a num- 
ber of places, with a narrow deep basin between, adds to 
the difliculty of identifying the beds on its north and south 
flanks. The great thickness of the coal measures along its 
course through the field seems to preclude the elevation of 
other than the higher coal beds along its crest. 

Formation No. XII. 

The Pottsville Conglomerate * in the Southern field is 
noted for its great thickness (1,100' to 1,475'), the coarse- 
ness of its materials and the number and the size of the 
coal beds which it contains. These beds are especially 
large and valuable near the junction of the fishtail and 
throughout the Wiconisco basin. Six Lykens Valley f beds 
3' to 10' thick are sometimes worked. Sections of No. XII 
are given on page plates 367, 371, 379 and 392 and need not 
be repeated. Special reference to it and its coal beds will 
be made in each division. 

Ooal Measui es. 

The thickness of the Coal Measures in this field appears 
to be certainly 2500' and possibly two or three hundred 
feet more. They consist throughout of the usual alterna- 
tions of sandstones, shales, slates and fires clay and contain 20 
different coal beds, well distributed, all of which have been 
worked at one or more points within the basin. The Mam- 
moth, with a good thickness and its usual characteristics, 
is the principal bed and supplies the bulk of the product. 

* See plate 365 for photographs of conglomerate blocks, with coarse pebbles, 
t This ooal is especially liked for use in open grates and for domestic pur- 
poses and it commands a high price in the market. 


The Buck Moantain, at the base of the measures, is an im- 
portant but rather variable member of the group. The 
position of both these beds, low in the column, place them 
below the level of present mining operations, except in the 
shallower basins and along the rims of the deeper ones. 
The Diamond bed, about 900' above, and the Peach Moun- 
tain bed, about 1500' above the Buck Mountain, may be 
mentioned as usually of more than ordinary value. The 
highest workable bed, the Brewery, 5' thick, is about 2200' 
above the conglomerate ; above this there are one or two 
thin coal beds. 

Condition of the Coal Beds, 

With little or no exception the coal beds throughout th© 
whole Southern field show in some degree the bad effects of 
the excessive pressure exerted at the time they were lifted 
into the highly inclined position they now occupy. Where 
the strata is nearly perpendicular or overturned as in the 
Sharp mountain and along the north dip of many of the 
axes, especially that of the Gate Bidge, the coal beds and 
the softer strata bear marks of their having suffered a 
movement parallel to the plane of stratification, ' 'analogous 
to the sliding which takes place between the leaves of a 
ream of paper when one side is lifted." The coal is more 
or less crushed and the fragments polished by mutual rub. 
bing, * 'sometimes converted into lenticular flakes with a 
lustre and color somewhat resembling black lead," and 
sometimes reduced to a soft mushy condition as at the out- 
crop. ^'Another effect of this slipping of the coal upon 
itself is a warped or twisted folding of the coal beds, and 
their alternate contraction or enlargement by undulations 
in their confining strata. Thus the levels in some of the 
gangways have a decidedly serpentine course, and" similar 
undulations of roof and floor are visible in the direction of 
the dip."* 

Although the above applies especially to coal beds hav- 
ing a dip of more than 70° or probably less than 16 per cent, 
of the entire field. Still the great bulk of the coal even 

* See cross section through Blackwood colliery on plate S87. 




when found on gentle dips has been to some extent injured, 
and shows to a less degree the effects of a sliding and 
crushing movement of the strata which here and there 
renders the coal soft, unsound or mix^ it with slate, and 
squeezes or bulges the coal beds. 

The colliery operations have naturally been located to 
mine the coal beds which were thought mostly likely to 
prove sound and regular. Two hundred and seventy-five 
bed sections, reported to the Survey and measured chiefly 
at operating collieries, give an average ot72 % of coal 
and 28% of refuse. This perhaps fairly represents the 
condition of the coal beds where there is no unusual dis- 
turbance of the strata and where the dips are not excessive. 
The perpendicular and overturned beds, and in some locali- 
ties even those on gentle dips, undoubtedly contain a much 
higher proportion of refuse 

The increased value and demand for the small sizes of 
coal is of especial importance to operators of this field as it 
enables them to save a large proportion of the product 
which would formerly have gone to the dirt bank. 

For convenience in description the field is divided into 
the following divisions: — 
Division 21. Broad Mountain. 

'' 22. Heckscherville Valley. 

'* 23. Panther Creek. 

'* 24. Tamaqua — Middleport. 

'' 25. Pottsville. 

'' 26. Llewellyn— Tremont. 

'' 27. East Franklin— Brookside. 

'* 28. Williamstown — Lykens. 
28. Schuylkill— Dauphin. 


Division 21. Broad Mountain Basins. 

The area covered by this division is mapped on the upper 
parts of mine sheets VI, VII, VIII and Villa and on the 
southern edge of Western Middle mine sheets II and III.* 
The northern ends of cross sections 16 to 20, on sheets VI 

*Page plate 366 shows the relative location of the division. 



to XII, show the general structure of the basins. Columnar 
section sheet IX gives sections of the coal measures and 
conglomerate. The New Boston, the most important of 
the Broad mountain-basins, is mapped, cross sectioned, con- 
toured and f nlly described in a private report by Mr. Ben- 
jamin Smith Lyman, published by permission of Mr. 
Warren Delano in Annual Report, 1887. The reader is re- 
ferred to that report for more detailed information than 
will be here given. 

The high table land of the Broad mountain is formed by 
a great broad undulating arch of No. XII, which connects 
the Western Middle field with the deep basins of the South- 
ern. This arch is a compound one and is depressed by two 
or three comparatively shallow synclinals, holding the 
beds of the lower Coal Measures along the troughs. These 
basins send projecting ridges into the red shale both to the 
east and west. 

formation No. Xll covers the surface for much the 
larger part of the division, and exposures of its massive 
conglomerate beds are quite numerous. Its thickness is 
about 1200', and detailed sections of it are found in the 
records of bore holes 1 to 4, published* on columnar sec- 
tion sheet IX ; two of these records probably comprise the 
whole formation. 

The Broad mountain coal basins are separated by the 
Eisenhuth Run and Powder Mill anticlinals, both imported 
flexures with dips of 10° to 40°^on either side, and continu- 
ous for the whole length of the division. Each also elevate 
to surface, along the axis, patches of Mauch Chunk Red 
Shale No. XI, to outcrop along Mill creek and Rattling 
run. Other shorter and less important anticlinals are seen 
at different points within the division. 

The principal coal area on the Broad mountain, and the 
only one containing the Mammoth bed, is that in the trough 
north of the Eisenhuth run anticlinal. The eastern limit of 
this basin is found in the mountain spur some four miles 
east of New Boston and its western limit in the high knob 

* See also page plate S67. 

^AuhraciUJBe^n/^jSouihenL (baLFCeldy. 


W^^ M^k 

-. • 

Smith. S. 0. F. BROAD MOUNTAIN BASINS. 2079 

south of Gordon. It has a total length of about 14 miles 
and a general width between the Lykens Valley outcrops of 
three fourths of a mile. One or two short anticlinals not 
well developed would seem to cross the basin obliquely. 
The eastern half is known as the New Boston basin, and 
the whole might be called the New Boston-Gordon basin. 

The basin is deepest, some 500' or 600' to the Buck Moun- 
tain, towards the ends ; and so shallow near the Centre Turn- 
pike as to lift that bed to outcrop. The Mammoth is the 
highest coal bed and its area at the Gordon end is quite 

In the New Boston basin the coal beds, particularly the 
Mammoth and Buck Mounuain beds, are of large thickness 
and good quality. The New Boston colliery was in operation 
for a number of years, and when the breaker burned in 18P3 
it was not rebuilt as most of the coal had been taken out. 
The Morea, a comparative new colliery on the west end of 
the same property,also found the beds thick and in good con- 
dition ; this colliery has commenced to work the Ely and 
Riehle tracts adjoining on the west. 

Mr. Lyman makes the following estimate of the average 
thickness of the beds and coal on the New Boston and 
Morea leases. 

New Boston. Morea. 

Coal. Total. Coal. Total. 

Mammoth top split, 10' 6" 13' 3" 10' 6' 13 3'/ 

Mammoth middle split, . ... 3 0' 3' 0" 4' 6'' 55" 

Mammoth bottom split, .... y 4" 10' 7" 20* ' 25' 0" 

Skidmore bed, 5' 4" 6' 4" 3' 8" 4' 9' 

Seven-foot bed, 2' 7" 2' 8" 5' 1" 6' 0" 

Buck Mountain, 13' 10" 15' 4" 9' 7" 11' 0" 

44' 7" 61' 2" 53' 4" 66' 5'' 

''As regards quality, the coal of the bottom split of the 
Mammoth bed is, at New Boston, considered the best of all 
they have worked there ; but the Buck Mountain coal is 
called about equally good. The Skidmore coal is found 
somewhat inferior, and the Seven-foot there is the least 
satisfactory of all. The Seven-foot coal at Morea appears 
to be quite another bench, and seems to be of good quality. 


Nothing definite is known of the quality of the two upper 
splits of the Mammoth on the tract. No assays have been 
made of any of the coals." 

The explorations of the Broad Mountain Coal Company, 
consisting of deep trial slopes, tunnels, trial shafts, and 
diamond drillings, pretty thoroughly test the basin from 
the west line of the Ely and Reihle to its west end near Gor- 
don a distance of seven or eight miles. These explorations 
show that there is a marked decrease in the thickness of 
the coal beds and an increase in the proportion of refuse of 
unsound coal which they contain. This change, without 
apparent cause, would seem to commence with the Ely and 
Reihle tracts and continue all the way to the west end of the 
basin. The dips developed are no greater than those at 
New Boston and Morea and why the condition of the beds 
should be so different it is hard to understand ; but the 
thoroughness of the explorations does not seem to leave any 
doubt as to the correctness of the general conclusion. The 
chief difficulty is said to be not so much the thickness of 
the beds as their variable composition, sometimes contain- 
ing good sound coal which suddenly becomes soft, shelly, 
mixed with slate, or otherwise damaged. 

The Altamont colliery No. 2 consists of trial slopes on 
the Buck Mountain and Mammoth beds; the former bed 
has an average thickness of about 9' 6" with 5' 6" of coal, 
and the latter contains 10' of coal when found in good con- 

The slope on the Buck Mountain bed near Gordon plane 
cut but little sound coal; the bed is there 5' or 6' thick. 

The mine sheets show the probable extent of the Buck 
Mountain and Mammoth beds in the New Boston-Gordon 

The Lykens Valley coal beds of Formation No. XII, in 
this division sometimes have four or five representatives ; 
one of these, the Lower Lykens Valley bed, is persistent 
throughout and at times reaches a thickness and condition 
bordering upon the workable. Altamont No. 1 colliery, 
abandoned, is located upon this bed, which is there about 
3' thick ; the coal pinched and the gangways stopped in 


fault. Openings on 'this bed at a number of places along 
its outcrop and the diamond drill borings, show it to vary 
from V to 4' in thickness. ^* ' ^ 

The other basins of the Broad mountain lie between the 
Eisenhuth Run and Powder Mill anticlinals, and consists 
of three separate areas of the Lykens Valley coal beds; the 
middle one of which may contain a small area of the Buck 
Mountain bed although it is not yet developed. A Lykens 
Valley bed has been shafted at a number of places along 
the outcrop of the little basin on the hill southwest of the 
Eisenhuth run dam. Probaly it is the same bed, or Lower 
Lykens Valley, shafted on both dips of the middle basin 
where it crosses Dyers run. The results of these openings 
now quite old are not known to the writer. \ '""^^ ^ 3 

Division 22^ Heckscherville Valley or Mine jETill^Basin. 

';uA long narrow trough of coal* measures lying between 
the Mine Hill ridge and the foot of Broad Mountain. It is 
mapped on the southern parts of mine sheets VI, VII, VIII 
and Villa and on the northern edge of mine sheets XI, XII 
and XIII.* The basin is crossed by sections 17 to 22 pub- 
lished on cross section sheets V to Xll.f Columnar sec- 
tions of the measures are given on columnar section sheet 
VI4 This division embraces the valley of Wolf creek and 
the valley of the West Branch between the Mine hill and 
Broad mountain, extending west to the spoon of the basin 
beyond Mt. Pleasant, a distance of 12 miles with a maximum 
width of about one mile between the Buck Mountain bed 

Mill creek cuts across the basin at the east. The West 
branch of the Schuylkill has its source along the slope of 
Broad mountain facing the valley, flows eastward in the 
basin and finds a southern outlet through the gap in Mine 
hill above Minersville; and the West West branch has its 
rise on the high ground at the west end of the basin. This 
valley has been the scene of mining operations for many 

* Page plate 366 gives the general location of the division, 
t Page plate 367 gives some sections showing ahape of basin. 
{Page plate 369 gives columnar sections of coal measures. 


years. New Castle, Heckscherville, Glen Carbon and Mount 
Pleasant are small towns within its limits. The collieries now 
in operation are Richardson, Thomaston, Taylorsville and 

The gentle dips seen near the axis of the Mine Hill anti- 
clinal become steeper as they approach the basin, having 
along the south side of the valley a general north dip of 
40°-50° which meeting still greater dips of 50°-70°, from 
the opposite side making a rather deep though narrow 
trough. The westward droop of the Mine Hill axis 
causes it apparently to die out at the West West branch, 
to be replaced by the Peaked Mountain anticlinal which 
springs into prominence along the north flank, and forms 
a deep red shale cove southwest of Mount Pleasant as it 
passes west out of the field. 

Ranging along the northern edge of the valley for nearly 
its whole length is an overturned basin (Jugular basin) of 
Mammoth coal, the north dips outcrop before turning 
down into the main basin. It is seldom more than a few hun- 
dred feet wide. The south dip of the bed ranges from 30° to 
60° and the north dip from perpendicular to, at the Anchor 
colliery (see page plate 368) it is bent over,, nearly parallel 
with the south dip or inverted to 40° south. For a long time 
owing to the inverted parallel dips this coal was supposed 
to underlie the Mammoth of the main basin, but the mine 
workings have now so thoroughly developed the structure 
as to remove all doubts as to its identity. The coal of this 
overturned basin although sometimes of great thickness is 
apt to be soft and shelly or much mixed with slate and 

The main basin has a general depth of about 1200' to the 
Buck Mountain bed between New Castle and Mount Pleas- 
ant then rises out rapidly to the east and to the west. 

No complete section of No, XII is had in this division; 
the best exposures are at Mill Creek and Mine Hill gaps* 
where the upper beds are seen, its thickness as shown on 
the cross sections is about 1200'. 

*See photograph showing the conglomerate in Mine Hill gap on page 
plate 364. 


f! ii !!.! 





Lykens Valley Coal beds. — ^Two thin beds of this series 
are found to the east on the south dip at Mill Creek; on one 
of these there was formerly a small drift, though both beds 
so far as known are here thin, slaty and unworkable. At 
the west end of the basin beyond Mt. Pleasant four Lykens 
Valley beds have been opened. No record was obtained of 
the thickness of the upper three; the bottom bed however, 
No. 6,? is opened by two small drifts, Hosiers on the north 
dip and Bolicks on the south; at Hosiers drift the bed is 4' 
to 6' thick with 3' to 4' of coal. 

''Scott SteeV^ bed. — On the north side of the basin, in the 
Mill creek gap, a small bed of coal about 100' below the 
Buck Hountain is found. It is perhaps a split of the Buck 
Mountain, bat is locally called the ''Scott Steel" bed; 
where, opened at the Ebony colliery, the bed is 2' to 4' 6" 
thick, quite variable, at the best yielding 2' 6" of good coal. 

Buck Mountain bed is practically untouched through- 
out the whole division ; the bed has not been thoroughly 
tested but the general evidence is that it is both small and 
dirty. The only working of the bed was about Hill creek 
gap and along Wolf creek, here there are some water level 
drifts and a slope down one lift on the bed. On the west 
side of Mill creek the bed is 3' 6" to 5' thick with 3' to 4' of 
coal, on the east side its thickness is 'given in Report of 
First 'Survey as T 6". At the Thomaston colliery a tunnel 
recently driven south towards the Mine HiU axis cut the 
Buck Mountain 3' 6" thick, 1' 11" of coal, still further west ; 
near the spoon of the basin the bed is opened in two or 
three trial shaftings, but no definite information concern- 
ing them was obtained. 

Skidmove or Billy Best bed reaches its best develop- 
ment at the Thomaston*and Richardson*collieries where 
the bed is extensively mined on both sides of the Heckscher- 
ville Valley basin and in its Peaked Mountain basin 
branch ; its average thickness in this neighborhood is 6' with 
4' to 5' of coal. At the eastern end of the basin in the small 
drifts about Mill creek the bed is much thinner being 2' 6" 

» Cross section through Thomaston colliery on page plate 368. 


to 3' 6" in thickness. The interval between it and the Buck 
Mountain decreases from 150' about Mill creek to 40' at 
Thomaston colliery. 

Back bed is the name given to a thin bed of coal 3' to 4^^ 
thick which is found at Thomaston and neighboring col- 
lieries between the Skidmore and the Mammoth beds ; it is 
seemingly a split of the Skidmore bed ; it is not worked. 

The Mammoth'*' bed is worked extensively the whole 
length of the basin, it is usually found in three splits, to 
which the local names of Daniel, Lelar and Crosby are 
given to the Bottom, Middle and Top splits respectively. 
The south dipping Mammoth of the overturned or Jugular 
basin has also been worked to a greater or less extent for 
nearly its whole length ; the thickness of the bed in this 
basin varies from 10'-60^ including slate partings ; as haa 
been said, much of the coal is unsound, and usually only 
the better portions of the bed have been taken out. The 
distance between the Daniel and Crosby beds or Top and 
Bottom splits is quite uniformly 200', and the interval is 
noticeable for the beds of coarse, hard conglomerate which 
make up a large part of it (see columnar sections). To- 
wards the Mill creek end of the basin the Lelar or Middle 
split is found near the Daniel, but toward the west it is 
higher up and nearer the Crosby bed. The Crosby and 
Daniel, *a& a rule, are the more important portions of 
the bed. 

Speaking of the Mammoth, east of Mill creek at the 
Neville shaft in the Jugular basin, Report of First Survey, 
page 442, says : 

•A perpendicular shaft is sunk in the centre of a syn- 
clinal basin, through sand and debris 75' to the Jugular 
bed. T he upper portions of this great bed seem to have 
been swept away leaving a band of coal divided by slate 
variable in thickness, the average yield of which is 12' of 

Between Mill creek and the Mill Hill gap and for a mile 

* Page plate 369 shows the relative position and thickness of the Mam- 
moth splits at different points in the basin. 

'» • 


or more farther west the average thickness of the Daniel 
bed according to Report of First Survey is 15' to 20'. The 
Lelar bed is thin at the east end of the basin bntat the Mine 
Hill gap is 6' to 8' thick in good condition. The Crosby also 
thickens towards the west, being 3' to 4' thick at Repplier 
colliery* but increasing to 10' or 12' in thickness at Mine 

Beyond Mine Hill gap the active operations at Thomas- 
ton, Richardson, Glendower and Taylorsville furnish us 
with recent information as to the thickness of the beds. 
The. westward thinning of the Daniel continues; at Thomas- 
ton the bed varies from 8' to 15' thick ; at Richardson 6' to 
8'; and at Taylorsville and Glendower 4' to 6' thick. The 
bed yields about 75 % of coal. Across the Peak Mountain 
axis at the old Rohrsville slope the First Survey reports the 
Daniel bed to be 19' thick. The Lelar bed is 4' to 6' thick 
where cut by the several tunnels, but is presumably of poor 
quality as it remains unworked. The thinning of the 
Daniel bed is compensated for to some extent by an in- 
creased thickness of the Crosby, which throughout the 
western part of the basin has an average thickness of about 
12' with 10' of coal. 

Holmes or Church bed overlies the Crosby by 100'; the 
development of the bed is confined to the operating col- 
lieries in the western half of the basin ; the general thick- 
of the bed is 8' to 10' with 6' to 8' of coal. 

Primrose bed is probably the highest workable bed of 
the basin; it is cut in tunnels crossing the basin; at Oakdale 
it is 11' thick and at Paynes 15' thick; as the bed is un- 
worked its condition is apparently not first class. 

Above this the basin where deepest contains 100-200 of 
measures which remain unexplored. 

The general condition of the beds worked in the Heck- 
scherville Valley is fairly good, comparatively little faulty 
ground lias been encountered and the beds are perhaps less 
variable in thickness and quality than in general through- 
out this field. 

*For cross section through this coUiery see page plate 368. 


Division S3. Panther Creek Basin. 

This division is mapped on mine sheets I, II and III,* 
which show the structure of the basin by a contouring 
of the floor of the Mammoth bed. Twelve vertical sections 
published on cross section sheets I, II and III f also delineate 
the structure and the relation of the coal beds. Columnar 
section sheets I, II and III j: give numerous sections of the 
measures and also detailed sections of the principal coal 
beds. § Topographical sheet I gives the shape of the surface 
by contour lines 10' apart. All of the above are contained 
in Atlas Part I, Southern Field. 

The '* First Report of Progress " (1883) by Mr. Charles A. 
Ashburner treats almost wholly of the Panther Creek basin, 
which was the first area to be mapped and reported upon. 
The work here was done in greater detail than was found 
practicable to continue over the whole field. 

The name Panther Creek basin is applied to that part of 
the Southern field lying between the Little Schuylkill and 
the Lehigh or between Tamaqua and Mauch Chunk. The 
basin is about 12 miles long and 2 miles wide narrowing to 
a sharp point at the spoon of the field high on the mountain 
a mile east of Mauch Chunk. The name is derived from the 
Panther creek which flows west within the basin and joins 
the Little Schuylkill at Tamaqua. 

Nearly all of this basin is the property of the Lehigh Coal 
and Navigation Company, and as the coal is shipped to the 
eastern markets by way of a railroad or the canal along the 
Lehigh river, it is included with the Eastern Middle field in 
forming what is known to the trade as the Lehigh region. 

Referring to the structure Prof. Lesley says (AA Report 
I): *' The most striking feature of the plication of this basin 
is its sharpness, the rarity of those soft and gentle curvatures 
which characterize the bituminous coal basins, a rigid plain- 
ness of the up and down slopes, suggestive of (1) a severe 
lateral compression in the jaws of a vice, and (2) a humid 
plasticity of the coal measures at the time of compression." 

* Small scale map on page plate 370. 

t Selected cross sections showing stracture on page plates 372 and 373^ 

X Relative position of the coal beds shown on page plate 370. 

§ Some of these are given upon page plate 374. 

' jhihr43UciU.ILa9Ufa.,5cutjKrm. dcUliuA 

f^^'rfp *.0Xi' 

«*«.*, £ *t .(:♦ •" X3 

MMH/ttl MtrM'Mii'. nw M 

. A^-; 

Smith.^ 8. C. B. PANTHER GREEK BASIN. 2087 

The fall of the measures towards the west is at times quite 
rapid, and at the Little Schuylkill, cross section 12, shows 
Bed A to attain a probable depth of 2500' below the river. 

Formation No. XII^ according to Mr. Ashburner, has a 
thickness varying from 878' to 1296', a number of detail 
sections are given on columnar section sheet II ; three of 
these are reproduced on page plates 371 . 

At the little Schuykill the coal measures have a thick- 
ness of about 1900' (see sec. 17 col. sheet II) containing 13 
coal bed with a thickness of 3' or more ; the total thickness 
of the coal beds is given as 120'. The Mammoth is the prin- 
cipal bed, always thick and sometimes exceedingly so ; 
one section at Tunnel No. 9 gave a thickness of 114' 2" (see 
page plate 374). Mr. Ashburner rejjorts that 88 per cent, 
of the total coal removed from the Panther creek basin has 
been from the Mammoth bed. A description of the coal 
beds as condensed from his report is as follows: — 

' ^LyTcens Valley Beds. The question of the occurrence of 
these coal beds in the Panther Creek basin, with workable 
dimensions, is one of great uncertainty. Too few facts have 
been obtained upon which to base any conclusions. That 
the beds, which have been opened in the Locust Mountain 
gap and which are shown in the Tamaqua section are the 
true representatives of theLykens Valley beds, there seems 
to be no doubt, but that they extend under the entire basin 
or are as thick or thicker than in the gap it is impossible to 

'*A Bed, — Geologically this is the lowest coal bed that 
has been worked in the Panther Creek basin. It has been 
mined on both the east and west sides of the river in the 
Locust Mountain gap. The horizontal distance between 
this bed and the B bed, on the west side, is 202 feet, and on 
the east 260 feet. This interval is filled mostly by con- 
glomerate ; the coal bed is also underlaid by conglomerate. 
The Locust Mountain drifts are closed, and it was impos- 
sible to examine the bed. It is reported, however, in the 
east drift to have measured as much as 16' thick. The 
average for the entire workings would probably not exceed 
10' with 8' of coal. 


The A bed has been opened on the outcrop at Nesque- 
honing tunnel No. 1 and is reported to contain but 1' of 
coal. It was also cut in the Nesquehoning B. B. tunnel, 
but was found to be worthless. The average thickness of 
the bed for Mine sheet No. I has been taken as 3' with V 
of coal, for sheet II, 5' thick with 2' of coal, and for sheet 
III, T thick with 4' of coal. On this basis the estimated 
original contents for the basin is 62,011,362 tons." 

^^B Bed. — The B bed has been mined in but two localities 
in the Panther Creek basin : in the Hacklebarney tunnel, 
where it had an average thickness of 12', with 9' of coal, 
and in Levan's drift, which is in the Locust Mountain gap, 
and is included in the Greenwood colliery, where its aver- 
age thickness has been reported as 6', with 3' of coal. On 
the south dip of the Hell Kitchen basin the bed seems to 
be badly faulted. The bed was cut in the Nesquehoning 
R R. tunnel, where it is 14' thick, but only contains 2' of 
coal. The bed was shafted on south of Tunnel No. 11, where 
it was found to contain 5' of coal ; also on Sharp Mountain 
near the river, where it contained only 2' of coal. The 
average thickness assigned to the bed on Mine sheet No. I 
is 15', with 10' of coal ; on sheet No. II, 8', with 2' of coal, 
and on sheet No. III. 6', with 2' of coal. This is probably 
an underestimate of the actual thickness of coal to be found 
in the bed in the areas covered by sheets Nos. II and III. 
With these thicknesses it has been estimated that the total 
original contents of the bed was 71,954,700 tons, of which 
but 115,347 tons have been taken out." 

" C Bed. — This bed has been mined to a very limited ex- 
tent in the Panther Creek basin. The only place where it 
has been cut on sheet No. I is in Tunnel No. 1 at Nesque- 
honing. The average thickness of the bed for the entire 
sheet has been taken as 4' 6", with 3' of coal. On sheet 
No. II it has been opened in Tunnels No. 6, 7 and 9." The 
average thickness on this sheet has been taken as 5', with 
8' of coal. On sheet No. Ill the bed has been opened at 
Tunnels Nos. 8, 10 and 11, and at Greenwood tunnel and 
Levan's drift. More is known of this bed in the area cov- 
ered by sheet No. Ill than elsewhere. In Tunnel No 11, 

L — rj -Z- 

Smith.'] S. 0. F. PANTHER CREEK BASIN. 2089 

the bed has been named in the records of the Lehigh Coal 
and Navigation Company the D bed. At this point it has 
its maximam thickness of 17', with a thickness of coal 
ranging from 11' to 14'. 

At Tunnel No. 8 the bed has been locally called the 
''Crack" and is 4' thick; at the Greenwood tunnel it is 8' 
thick. The average thickness for the sheet has been taken 
to be 11', with 8' of coal. It has been estimated that it un- 
derlies 638 acres on sheet No. I, 3,070 acres on No. II and 
3,729 acres on sheet No. Ill, with a total original content 
of 128,266,560 tons; 136,890 tons have been taken out of 
the bed at Greenwood and Sharp Mountain collieries." 

^^ Mammoth bed. The most important of all the anthra- 
cite coal beds is what has been generally named, the Mam- 
moth bed. Although it is found to undergo many changes 
in its thickness, and the alternation of its numerous coal 
benches with bony coal, slate and sandstone, and as to the 
character of the coal which it will produce, which some- 
times make it difficult to recognize it, yet it possesses many 
features and characteristics which are peculiar to it in al- 
most every locality where it has been opened, and which 
make it the most easily recognized geological horizon of any 
in the Carboniferous formation of the anthracite region. 

This bed is sometimes found to exist as one bed of coal, 
the benches of which are not separated by more than two 
or three feet of slate or bony coal. These separating layers 
are more frequently only a few inches thick and vary very 
much as to number. This feature can be observed by 
glancing at the sections of the Mammoth bed on Columnar 
section sheet No. III. At one place in the old quarry 
workings at Summit Hill, where the bed measures 63' 1" 
thick, as many as 20 separate layers of slate and bony coal 
were contained in the bed, having an aggregate thickness of 
12' 10". Some of these slate layers are continuous over 
wide areas, and are oftentimes easily identified from point to 
point by the experienced miner. When studied in connec- 
tion with the immediately associated coal benches, they 
form valuable clews, in determining in what part of the bed 
mining is being carried on. This is very important in some 


cases, where the separating slate becomes locally thickened 
and it becomes important to know whether the whole face 
of the coal bed is being mined, or whether there might not 
be another bench of good coal above or below those which 
are being worked. As a rule these widely separated coal 
benches or splits rarely number more than four, usually 
three, sometimes only two. In most parts of the region 
they are best known as the top, middle and bottom splits 
of the Mammoth bed. In the Panther Creek basin, where 
the Mammoth bed undergoes this change, the different 
members are called E or Top Split, Cross-Cut or Middle 
Split, and D, or Bottom Split. In this basin, the name 
Mammoth is generally assigned only to what in reality is 
its top- split. 

The Mammoth has been more extensively mined than 
any other of the Panther Creek coals. Eighty-eight (88) 
per cent^ of the total coal removed has been from the 
Mammoth bed. The number of tons of coal mined from 
the several splits in the different parts of the basin may 
be ascertained by reference to the tables. The Mam- 
moth bed underlies 495 acres on Mine sheet No. I; 2,817 
acres on sheet No. II; and 3,632 acres on sheet No. III. 
It is estimated that this bed in the Panther Creek basin 
originally contained 572,370,108 tons of coal, and that 
47,826,441 tons have been removed up to January 1, 1883, 
so that there still remains to be mined about 91.5 per cent, 
of the total original contents. This is a low estimate, in 
view of the fact that the Mammoth bed is supposed to 
contain only 23' of coal on Mine sheet No. I, and 
27' on Mine sheets Nos. II and III. The thick- 
est section of the Mammoth bed which has been 
measured in this district, or in fact as yet [in the An- 
thracite Region, is 114' 2" at a point 4,017' west of the inside 
slope of Tunnel No. 9 (Section No. 20, Sheet No. III). This 
is an abnormal thickness and cannot be taken to represent 
what the bed can be expected to maintain over any area. 

Seventeen sections of the Mammoth bed have been care- 
fully measured in the different mines of the Lehigh Coal 
and Navigation Co. to show the alternation of coal and slate 

V » 

Smith.l S. C. F. PANTHER CREEK BASIN. 2091 

in the bed. These sections have been constructed in ver- 
ticle columns on a scale of 10' = 1", and may be found on 
Columnar section sheet No. III." 

''i^ or Lower Red Ash Bed. Next to the Mammoth, 
this has proved to be the most important bed which 
has been opened in the Panther Creek basin. It has 
been most extensively mined at Nesquehoning and 
Greenwood. It varies very much in thickness. The 
greatest xohich has been recorded is IT 7", in the gang- 
way driven west from Tunnel No. 11. On mine sheet 
Nos. I & II this bed has been mined from Tunnels Nos. 
1 & 2, slopes Nos. 2 & 3, and shaft No. 1. All of 
these workings are embraced within what is known as 
Nesquehoning colliery No. 3. The average thickness of the 
bed for this sheet has been taken as 13', with 9' of coal. 
So many measurements of the bed were obtained over a wide 
area, and on different sides of the basins, several on sheet 
No. I, that 9' is believed to be the medium thickness which 
could justly be assigned to the bed. It is probable that the 
estimate made of the coal contained on sheet No. II is too 
low, as the bed there has been assumed to contain on an 
average 5' of coal. On this sheet the Fbed has been mined 
from Tunnels Nos. 6, 7 and 9. Although the sections of 
the bed measured show as high 9' feet of coal, areas have 
been developed where the bed is either unworkable, from 
containing to much slate, or is pitched out. At Tunnel 
No. 6, where the bed has been extensively worked, a gang- 
way was driven 3200' in the bed, where the coal was faulted. 
What coal was found here was too poor to mine. In view 
of the possibility of the bed being faulted over other areas 
on this sheet, the average thickness of coal for the sheet 
has been taken to be 5'. On mine sheet No. Ill, the F bed 
has been opened at Tunnels Nos. 8, 10 and 11 and at Green- 
wood. It has been found to be very regular throughout 
the Greenwood and No. 10 workings. An average of 9' of 
coal has been assigned to the bed on sheet No. III. The 
estimated total original contents of the F bed for the entire 
basin is 130,379,486 tons, underlying 314 acres on mine 
sheet No. I, 2,288 acres on sheet No. II, and 3,039 acres 


on sheet No. III. Up to the 1st of January, 1893, there 
had been mined from this bed 5,675,141 tons, so that at that 
time there remained 124,704,345 tons to be mined." 

''(? or Upper Red Ash Bed, This bed is geologically the 
highest coal bed which has been mined to any extent in the 
Panther Creek basin. It has been worked in a drift at 
Nesquehoning, on the north dip of the Greenwood basin ; 
from Tunnel No. 1 on the south dip of the same basin ; from 
Tunnel No. 9 on the north dip of the Bull Run basin ; and 
from the old Levan's slope at Tamaqua, where a tunnel was 
driven from the foot of the slope in the P bed to the Q- bed. 
In the drift workings, above referred to, the bed measured 
7' thick, with 5' of coal ; and on the south dip of Green- 
wood basin, in Tunnel No. 1, 5', with 3' of coal. The bed 
seems to be badly rolled and pinched at other points on 
Mine sheet No.II , where it has been cut by Tunnels Nos. 1 
and 2 ; so that, in computing the total original contents of 
the area contained on Mine sheet No. I, an average thick- 
ness was assigned to the bed of 5', with only 2i' of coal. 
On Mine sheet No. 11 the bed has been cut in Tunnels Nos. 
5, 6, and 7. Its thickness at these points varies from 6' in 
Tunnel No. 6 to 16' in Tunnel No. 7, on the south dip of 
the Greenwood basin. The average thickness of the bed on 
this sheet hais been taken to be 6', with 3' of coal. On 
Mine sheet No. Ill the bed has been cut in Tunnels Nos. 
8, 10, and 11 ; in Greenwood tunnel, and in front of Levan's 
slope, as already stated. On this [sheet the bed varies in 
thickness from 4' at Greenwood tunnel to 10' in Tunnel 
No. 8. The average for the sheet has been taken to be 5', 
with 3' of coal. The total original contents of this bed in 
the entire basin are estimated at 36, 748, 163 tons." 

^'Wasldngton Bed. This bed has been located imme- 
diately under the Jock in Greenwood tunnel No. 1, at Tam- 
aqua. It measures 3' in thickness, and may be considered 
to contain at a minimum 1' of clean coal. It underlies 
1,083 acres on Mine sheet No. II and 1,796 acres on Mine 
sheet No. Ill, containing in the aggregate, 8,940,331 tons." 

^^JocJc Bed, This bed was cut in Greenwood tunnel No. 1 
on the south side of the Lansford basin, and was at one 


sscnan m' ii toroucb tuiihel or cbeenwood slope 


t * 

&mith.'\ 8. 0. F. PANTHER CREEK BASIN. 2093 

time opened on its outcrop on the same side of the basin 
near Tamaqua. The bed has been considered to range 
between 6' and T thick. It is estimated that it contains 3' 
of coal. It underlies TOO+acres on Mine sheet No. II, and 
1245+acres on Mine sheet No. III. If the bed can be 
depended upon containing 3' feet of coal under these areas, 
its contents would amount in the aggregate to 18,153,490 
tons of coal." 

^^ First 7\oin Beds. The section of these beds is similiar 
to those of the Second Twin beds, 128' of strata lying 
between the two. Nothing is certainly known as to either 
the permanent thickness of the beds, or the character of 
the coal. 

The information which can be had, relative to all these 
coal beds, is very meager, and nothing is positively known 
as to whether the beds could be mined, or what they could 
be expected to produce". 

^'Second Tioin Beds. These beds are said to have been 
opened near water level at Tamaqua, and to have shown a 
thickness of 2' each, with an interval of 13' between ; 168' of 
strata intervene between them and the First Upper Red Ash 

^^Mrst Upper Tied Ash Bed. This bed is separated from 
the second by 106' of rock. It is reported to be 4' thick, 
although not proved sufficiently to suppose that this may 
be taken as its average thickness. 

The coal beds from the Second Twin to the F or Lower 
Red Ash inclusive, comprise the Lower Red Ash group." 

^^ Second Upper Red Ash Bed. This bed has been pros- 
pected on in the same basin, and is separated from the 
above bed by 63' of rock. It is reported to be 3' thick ; 
nothing, ^however, is known as to whether it will prove 

''Third Upper Bed Ash Bed. The highest coal bed, 
knowm to exist, is what has been named the Third Upper 
Bed AsJi bed, being the highest of the three beds compos- 
ing the Upper Red Ash group. 

This coal is reported to have been found on the northern 



side of the Lansford basin immediately east of Tamaqua. 
It is but one foot thick, and dips at an angle of 80° S. It 
will probably never prove workable." 

34,. Taviaqua — Middleport Division. 

The area embraced in this division is all of that mapped 
by mine sheets IV, V and IX.* The general structure is 
shown by sections 12, 13, 14, 16 and 16a, published on 
cross section sheets III to VII. t Columnar section sheets 
II to IV give the measures cut by most of the shafts ahd 
tunnels. :[: No topographical sheets have been published. 

Locust mountain, an eastern spur of Broad mountain, 
makes the northern, and Sharp mountain the southern 
boundarv of the division which covers the full width of 
the field. 

From Tamaqua to Tuscarora the basin is only about a 
mile and one-half wide. East of Middleport the Sharp 
mountain turns south to round the Gate Ridge anticlinal 
and then resumes its usual course, of about 870° W., to- 
wards the Susquehanna. This bend in the southern boun- 
dary and a slight turn towards the north of the Locust 
mountain, increase the width of the field about Middleport 
to nearly 6 miles ; this is maintained with some increase 
for a considerable distance to the west. 

Tamaqua, a town of 4,000 to 6,000 inhabitants, is at the 
eastern edge of the division with the villages of Tuscarora, 
Patterson and Middleport in order to the west. 

Wabash creek, some 3 miles long, drains east to Tama- 
qua. The Schuylkill river, heading just beyond Tusca- 
rora, flows in a southwesterly course along the foot of the 
Sharp mountain. Swift, Big and Kaska William creeks cut 
across the measures to join it from the north. Morgan's 
and Yellow Spring runs are small streams rising on the 
slope of Sharp mountain. 

Mining developments are confined almost wholly to the 
rims of the basins and are along the foot of Locust moun- 

* Page plate 366 gives the relative location of the division. 

t Page plates 875, 377 and 378 illustrate the structure. 

X Page plates 376 and 382 give partial sections of the coal measurea 

.AilhraakAyum'-^o"dvenv GmLlidd/. 

riiii COAI. I)i:ds 





tain, the Mine hill, and the foot of Sharp mountain. With 
the exception of some local sale mines, there are now but 
two operating collieries in the division, the West Lehigh 
below Tamaqua and the Kaska William above Middlei)ort. 
Forty to fifty years ago mining operations were much more 
active, as the number of abandoned collieries and mine 
workings testify. The Report of the First Survey is the 
best authority concerning these early operations and we are 
indebted to it for much of our information regarding them. 

There has been in a small way some mining along the 
outcrops of the upper beds in the deeper parts of the basin, 
which in connection with exposed dips and coal outcrops, 
indicate the probable structure of the central part of the 
basin as drawn on the cross sections. 

Structure. — The Mine Hill is the principal anticlinal; west 
of Tuscarora No. XII outcrops along its axis and makes a 
ridge which rises west to nearly the height of the Locust 
mountain, with a narrow basin (the Big Creek) of Coal 
Measures between them. The eastward droop of the axis 
brings up higher and softer measures along the crest and al- 
though easily traced from Tuscarora to Tamaqua by surface 
dips, it has but little effect upon the topography. The Gate 
Ridge anticlinal crosses sheet IX and passes out of the field 
east of Middleport. A number of additional anticlinals, all 
having an important bearing on the economic working of the 
coal beds, have been developed by the scant mine workings 
or are seen in the rock exposures. The position, extent and 
shape of these axes so far as known are shown upon the 
mine sheets and by the cross sections. 

Formation No, XII is well exposed in both the gaps at 
Tamaqua; a measured section gives it a thickness of 1296' at 
the Locust Mountain gap and 1130' at the Sharp Mountain 
gap. (See sec. 49 and 50 col. sheet II, also page plate 371.) 

LyJcens Valley Beds. — Above Tamaqua on the west side 

of the gap, a drift now fallen shut was driven some 400' on 
a Lykens Valley bed. The same bed was opened by trial 

shafting on its outcrop for half a mile further west. No 

record of the thickness of the bed or quality of the coal 

could be obtained. 


At 145' above this bed and 240' below the top of XII» 
traces of another, the Upper Lykens Valley, bed are said 
to^ be found. It does not seem likely that either of these 
beds are workable in this division, except possibly in some 
sma 11 well favored areas. 

At the Sharp mountain gap no coal beds are seen below 
the Buck Mountain, but it is apparently a Lykens Valley 
bed which is shafted on top of the mountain south of 
Reevesdale tunnel. The localities mentioned comprise all 
the known openings on the beds within the division and 
the ouicrop of the Lowest Lykens Valley bed as drawn on 
the mine sheets is necesarilly largely conjectural. 

Buck Mountain hed: — At the gap above Tamaqua three 
coal beds, below the bottom split of the Mammoth are 
worked (see mine sheet IV, cross section 12, and col. 
section sheet II), and were called by the First Survey 
beds A, B & C; on mine sheet IV beds A and B are 
known as Bottom and Top splits of the Buck Mountain 
bed. Coal A or the Bottom split lies on top of a coarse 
massive conglomerate, the bed is *'16' thick but rubbed 
and fissured." Coal B or the Top split is 100' higher 
in the measures, with conglomerate just below the bed, and 
is 9 ' thick. At Newkitk colliery there are but two beds 
below the Mammoth, bedsD and B. A tunnel is driven 
400' beyond B in an attempt to find the **A" bed of Tam- 
aqua which apparently has disappeared or has joined the 
*'B" bed by the thinning of the intervening rock. The 
B or Buck Mountain bed at Newkirk "averages 17' thick, 
Is faulty to the east but good to the west;" the bed was 
extensively worked. 

At Buckville the water level tunnel was driven to and 
beyond the Buck Mountain bed which is there double, 
"the two coals are each 6' thick with 20' of rock inter- 
vening in the tunnel, but 35 to 40 west they come to- 
gether and the coal becomes dirt and is valueless." 

At the Kentucky colliery the bed has been shafted but 
not worked. On the Shippen & Wetherill tract a mile 
to the west recent openings show the bed to range from 
4' to 9' thick. The Buck Mountain bed is opened high 






I > 


Bmith.'] s. 0. f. tamaqua-middleport division. 2097 

up on Mine Hill northwest of Silliman Slope; its thick- 
ness there is ''3' 6'"'? Near the north end of Whitfields 
upper tunnel two beds (Buck Mountain?) 5' 6" and 2' 6" 
thick, somewhat crushed and broken are cut with about 
40' of rock between. At the Northdale tunnel the Buck 
Mountain is worked for 1000' east and west; the bed is 
6' thick with a 3' bed of shelly coal at 21' above and a 
6' bed of coal dirt and slate 12' still higher.* 

In the Sharp mountain below Tamaqua the Buck Moun- 
tain bed is worked in the overturned basin on both sides of 
the gap; it is about 10' thick. At Reevesdale tunnel the bed 
has also been worked; its thickness is about the dame, but 
at both places it is, in common with all Sharp mountain beds, 
irregular and dirty. At the two Sharp mountain tunnels 
south of Tuscarora the bed is cut but not worked ; at Bells 
the bed is in two splits, at least, 3' and 2' 6" thick with 37' 
interval between; at Gormans but half a mile away the sec- 
tion shows one bed 10' thick, soft and dirty. To the west 
on mine sheet IX the bed is not worked and although there 
is apparently an old shaft or two on its outcrop little or 
nothing is definitely known of its thickness. 

The bed '*A'' of the Locust Mountain gap is nowhere re- 
cognized on the South side and apparently does not exist 
unless combined with the Buck Mountain or bed B. 

Skidmorey or Bed C of the First Survey is worked on both 
sides of the river above Tamaqua, * ' on the 'east side it is 6' to 
7' feet thick but faulty, on the west side is 8' to 9' thick,"the 
bed is here 120' below the Mammoth. At the Newkirk water 
level tunnel it is said by Rogers to have been cut at 40' be- 
low the bottom split of the Mammoth with a thickness of 
only 1' 8" although it is not seen in the sections of the tunnel 
obtained from the P. & R. C. & I. Co., published on columnar 
section sheet IV. At the Kaska William colliery the bed is 
3' to 6' thick and as it is not worked perhaps is not good. 
In the Sharp mountain south of Tamaqua there are a couple 
of water level drifts upon it. At the Coal Hill colliery east 
of Middleport a bed identified as the Skidmore was formerly 

♦Columnar section of tunnel given on page plate 382 and cross section on 
plate 377. 


worked quite extensively and is said to be about 6' thick and 
in the main clean and good. At Buckville, Reevesdale, Bell 
and Gorman tunnels the Skidmore seems to be entirely ab- 
sent or represented by merely a thin leader of coal. 

The Mammoth bed has been worked more extensively 
than any of the others. The bed is in two well defined mem- 
bers called Top and Bottom splits or beds E & D of the 
First Survey, with often a third member the Middle split 
or Cross-cut bed which is usually thinner than either the 
Top or Bottom splits, but is worked at several places. 
Three splits are found at the gap above Tamaqua; the 
Bottom split is here 14' thick; the Middle split 60' above 
is 4' to 5' ; and the Top split 50' above that has an * 'average 
thickness of 22', but much of the coal is soft and shattered." 
The Bottom split has been mined through and connects 
with the workings on the same bed at the Newkirk col- 
liery,* the bed dimishes in thickness and at the lower 
tunnel it is but 4' to 5' thick The Middle split at New- 
kirk is 3' to 4' thick and has been worked to a small 
extent, the coal is reported to be excellent. The Top split 
is the principal bed in the workings on the west side of the 
tunnel it is 12' to 16' think and at one point 30' thick. 

At Buckvillef colliery the interval between the beds has 
so dimished that the Top and Middle splits are together and 
but 16' of slate separate them from the Bottom split which 
is only about 3' thick, while the combined Top and 
Middle splits are 18' to 26' thick. 

At Kentucky collieryj the bed worked is probably the 
Top and Middle splits of the Mammoth, it is 20' thick at 
the tunnel, in the water level gangway to the west the 
bed is thought to have split and the upper split 6' to 12' 
thick worked forward. The so called Skidmore bed 4' 
thick of the published columnar and cross sections, cut at 
the north end of Palmer tunnel, would seem to be identical 
with the Bottom split of the Mammoth at Buckville and 
Newkirk collieries. This bed has been recently shafted 

* See cross sections ou page plate 375. 

t Section through tunnel on page plate 375. 

;( Section through tunnel on page plate 375. 


Jlnthraciie Region- Soulhem Coal Field. 








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on the Shippen and Wetherill tract a mile west of the 
tunnel where it has a thickness of 10' of coal. The Middle 
split, with 2' 6" of coal and the Top split with 4' to 16' of 
<3oal are opened by trial slopes and shaftings at several 
places on this tract. 

About 1000' east of Silver Creek dam a large coal bed 
probably the Bottom split of the Mammoth was shafted 
many years ago on both dips of the Big creek basin ; the 
record of these trial shaftings preserved by Mr. P. W. 
Sheafer give a thickness of 12' with 11' 6" coal for the bed 
on the south dip and 9' 3" thickness and 8' 8" of coal on the 
north dip. 

South of the Shippen and Wetherill openings, on the 
opposite side of the Mine Hill axis, are the old workings 
{about 1853) of the Pott and Silliman slopes on the Mam- 
moth; the bed is reported to average 8' but to be somewhat 
faulty and dirty at times. Back of Silliman' s slope and 
about 40' lower in the measures another bed has been drifted 
upon (printed in purple on the mine sheet), but which seems 
now to be the Bottom split of the Mammoth; a section of 
this bed measured 8' 6" in thickness with 5' 4" of coal, part 
of which was ** shelly." 

The workings from Whitfield's upper tunnel on the 
Mammoth connect with those from Silliman's old slope; the 
bed at Whitfield's is ^'6' to 11' thick with an average of 8'; 
in the west gangway the bed is 10' to 20' but faulty." 

At Northdale tunnel the Mammoth bed is about 20' thick 
but sometimes swells to 30' or 40'. 

At the Kaska William shaft* in the next basin south of 
the tunnel and only 1500' away, three splits of the bed are 
recognized. It seeems not unlikely but that the 3' bed in 
the tunnel at 60' below the ''Big bed" is identical with the 
Bottom split of the shaft. The Bottom split 15' thick and 
the Middle split, called there the "Upper split," 8' to 
12' thick are worked quite extensively; the distance between 
them varies from 75' to 126'; the Top split or Seven Foot 
30' above has been mined a little with a thickness of 4'. 

* Cross section on page plate 377. 


In the Sharp mountain at the West Lehigh shaft below 
Tamaqua three splits of the Mammoth were worked, the 
Bottom split being the principal bed ; along the gangway 
to the west the parting slates grow thinner making prac- 
tically one bed 30' to 40' thick at times. The workings 
from West Lehigh connect with those from the Reevesdale 
tunnel,* here but two splits are recognized ; in the work- 
ing from the tunnel west the Top split, 10' to 16' thick is 
the larger ; the Bottom split is 5' and 8 thick with an inter- 
val of 50' between at the tunnel. 

At Bells tunnelf the Top split shows 4' of rough coal and 
the Bottom split 5' of fairly good coal. At Gormans tun- 
nel the Top split is 6' to 8' thick, and the Bottom split 6 
thick of dirty coal not worked. 

At the Coal Hill colliery and at the Rocktown tunnel east of 
Middleport the Mammoth bed if correctly identified is both 
thin and poor, being only 4' to 6' thick of dirty coal. 

There have been no borings to test the bed in the deep 
central basins, the nearest approach to it is a D. D. hole on 
the Adam Stahl tract about 600' northwest of the Pine- 
dale breaker, X the Mammoth is cut about 1000' below the 
surface, but is only some 1600' south of the Kaska Wil- 
liam workings, (see cross sect. 16 and col. sect. 1 sheet 
XI). At the bore hole the Seven Foot bed is 3' thick,. 
Upper split 11', the Lower split 5' 6'', with a leader 3' 4'^ 
thick between the splits. 

Between the Mammoth and the Holmes bed two smalt 
coal heds 3' to 5' thick are found at Buckville and Palmer 
tunnels and are often seen at other points in the field, but 
the coal is usually poor or thin. 

A deposit of coarse conglomerate overlies the Mammoth 
at bed Palmer tunnel and at the Pott and Silliman slopes ;: 
these same conglomerate beds make a bold cliflf, on the 
Shippen and Wetherill tract, which has given rise to con- 
siderable discussion as to the identity of the coal beds there. 

Holmes or F bed \^ found at quite a uniform distance of 

* Gross section on page plate 875. 
f Gross section on page plate 375. 
X Golumnar section on page plate 382. 

" • « - 


about 200' above the top of the Mammoth and has been 
worked for a lift and sometimes two along the foot of Locust 
mountain all the way from Tamaqua to Tuscarora. The bed 
has a comparatively regular thickness of 10' to 12' and will 
probably average 11' for the whole distance; its condition is 
only fairly good, at times the coal isj lirm and sound and at 
others crushed and broken. The Newkirk anticlinal with 
overturned dips at the Newkirk breaker lifts the bed to a 
double outcrop at that point. 

This bed where shafted on the Shippen and Wetherill tract 
at its western spoon in the Big Creek basin, is but 18'' thick. 
South of Silliman's slope a gangway has been driven west on 
a bed identified as the Holmes which has a thickness of 9'. 
At Kaska William there is an old slope on this bed with a 
reported thickness of 6'. 

The south dips along the Locust mountain and the Mine 
hill carry the bed down not to reappear until the southern 
edge of the field is reached in the Sharp mountain; at West 
Lehigh the bed about 5' thick was opened though but little 
worked; at the Wabash slope, Reevesdale, the bed was 
worked half a mile to the east; it is 10' to 20' thick. At 
Bell's tunnel it has 5' to 12' of dirty coal; at Gorman's 4' to 
6' thick, pretty good. At the Coal Hill and Rock town tun- 
nels the bed is 6' to 8' thick but crushed and dirty. 

Primrose bed in this division is nowhere particularly 
good; it was worked to a small extent above Tamaqua, 
where the bed is about '^6' thick but the coal is bony." 
At Newkirk there is about 3000' of gangway on this bed 
which is there '^4' thick." It is the ''Rough bed" of 
Palmer tunnel 8'-16' thick of coarse rough coal. The 
Mine Hill anticlinal lifts the bed to outcrop along the 
saddle; east of Tuscarora the north dip is steep or over- 
turned and is not opened; the south dip pitching about 
40° was worked by the old Tioga colliery, at the north- 
east corner of the village; the gangway is more than a 
mile in length, the bed is 5' to 6' 6" thick when regular. 
At the Swift creek colliery the bed is said to contain 7' 
of good coal; a leader 2' to 3' thick lying close above it, 
was reached by a tunnel. At Kaska William a tunnel 


south from the old Holmes slope cut and worked a little 
of the Primrose but the bed is small, only 3' to 4' thick 
and quality not first class. On the north dip in the 
Sharp mountain this coal is not worked; where cut at 
Reevesdale tunnel the bed is a confused mass 18' thick. 
At Rocktown tunnel it is apparently but T' thick. The 
interval between the Holmes and the Primrose varies 
from 60' to 80'. 

Orchard or Orier hed was mined along the Locust 
mountain above Tamaqua by a water level drift; its 
thickness is given as 6' to T but the coal was somewhat 

At Newkirk about 3000' of gangway is driven on this 
bed which has there a thickness of 7' to 8'. The bed is 
also tunnelled to at Buckville and Tuckers collieries; at 
the latter the bed is "5' thick good hard coal somewhat 
streaky." At the Palmer tunnel the bed is 9' thick 
where first cut but at the face of the short gangway 
driven west it is but 2' 6" thick. Although the identity 
is uncertain it is thought to be the Orchard bed which is 
worked at the Peach Mountain slope, about a mile 
southwest of Tuscarora; the bed is reported as 4' 4" thick 
in a drift just to the east, but the large falls along the outcrop 
suggest a thicker bed. At Kaska William an old gangway 
on the bed extends nearly the length of the tract and is said 
to have yielded 5' of good coal. The Orchard where cut in 
the Reevesdale tunnel is but 2' thick; there are no workings 
in the bed on this side of the basin. The distance from 
the Primrose to the Orchard is 100' to 160'. 

Little Orchard bed. — A bed about 3' thick at 60' above 
the Orchard is tunnelled to at Newkirk ; apparently the 
coal is not first class as only a few hundred feet of gangway 
was driven. The Little Orchard elsewhere in this division 
is not recognized as a workable bed. 

Diamond bed is not worked between Tamaqua and Tus- 
carora unless it be the unidentified bed of Randall's slope 
at Tuscarora, the bed is 6' to 7' thick ^ but considerably 
crushed. At Reevesdale tunnel the supposed Diamond 
bed is but 3' 3" thick. Slattery's little drift at the western 


edge of Tuscarora is on a steep dipping bed 6' to T thick 
called by some the Diamond. Near the wagon bridge over 
the Schuylkill, just west of the Bell colliery, a 16' bed of 
coal dipping 70** northward thought to be the Diamond has 
been drifted upon. At Kaska William there is a shallow 
slope on the bed which is there 6' thick. It is also the bed 
of the Pinedale colliery, i mile southeast of the Kaska 
William, the coal has there a gentle dip 20° to 40° and is 4' 
to 7' thick but the bed was not good for the whole length of 
the gangways. It is thought to be the Diamond bed with 
2' 6" of coal which was worked at the far end of the Milf ord 
tunnel above Middleport. Although the Diamond out- 
crops several times between the north and south rims of the 
field there has been but little working of the bed in this 
division and what there is, is not altogether satisfactory. 

Clarkson or Tracy the next workable bed occurs about 
200' above the Diamond bed ; the workings on this bed are 
confined to the rim of the deep basin about Middleport; 
although the bed is undoubtedly occurs in the high meas- 
ures between Tamaqua and Tuscarora, there are no devel- 
opments upon it. The Clarkson was the principal bed of 
the old Milford colliery* above Middleport, the bed is there 
"2' to 6' thick with an average of 6' of good coal, the east 
gangway stopped in a rock squeeze." '* About 25 yards 
below water level in the slope there is a rock fault, with a 
sudden upcast of 25 yards ; it entirely cuts off the coal with- 
out even a leader ; this is an [unusual thing in this coal 
basin." The Clarkson is also worked from the Milford 
tunnel for half a mile to the east, on the opposite side of 
the basin, and to a small extent on the same dip in the hill 
south of the Brockville Station where the bed is 3' to 4' 
thick. Half a mile west of the slope a tunnel driven north 
from Docker and Bowmans slope gangway cut the Clarkson 
with a thickness but 1' 10". With the exception of some 
shallow shaftings along the outcrop farther to the west 
there has been no other working of the bed in this division. 

Charles Pott or Little Tracy hed^ 100 feet above the 

* Section through this colliery on page plate 378. 


Clarkson was also worked at the Milford colliery ; the bed 
is there 2' to 3' thick of good coal ; "in the Milford tunnel 
the north dip of the bed is represented by a thin leader; at 
Dockers and Bowmans tunnel the bed is 8' 4" thick all slate 
and dirt'and appropriately called the *'Poor House bed,'* 
These and a water level gangway driven through the hill 
east of Middleport comprise the workings on the bed in 
this division. 

Palmer bed 2' to 3' thick is the coal of Kestenbaugh tun- 
nel and Docker and Bowmans slope ; it has been also worked 
on the north dip in the Middleport hill and at the Milford 
tunnel, with about the same thickness. Its distance above 
the Charles Pott bed is about 125'. 

Lewis or Peach Mountainbed is the principal member of 
the Upper Red Ash coals; it is this bed which is worked on 
both dips to the spoon of the basin, east from the Milford 
tunnel, '' the bed yielded 2' of solid coal." It is thought to 
be the Lewis bed which was mined at the Hine and Glas- 
mine slope a mile below Middleport; the bed here is reported 
to be 10' to 12' thick. This same bed ? was mined from the 
old "deep shaft" along Yellow Spring creek southeast of 
New Philadelpha ; the sharp compression of the measures 
here along the double Gate Ridge anticlinal axis and the 
distance from positively determined points makes the iden- 
tity of the bed very uncertain. 

The highest measures in this division are found between 
Middleport and New Philadelpha, and probably include 
several small coals aboVe the Peach Mountain bed. 

^25. Pottsville Division. 

Mine sheets X, XI, XlVfand XlVa and the southeastern 
part of VI map this division.* The general structure is 
shown by sections 16 to 19 on^cross section sheets V to Xll.f 
Columnar ^sections of the^strata^are published on columnar 
section sheets V, VI, VII, VIIi;and XI.J 

The Pottsville division is one of the most important of the 

* Plate 366 gives the general location oi the division, 
t Plates 377, 378, 380 and 381 give selected cross sections. 
I Plates 376, 382 and 382 give selected columnar sections. 

Smith.'] 8. C. F. POTTSVILLE DIVISION, 2105 

field and embraces all of the Southern basin south of the 
Mine Hill anticlinal and between New Philadelphia and 
Llewellyn ; having a general width of four miles and a length 
of nine. It includes a number of extensive mining opera- 
tions within its limits. 

The natural boundaries of this division, Mine hill on the 
north 1200' to 1600' A. T. ; and the Sharp mountain on the 
south 1200' to 1400' A. T., are about parallel. The Schuyl- 
kill river flows along the foot of Sharp mountain west to 
Pottsville where it turns south and leaves the field through 
a deep gap (600' A. T.) in the mountain. Mill creek has cut 
through the Mine hill and across the measures to join the 
Schuylkill a couple of miles above Pottsville. The West 
branch of the Schuylkill not only makes a second gap in 
Mine hill but also a second gap in Sharp mountain two 
miles west of Pottsville ; in crossing the basin it curves 
slightly to the west at Minersville. A number of smaller 
streams most of which flow south across the measures drain 
the intermediate country. The interior of the basin is hilly 
and broken but none of the hills approach in height that of 
the bounding rims. 

Pottsville, the seat of Schuylkill county, is centrally lo- 
cated at the foot of Sharp Mountain. New Philadelphia, 
St. Clair, Port Carbon and Minersville are all important 
mining towns within this area. 

The Silver Creek (new). Eagle Hill, Pine Forest, Eagle, 
Beechwood, Oak Hill and York Farm are the principal 
operating collieries in this division, but there are numerous 
other workings of more or less importance which at this 
time are temporarily or permanently abandoned.* 

* The chief of these is the widely l^nown Pottsville colliery (cross section on 
plate 380, columnar on plate 383) of the East Norwegian valley a mile and 
one half north of the town. Two shafts each about 1470' deep (the deepest 
in the anthracite region) were sunk; and two tunnels one 1400' long from 
the bottom level, and the other 1800' long at 440' above, were driven north 
to cut the Mammoth bed. Two anticlinals with confused and faulted meas- 
ures were encountered in the tunnels and when the Mammoth bed was 
finally reached it was (contrary to well grounded expectation) found to be 
thin and In poor condition. An attempt was made however to mine the Top 
split and also the Diamond and Primrose beds, the most promising of the 
ooal cut in the shaft. All of the beds proved to be rather variable in thick- 


The whole Southern field but especially this part of it 
contains many old mine workings, driven before the law 
required a survey, and of which there is no more reliable 
record than that of the recollections of the old miners. 
These old workings, especially when full of water, are a 
source of considerable danger and several serious accidents 
have occurred. A careful investigation and inquiry is not 
always successful in establishing even their approximate 
extent and each year makes it more difficult. 

Structure. — Along the south side of Mine hill the dips 
are comparatively gentle and the the basins shallow; going 
south the dips become steeper and the basins of greater 
depth, culminating in the deep basin between the Gate 
Bidge axis and the Sharp mountain, where the Buck moun- 
tain bed has an estimated depth of more than 3000'. The 
axes of the basins all incline toward the north and approach- 
ing the southern rim of the field the north dips are almost 
invariably perpendicularly or overturned. The coal beds 
on these dips are found much crushed and broken. 

The principal anticlinals are the South Gate Ridge, North 
Gate Ridge, the South Delaware which recent developments 
have shown to extend west beyond the West branch, the 
Middle Delaware, North Delaware and South Mine Hill ; 
the mine and cross section sheets show the probable position 
and extent of each and of other subordinate axes as well. 

Pottsville Conglomerate No, XII is finely exposed in the 
gap below Pottsville where it measures about 1350' in thick- 
ness with 400' or 500' of transition measures composed of 
greenish sandstones and conglomerates, and olive^ and red- 
dish shales separarating it from the main body of No. XI. 
(See plate 379 for section of XII.) On the opposite side of 
the division at the Mill creek and West branch gaps in the 
Mine hill only some 300' or 400' at the top of the formation 
is exposed. 

ness and in quality and the gang^^ays encountered drooping saddles cutting 
off the coal above thorn. Owing to the unexpected combination of difficul- 
ties which wore met with, operations at this colliery were suspended about 
1884 and have not been resumed. The exhaustion of the cheaper coals near 
the surface will no doubt in time make it desirable to extend and operate 
{Sis colliery. 

^nihrevcUe Region,- Soidhenh CoalEe&l. 




S^nith.] S. C. F. POTTSVILLE DIVISION. 2107 

The total thickness of the Coal Measures above the Buck 
Mountain bed is 2500' or more, containing some 20 coal 
beds which reach a workable thickness. The highest beds 
of the series are worked at the York Farm colliery* of the 
Lehigh Valley Coal Co. in the Pottsville basin. 

* Messrs. A. B. Cochran <fc Sons, the mining engineers for the Company, 
have kindly furnished the Survey with the record of a new tunnel driven 
south across the basin to the Sharp mountain coal beds. 

The section as reported reads as follows : 

York Farm Colliery— First Lift TunneL 
Measurements to Veins, Etc 

Top Slate Black Mine Vein equals 0. 

304.4 Bot. Slate, }^ , -.r . .», * x*^* , ^^ ««« « 

339.0 Top " > Tunnel Vein 7 J feet thick ; dip, 280 a 

492.2 Babbit Hole Vein, 2| feet thick. 

™'!?^°^®^*^' >FaustVein,8feetthick,alldirt;dip,88oa 

636.7 Top " ^ * ' *^* 

937.0 Bot Slate, ? g^^^^ y^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^j^.^ ; dip, 89© a 

945.0 Top " ) ' , *^' 

1038.0 Leader, 2 feet 10 inches thick Dip, 370 S. 

. . . . " 30OS. 
.... " 220S. 
.... «* 220S. 
. . . . ^* 220S. 

.... " 340 S. 

2131.0 " 30OS. 

2143.0 " 100 8. 

2318.0 " 100 8. 

2328.0 " Flat 

2451.0 " 86O North. 

2498.0 " «40 North. 

2613.0 Leader, Perp. on Top. " 66° S. on Bottom. 

2552.0 Seam of Dirt <* Perpendicular. 

2562.0 " 66OS. 

2628.0 Leader, 1 foot 9 inches thick " 64© s. 

2679.0 Bot Slate ^ 

2686.0 Top ** ^ 

2750.0 Leader, 1 foot of Dirt " 65^ S. 

2864.0 Vein,. . 3 feet inches thick. 

2907.0 Bot Slate, ) « 7ro s 

2912.0 Top " ^ 

8037.4 Face of Tunnel and Top of Tunnel Vein. 

North Tunnel to Selkirk Vein — Second Lift, 

Bot Slate Black Mine equals 0. 

170.57 Little Tracy Vein, 2 feet 4 inches thick. . . . Dip, 25© S. 

285.00 Bot Slate, Selkirk Vein. " 27° 8. 

306.00 Face of Tunnel. 

1297.0 " 



1411.0 « 


1432.0 " 


1442.0 Vein,.. 



2066.0 Leader, 



The principal 'mining operations are in the Mammoth, 
Skidmore, Buck Mountain, Holmes, Primrose and Diamond 
beds, on the gentle dips and in the comparatively shallow 
basin between the Mine hill and the North Delaware axis. 
South of this axis the collieries (now mostly abandoned) 
were chiefly upon the Peach Mountain coal bed, although 
all the beds were opened and worked to some extent along 
their outcrops. 

In the upturned coal measures of Sharp mountain, 
although the whole series is exposed, the coal beds are so 
crushed and irregular as to make their identification uncer- 
tain, and mining operations in them have hitherto been un- 

LyJcens Valley beds: — The "only exposure of these coals 
in the division is found in theTottsville gap where 11 small 
coal beds are seen scattered through the upper and cen- 
tral parts of No. XII ; the thickest of these is but 1' 6" and 
they are certainly here without commerical importance. 

Buck Mountain bed outcrops along the south side of 
the Mine Hill anticlinal, except north of Beechwood col- 
liery where for a mile or more perhaps the bed saddles over 
the axis and [into the Heckscherville basin ; the develop- 
ments on the bed are not extensive and are in the neighbor- 
hood of this outcrop. The bore holes* at the new Silver 
Creek colliery cut the bed with a thickness of 4' and 5' 
respectively. At the Pine Forest colliery the bed is now 
worked quite extensively ; on the gentle lO'' to 20° south 
dips of the South Mine Hill axis, the bed is here in excellent 
condition and averages about 7' of coal. The bed was 
worked by a water level drift on the west side of Mill creek 
opposite the Eagle colliery ; thickness not ascertained. 

At Beach wood colliery a water level tunnel driven north 
cut the Buck Mountain 'and a plane was [driven up the 
pitch ; the bed was 4' to 6' thick but irregular and dirty 
and the attempt to work it was abandoned. A bore hole 
starting from the Seven Foot bed near the foot of the slope 
shows a total thickness of 13' 6" for the bed. At the Her- 

* See section on page plate 376. 

• ' • . 


bine colliery the Buck Mountain was worked above water 
level by a gangway half a mile in length ; at the tunnel 
opening this gangway the thickness of the bed is 7' 
but presumably it does not continue in first class condition 
or the workings would be more extensive ; close below the 
Buck Mountain some 3 or 4 thin coals are cut, splits per- 
haps of the main bed. 

The bed varies from 3' to 15' thick, where in an undistur- 
bed condition with gentle dips yields a first-class coal ; on 
fiteep dips, and on some of gentle ones too, it is apt to be 
irregular and dirty. 

In the* Sharp mountain the bed is known as the Twin and is 
worked. At the Fitzpatrick colliery on the east side of the 
Westwood gap the bed has two members each about 3 
thick with 10' of sandstone between. 

Skidmore bed ia 100' to 150' above the Buck Mountain; 
the principal workings on the bed are along the South 
Mine hill axis between Silver and Mill creeks; it was mined 
at the Ledger Vein, Butler, Windy Harbor, Pine Forest 
and Eagle collieries; the bed has a thickness of 5' to 8'. At 
the new Silver Creek colliery, less than a mile south of the 
old Butler workings, two drill holes have cut the Skidmore 
horizon; in one it is but 2' 6" thick and at the other it is 
missing or was drilled through withou t being seen. At Eagle 
Hill colliery the bed is about T thick when regular, but in 
places thins to 2' or 8' of dirt. At the Pottsville colliery 
both of the long tunnels were driven to the Skidmore; the 
bed is there 3' to 4' thick but for the most part soft and 
dirty. The Skidmore is practically not worked between 
Mill creek and the West branch, and at the few points in 
this area where the bed is cut, it is thin and dirty ; just 
beyond the West branch the Skidmore has been worked 
to a moderate extent along the outcrop on both sides of 
Wolf creek; and is reported to have a thickness of 6' to 7 '. 
The ''White Ash" bed of the Sharp mountain is thought 
to be the Skidmore; it is worked for a depth of a hun- 
dred feet or so below its outcrop from Pottsville gap to 
Westwood gap, and is one of the best beds of this 
locality; its thickness varies from 5' to 10'. 


Mammoth bed in this division is probably at its best for 
the Southern field. It is separated into two or three 
splits having an aggregate thickness of 25' to 30', yielding 
15' to 20' of good coal. The Top split is called the Seven 
Foot bed, and the Bottom split is called the Mammoth and 
if divided is called the Top and Bottom splits. The work- 
ings on the Mammoth are much more extensive than those 
on any of the other beds, and in this division it has probably 
yielded more coal than all others combined. 

Along the eastern edge of the division the bed is in three 
splits. The new Silver Creek colliery develops an un- 
usually large thickness of the bed; the three members have 
at the shaft a total bed thickness of 56' 6" with 42' 6" of 
good coal, (see page plate No. 376) the Seven Foot is 12' 6" 
thick, Top Split 20' 0" and Bottom Split 24' 0". At Butler 
colliery just north, and Windy Harbor colliery* a mile to 
the west, according to Report of First Survey, the Bottom 
Split is about 10', Top Split 12' to 15', and Seven Foot 5' to 
10' thick. At Eagle Hill colliery f the Seven Foot bed is 
8' to 10' thick, the Top Split 3' to 13' and the Bottom Split 
5' to 10'. West of the slope the Top and Bottom splits 
unite forming a bed about 25' thick; the character of the 
bed varies, yielding at times nearly the full thickness of 
good coal, and at others it is pinched, or the coal is soft 
and shelly. At Pine Forest colliery the Seven Foot 5' 
to 10' thick yields the best coal; the Mammoth although 
thicker carries considerable dirt and refuse. 

The extensive workings on the Mammoth about St. Clair 
which continue west to Beechwood X open the bed on a 
long gentle south dip, vary from 10° to 20° and with a de- 
veloped length of half a mile or more from the outcrop. 
The Mt. Hope slope, Pine Forest slope. Kirk and 
Baum slope. Hickory slopes, St. Clair shaft, Wades- 
ville shaft and Beechwood colliery are all in this 
territory. The bed is in two splits, the top split or Seven 
Foot varies from 7' to 15' in thickness and the bottom split 

•Cross section through Windy Harbor and Eagle HiU on plate 377. 
fCross section through Windy Harbor and Eagle Hill on plate 877. 
X See cross section on plate S81. 

Smith.'] S. C. F. POTTSVILLE DIVISION. 2111 

or Mammoth, 10' to 50' below is 10' to 30' thick ; the com- 
bined thickness of the two splits easily averaging 30'. The 
bed is favorably situated and the coal in fairly good condi- 

The Pottsville shafts were sunk with the expectation of 
reaching the Mammoth on a little increased dip and at a 
half mile still farther south of the outcrop, the unexpected 
importance underground, of two small anticlinal axes 
developed at the surface in the upper beds, aflEected mater- 
ial the position, thickness and quality of tlie Mammoth and 
adjacent coal beds. In the upper tunnel the Seven Foot is 
6' to 7' in good condition, but the Mammoth is only 4 thick 
soft and dirty ; at the lower tunnel the two splits would 
seem to be together in an irregular and dirty bed but 3'to 4' 
thick. A diamond drill hole from the bottom of the east 
shaft cut the Seven foot 11' 10" thick and the Mammoth 18 
8"; the rods became fast and were broken ofl in the hole 
without definitely determining whether all the bed had been 
bored through.* 

The Eagle colliery above St. Clair, located in the Johns 
basin on the south side of Mine hill between the Mine Hill 
and South Mine Hill anticlinals, works the Mammoth bed, 
formerly at least, with much success. The dips are mod- 
erate except along the southern outcrop where the bed 
stands perpendicular or over-turned. The Seven foot is but 
6' to r thick while the Mammoth is 20' to 30' thick. 

West of the West branch at the Oak Hill colliery, and at 
the workings about Wolf creekf the bed is in three recog- 
nized splits, the Bottom split 10' to 14' thick, fifty feet above 
is the Middle split 3' to 5' thick, and at 100' still higher the 
Top split with a thickness of about 10'. None of the work- 
ings extend ^for more than 2000' south of the outcrop; the 
dips are mostly 30° to 40''. 

'gThere Is an error in the columnar section of the bore hole published on 
sheet y. It show a thioliness 27' 1" for the Mammoth, the section was 
copied from an incorrect record which gave the actual thickness cut as 31' 
instead of 21'. The estimate dip is 26^ making the corrected thickness of 
18' 8". 

I See cross section through Herbine colliery on plate 881. 

'ocite Megiort^3outhem GmlM^L 

i^7lith.] S. 0. F. POTTS VILLE DIVISION. 2113 

the Sharp mountain at the Westwood tunnel the Primrose ? 
is cot 12' 5" thick. 

Orchard bed, at about 125' above the Primrose bed, 
ranges from 3' to 8' in thickness, the workings upon the 
bed are comparatively few. The Orchard with 4' to 6' of 
coal was worked at Neil' s old colliery on Silver creek ; where 
cut in the Silver Creek shaft it is 5' thick. At Pine Forest 
colliery this bed was recently opened, its thickness is 6' to 
8', yielding a fair quality of coal. Where cut in Pottsville 
shaft the bed is 4' thick, of poor quality. Between St. Clair 
and Mt. Laflee, there are scattered openings along its out- 
crop, and at Mt. Laflfee at the old Harper and Oak Hill 
slopes it was worked to some extent ; in this neighborhood 
the bed averages about 5' thick usually in fair condition. 
About the Wolf creek there are a few unimportant openings 
on the bed, its thickness there is given as 4' to 5'. 

The Little Orchard is a thin bed found 30' to 50' above 
the Orchard, it has been dug into at a number of places 
along its outcrop and is also cut in some of the shafts and 
tunnels ; in thickness it varies of 1' to 4', and is practically 
un worked. 

The Diamond is one of the most prominent of the upper 
coal beds and is worked at several important collieries. It 
is the principal bed of the Palmer Vein colliery near New 
Philadelphia, its average thickness is there about 6', rather 
high in refuse. Heron's drift. Feeder Dam colliery and 
GrriflBth Jones slopes are also on the Diamond. It was one 
of the beds worked at the Pottsville colliery; at the shafts 
the total thickness of the bed is 10' to 12', along the gang- 
ways it yields 4' to 5' of good coal. Between St. Clair and 
the West branch, several small slopes open the bed along its 
outcrop. At Daddovvs old slope along the West Norwegian 
creek the bed is reported 9' thick when in good condition. 
From the West branch westward the Diamond is continu- 
ously worked to the division line, at the Starr slope its 
thickness is reported as 4' to 5', improving to the west as at 
the Red Ash colliery adjoining it is said to yield 6' to T of 
good coal. 
^^Little Diamond hed, east of the West branch, is 


usually about 30' above the Diamond and generally 1' to 3' 
thick, an effort was made to work the bed at Palmer 
Vein colliery, it was 6' where cut by the tunnels, but 
it was soon abandoned. Gangways were opened south of 
the Eagle Hill colliery on the bed but the yield of good 
coal was small. The most satisfactory proving of the bed 
is perhaps at Wolf creek where at the Davis Lower drift 
the bed is said to yield 3' of good coal, at this point the 
interval between it and the Diamond has increased to 
about ISO'. 

Olinton arid Little OMn^o??, 'two small beds lying between 
the Little Diamond and the Tracy have been worked 
along the outcrops to a limited extent at several points in 
the neighborhood of the Pottsville colliery. They are not 
recognized in other parts of the field ; the Clinton is 4' to 6' 
and the Little Clinton 2' to 3', but the yield of good coal 
is much less. 

Tracy hed^ called the ClarJcson in the vicinity of New 
Ph iladelphia, a widely persistent coal bed of good sizes 4' 
to3 ' thick but often shelly and dirty in quality. There are 
scattered openings along its outcrops all the way across 
this division, but the amount of coal mined froni the bed 
is quite insignificant. The largest operation is the Lewis 
coll iery at Minersville, where the bed is 5' thick yielding 
a good coal until a faulty or pinched condition was 
encountered along the gangways ; north of Minersville 
about Wolf creek the bed is known locally as the '^Cockle" 
and is there especially prized for domestic use, its thick- 
ness is also about 5'. 

Little Tracy ^ ^^SpohrC^ of Mill creek, or Oharles PoUhed 
of New Philadelphia is found about 80' above the Tracy 
bed, it is worked quite extensively at the Palmer Vein 
colliery ; its thickness there is from 3' to 8'. It is also 
opened on both sides of Mill creek, in the old gangway 
on the east it is reported to be 6' thick, at the Cham- 
berlin colliery on the west side it is 3' to 4' thick and was 
the principal bed ; from the Chamberlain to the West branch 
there are only a few openings close to the outcrop upon 
this bed. Along the Wolf creek it was mined at Taylors 



:\l 'lil i .'ii I- \\\\% i«M lift 

• t 


slope, and by a tunnel from Spencers slope where the bed 
is reported 3' 6" thick ; where opened at the Lewis col- 
liery it is said to be 3' to 4' thick. 

^^ Palmer or Yard hed, although thin, is worked exten- 
sively at the Palmer Vein colliery, and old workings down 
a lift or two extend almost continously from there to Mill 
creek, approaching Mill creek the bed thins a little, and 
becomes faulty, west of Mill creek it has not been recog- 
nized as a workable bed, where worked it was 3' to 4' 
thick and yields about 3' of good coal. 

Peach Mountain^ Bpohn, Lewis^ Oate or Black Mine 
is the most celebrated of the upper red ash beds; its coal 
has an excellent reputation, the bed is extensive and of 
good workable thickness; its long lines of nearly parallel 
outcrops along the sides of the successive basins offer nu- 
merous favorable locations for opening. It was one of the 
first beds to be opened and was given a different name in 
nearly all the basins in which it is found; that the Peach 
Mountain, Spohn and Lewis are one and the same bed is 
now thoroughly established; that the Gate and Black Mine 
are only different names for the same bed, in the basins be- 
tween and south of the Gate Ridge axes, is regarded as 
most probable, although owing to the sharp uplift and 
confused overturned dips along the Gate Ridge axes it can 
hardly be regarded as established, until there is some addi- 
tional development of the lower coal beds south of these 

In the old Novelty slope near New Philadelphia, where 
the bed was worked extensively 50 years ago, it is reported 
to have averaged 4' 6" in thickness; the bed is opened at 
several points and worked nearly continuously to Mill 
creek, its thickness remaining about the same. 

On the west side of Mill creek, at Wallace and Rother- 
mels old slope, the bed is reported to average T thick, in 
three benches. This is probably a fair average thickness 
for the bed on the south dips in the numerous workings 
between Pottsville and Minersville. The north dips, with 
but little exception, are perpendicular or overturned, and 
although the bed may maintain its thickness, the coal is 


without exception soft, shelly or dirty. The range in 
the thickness of the bed on the south dips is between 5' 
and 10' with an average yield of 4' 6" to 6' of good coal. 

Tunnel or Sandrock bed of Cumbola, 100' to 200' above 
the Peach Mountain, is also an important member of the 
upper beds, and usually of a fair workable thickness. The 
workings on the bed are not very extensive; the bed known 
locally as the "Sandrock" was worked by two small slopes, 
one just north of Cumbola and the other jiist north of Bel- 
mont, at the eastern slope the bed is recorded by First Sur- 
vey as 4' thick and at the western slope 5' 6". The Tunnel 
bed was worked by the Bear Ridge* slope, half a mile south 
of Cumbola, with a thickness of 5'. At York Farm colliery 
it is a good bed, averaging 6' to 7' in thickness, sometimes 
swelling to 8' or 10'. At the old Fogarty and Salem work- 
ings, west of the West Branch, the thickness of the bed is^ 
given as 5'. 

RohMt Hole bed is about 100' above the Salem and ia 
usually a thin unworkable seam, 2' to 3' thick. 

Faust bed ; 75' above the Rabbit Hole bed at York Farm 
colliery is 4' to 5' thick, but poor and dirty. 

Salem bed; the workings on this bed are all in the Potts- 
ville basin, but the bed is also found north of the Gate 
Ridge axis ; formerly the bed was extensively mined on the 
south dip between Pottsville and Port Carbon, where it i» 
reported to average 3' in thickness. West of Pottsville at 
York Farm colliery the bed is 6' to 7' and even much thicker, 
but is frequently shelly and dirty ; the bed was drifted 
upon south of the Salem colliery; thickness not known. 

Brewery is the highest workable bed and is abou t 2200^ 
above the Buck Mountain and 240' above the Salem bed ; its 
outcrop was exposed atYuengling's brewery, on Mahan tonga 
street, Pottsville, and it has since been cut by the long tun- 
nel at York Farm colliery. It has a thickness of about 5', 
with 2' to 3' of good coal. Between the Salem and Brewery 
beds at York Farm are found two small coal beds or lead- 
ers, the lower of which is 2' thick and is known as the South 
Salem bed. 

* See cross section plate 378. 

» ^ 


A small bed about 185' above the Brewery bed is cut in 
the York Farm tunnel and its outcrop is seen at two or 
three points on the surface ; the bed is V to 3' thick, con- 
taining little or no good coal. It is interesting, chiefly be- 
cause it is probably the highest coal bed in the anthracite 

26 Llewellyn^ Tremont Division. 

Mine sheets XII, XIII, XV and XVI map this division.* 
Its structure is shown by sections 21 to 23 on cross section 
sheets IX to XVI. t Columnar section sheets VI to IX 
record the measures cut by the tunnels and bore holes 
within the area.:}: 

This division embraces all of the Southern basin between 
the Mine hill and Peaked mountain on the north, and the 
Sharp mountain on the south ; extending from the sheet 
line just east of the town of Llewellyn to the sheet line two 
miles west of Tremont, a distance of about nine miles ; the 
width of the division is about five miles. 

The water shed between the Schuylkill and Susque- 
hanna crosses mine sheets XII and Xin. Sheafers creek? 
Muddy branch and the West West branch are the princi- 
pal tributaries of the Schuylkill ; Swatara creek and its 
branches, Gebharts run. Middle creek, Good Springs 
creek and Rausch creek drains the western side of the 

Sharp mountain runs in nearly a straight line across the 
division, it is gapped, south of Tremont by Swatara and 
Rausch creeks. The Mine hill and its anticlinal both die 
down coming westward, and disappear on the east side of 
the West West branch, the Peaked Mountain axis, which 
springs up on the north, carries through, and makes a 
deep red shale cove two miles west of Mt. Pleasant. South 
of Peaked Mountain the Buck Ridge and the West West 
Falls anticlinals, both make prominent ridges as they rise 
west and bring No. XII to outcrop along the axis, and 

♦Page plate 366 gives relative location of the division. 

f Page plate 384 and 387 contain selected portions of the cross sections. 

4;Page plate 386 and 386 contain selected columnar sections. 


each makes a deep red shale 'cove as it passes out of the 
field (see mine sheet XIII). Red mountain, a high ridge 
made by the Gate Ridge anticlinal, ranges across the divis- 
ion about parallel to Sharp mountain and a mile to the 

The Structure^ so far as known, is pretty well shown by 
the mine workings as mapped on the mine sheets and by 
the cross sections. The coal measures of the northern half 
of the division have a general westward rise, all the way 
across, and spoon out in the high land beyond Porestville 
on sheet XIII. The deep basins of the southern half also 
rise west but not so rapidly, this rise lifts the Mammoth 
bed to outcrop around the North and South Grate Ridge 
anticlinals, near the west edge of the division, two miles 
beyond Tremont. 

The mine workings are mainly in the thick lower coal 
beds, where they lie near the surface along the northern 
outcrop. The beds of the high measures are opened along 
their outcrops here and there in the central part of the 
field ; but the developments on these beds are very much 
less than in the Pottsville division, in consequence of which 
their thickness and the details of the structure of the deep 
central basins are much more uncertain here than there. 

The operating collieries are Albright, Phoenix Park, Por- 
estville, Otto, Middle Creek and Blackwood, in addition to 
which, the area contains, about twice as many more opera* 
tions which are temporarily or permanently abandoned. 

Formation No. XII does not expose any but incomplete 
sections. The two breaks in Sharp mountain made by 
Swatara and Rausch creeks give a total thickness of the 
formation of about 1100' or 1200', with apparently the 
absence of most of the several hundred feet of '' transition'^ 
measures seen at the Schuylkill gap. The Broad and Thick 
mountains give but partly exposed sections, the cross sec- 
tions would indicate that the conglomerate is perhaps a 
couple of hundred feet thicker here than along the southern 
rim. The character of the strata composing the series re- 
mains about as before, but the increased thickness of its 
coal beds is a matter of much importance. 

8mith.'\ 8. 0. F. LLEWELLYN-TREMONT DIVISION. 2119 

The Lykens Valley coal beds are here found in the upper 
800' or 900' of No. XII ; west of Tremont there are six 
workable beds in the series, numbered 1 to 6 from top down- 
ward; all six of these beds are supposed to be recognized at 
one or more points in the western half of this division, and 
are so indicated on the cross sections ; but it is very doubt- 
ful whether more than one or two of the beds maintain an 
extensivfk workable thickness. The openings on these beds 
are comparatively few, and the results have not seemed to 
warrant at present a more thorough development of them, 
the chief obstacle to their successful working is not so 
much the thinness of the beds as their unreliability. 

The most eastern opening in this division on what, per- 
haps, may be considered a workable Lykens Valley bed, 
has been made by a trial shafting near where the West 
Palls axis crosses the West Branch (on sheet XII); here a 
bed 4' thick estimated to be about 460' below the Buck 
Mountain was opened. On the west side of Swatara creek 
at the crossing of Swatara Falls axis some J^ or 4 Lykens 
Valley beds were once opened by trial drifts and shaftings, 
now fallen shut ; no record of their thickness could be ob- 
tained; although the openings commanded an extensive area 
above water level the beds were not worked. 

Lykens Valley No. 6 hed^ often called the ''Lykens 
Valley" bed is apparently the coal opened by a short drift 
on the west side of Middle creek, a mile north of the 
Middle Creek colliery ; the bed is reported as 2' to 3' 
thick. The Kemble drift near the western spoon of the 
Peaked Mountain basin, on the first prong north of the 
Donaldson mountain, develops the same? Lykens Valley 
bed with a thickness of 4' to 5', said to be in good condition 
on the gentle south dip of the north side of the basin ; an 
air hole on the north dip develops a curious inversion of 
the bed, see cross section No. 23.* This outcrop and that 
of No. 4 bed which closelv overlies it have been shafted 
three-quarters of a mile to the east of the drift ; at the first 
openings No. 4 is said to show 4' of coal and No. 6 8' of 

* Also page plate 384. 



coal, dipping 50° nortli ; at the second openings, along the 
township line, the upper bed 4' and the lower 3' &' of coal. 
At the Eureka tunnels,* on the mountain north of Donald- 
son, Lykens Valley. beds No. 2 and 3 were opened; both 
are thin and irregular. No. 3 especially so. In the Sharp 
mountain at the Swatara and Rauschgaps the lowest of the 
Lykens Valley beds lying just north of a coarse heavy con- 
glomerate ledge has been drifted upon and worked to a 
small extent, these drifts are now fallen shut. Near Black- 
wood, just below the crest of Sharp mountain, on the 
southern side, some four beds were opened by trial 

Buck Mountain hed is not extensively worked and what 
developments there are, are along the northern outcrop. 
On sheet XII the only working of the bed is on the south 
dip of the Mine Hill axis, in the neighborhood of the Black 
Heath tunnel ; its thickness here is 5' to T. Following 
west along the outcrop, and in the basin to the south, the 
bed was reached by a tunnel at the Forestville colliery, since 
the publication of the mine sheets, it is 4' to 5' thick, but 
soft and slaty. Not until we reach Middle Creek colliery, 
4 miles southwest of Forestville, do we again find the bed 
worked, although it is shafted at several places in the interval 
between, and tunneled too at South Pyne colliery, where 
its thickness is 5^ apparently very poor or the bed would 
have been worked. At Middle Creekf the bed is about 10' 
thick with 7' to 8' of coal when at its best ; the mine map 
shows a number of pinched or faulty places where the 
breasts are not worked. Where worked at Colket,:}: two 
miles further west, the bed is also about 10' thick, but the 
gangways driven west show it thinning in that direction, and 
at no point west of this has it yet been found of a good work- 
able thickness and quality. One or more *4eaders" are 
usually found closely overlying the Buck Mountain bed, 
see columnar sections. In the Sharp mountain the bed is 
reached by the Dundas tunnel, and at the tunnel has a 

* See Colket cross section on plate 384 ; Columnar section on plate 386. 
f Cross section on plate 38^ 
X Cross section on plate 3 

' rt_S6*. 

JlTtthradieBegwn^Southern CoalRdd. 


! H I 


thickness of 3' 11"; it is also thought to be the bed of 
Houser's drift at the Swatara gap. 

Skidmore bed in this division has not been worked ex- 
cept at the Forestville and Black Heath collieries, where it 
is a bed of good coal, 6' to 7', but west* of this, where cut in 
the Pyne,* Middle Creekfand Colket colliery tunnels, it is 
a thin dirty bed, at the most but 3' 10" thick, at Colket. 
The Dundas tunnel section in Sharp mountain gives it a 
thickness of 5', but the bed is not worked. 

MamTnoth bedy which will be found thin and reduced fur- 
ther west, is here still the great bed of the region; and al- 
though but a very small part of its extent, and that chiefly 
along the northern rim, has been worked, yet it is mined 
more extensively than any of the other beds and has prob- 
ably here produced as much coal as all the rest combined. 
The bed is here generally in two splits, called Top and Bot- 
tom splits, with a varying interval between, which at times 
disappears and the splits come together to form one big 
bed. The Forestville colliery worked the Bottom split for 
nearly a mile on both sides of the slope, the bed there 
having a general thickness of about 10'; the Top split, 6' 
thick, is opened atDolbin'sslope, alOOO' to the east; the in- 
terval between the splits (170') is exceptionally large. At Otto 
the top member is tlie best and is called locally the ^ 'White 
Ash" bed; it is 10' to 12' thick with 8' to 10' of coal; the 
interval between it and the Bottom split is but 20' to 30'; 
the Bottom split has a general thickness of about 6'. About 
the same conditions are found at the Swatara Falls coUierv, 
at the Pyne collieries, and in Fisher's basin. West of 
Swatara creek the Bottom split improves and the Top 
split deteriorates, and at Middle Creek colliery the Bottom 
split, 9' thick, is decidedly the better bed; the Top sjilit, 
0' to 5' higher, although 10' to 20' thick, yields less sound 
coal. At Colket the two splits unite in one big bed 20' to 
25' thick, the bottom part of bed yielding the best coal. 

* Columnar section on plate S86. 
f Columnar section on plate 385. 


At Rausch Creek* and East Pranklinf collieries, west of 
Tremont, the Mammoth is extensively worked on both dips 
of the Gate Ridge anticlinal ; the interval between the splits 
varies from a few inches to a few feet; it is worked as one bed, 
the gangways being driven sometimes along the bottom and 
sometimes along the top of the bed; the whole thickness is 
16' to 20', the bed yielding a good percentage of clean coal. 

The Sharp mountain working of the Mammoth bed is 
limited to the Blackwood colliery, where H Top split 8', a 
Middle split 4' and a Bottom split 6' thick are found4 

Four Foot hed is in this division 80' to 120' above the Top 
split of the Mammoth, and although in general thin and 
unworkable, at the Otto colliery the bed is 4' to 7' thick, 
fairly good, and at Colket colliery 3' to 6' thick. 

HoVmes^ or Black Heath hed as it is called about Tre- 
mont, is in this division frequently 10' or 12' thick, but is 
generally a rough dirty bed, variable in thickness and high 
in refuse. It is opened and worked to a small extent at 
Otto, Pyne and Middle Creek collieries with a thickness of 
4' to 12'. At Colket colliery it is perhaps better, as the 
workings on it are extensive, down three lifts with gang- 
ways a mile and one-half in length; the First Survey Re- 
port says, " the bed is 3' to 12' thick." At East Franklin 
and Rausch Creek two water level gangways on the Holmes 
were driven around Qule Ridge anticlinal axis; the bed is 
5' to 10' thick. The interval between the Mammoth and 
the Holmes is usually about 200'. At Blackwood, in the 
Sharp mountain, the bed identified as Holmes, has a general 
thickness of 7'. 

Primrose bed in this division and especially so on sheet 
XII, is undoubtedly one of the best of series and easily 
ranks next to the Mammoth. Between Forestville and 
Branchdale the bed was largely worked; at McDonald's 
Slope, at Phoenix Park No. 2 and the Otto collieries, it is 
quite regular and has a thickness of 10' to 12' yielding 8' 
to 10' of good coal. Further west the bed is somewhat 

* Cross section on plate 387. 

f Columnar sections on ulates 385 and 386. 

\ Cross section tli*'ough Blackwood on plate 387. 

. * 


thinner; at the Pyne colliery it was extensively worked 
with an average thickness of about 9'; and at Middle 
Creek the thickness is about the same but the gangways 
encountered a great deal of faulty coal. At Colket the 
bed has 5' to T of coal and at East Franklin 6' to 8' of coal 
with a thickness of about 10'. The thickness of the Sharp 
mountain representative at Blackwood is 5' to 7'. The in- 
terval between the Primrose and the Holmes is 80' to 100'. 

Orchard bed is now operated at the East Franklin col- 
liery and yields 5' to 7' of coal in a thickness of 7' to 12'. 
The few provings of the bed along the north side of the 
basin show it to be thin and impure. At the Colket water 
level tunnel its thickness is 3' and at Middle Creek shaft 
6'. The Sharp Mountain representative at Blackwood is 
5' to 8' thick. 

Little Orchard bed so far as developed is either too thin 
or impure to be worked; or is absent entirely. 

The Diamond is a pretty good bed^ south of Forestville, 
where worked by the Phoenix Park No. 3 colliery; and also 
formerly by the old Diamond colliery ;the bed is 4' to 7'thick 
yielding 4' to 6' of coal; this coal is opened by a short 
drift at the Pyne colliery, also by a drift at the Colket col- 
liery. It is thought to be the Diamond bed which was 
worked by the Red Mountain colliery south of Tremont; 
the measures are there dipping 70® to 80**, and the 
thickness of the bed is quite variable. It now seems prob- 
able that the gangway from Evarts Upper tunnel in Red 
mountain (mine sheet XVI) is on the same bed, although 
there pinched and unworkable. John D. Felty's drift 
one-half mile south of the Rausch Creek colliery is on the 
Diamond. At Blackwood the Diamond is given as 4' to 6' 
thick but dirty. 

Little Diamond bed is undeveloped. 

Tracy bed is found about 300' above the Diamond bed; 
the most important working of the bed waa at Phoenix 
Park No. 1 colliery (mine sheet XII) now abandoned; the 
south dip of the bed having been mined to the basin, the 
bed is here 6' to 6' thick averaging about 4' 6" of coal; two 
short tunnels were driven to the north dip but the pitch 


is Steep and the bed in poor condition. The only^addition- 
al workings on this bed are in the vicinity of Tremont; a 
half a mile above the town, the bed is drifted upon on both 

• _ 

dips of the Big Lick mountain axis; the First Survey re- 
ports the bed here V to 10' thick; the extent of the drifts 
especially the westward one which is more than a mile in 
length would indicate a fair yield of good coal. This bed 
was also opened along the Little Lick mountain axis, at 
Eckels tunnel, just west of the town; the thickness here 
is reported at 6'. Evarts tunnel in Red mountain also cuts 
this bed, but in common with all the beds in the tunnel, it 
is there thin and unworkable. 

Little Tracy bed was mined to a small extent above 
water level east and south of Phoenix Park, the bed is 3' 
to 5' thick but not first class. The next working of the 
bed, to the westward, is in the vicinity of Tremont, where 
bed was worked at the Clarke and McCormick drifts and 
at Eckels tunnel with a thickness of ''4' to 5'" and appar- 
ently yielded a fair proportion of good coal. The distance 
between the Tracy beds is usually about 160'. 

Peach Mountain^ or Black Mine bed is, in this as well as 
in the Pottsville division, the chief member of the upper 
coal beds ; its position high up in the measures brings it * 
to outcrop along the flanks of the principal anticlinals and . 
the westward rise of the measures lifts it completely out a , 
mile or so beyond Tremont. The bed is not nearly so well 
developed as in the Pottsville division and it has been im- 
practicable to give on the mine sheets more than a small 
portion of its outcrop. The Branchdale colliery (sheet XII) 
was one of the largest operators of the bed, which there 
yielded *4' to 5' of coal when sound." The Black Mine 
bed was worked on both sides of the north Gate Ridge 
anticlinal a half mile above Silver ton Junction, (Sheet XV) ; 
the Albright Coal Co. have recently reopened the east 
slope and continued it to the basin, with a total length of 
about 1200', the bottom of the slope is at tide level ; the 
bed averages about 7' in thickness and is in good condition. 
Other workings of the bed are found in the neighborhood 
of Tremont, at the Marshfield colliery, Clarke and McOor- 


4 t 

* « 


mick drifts, Eckels tunnel, and Spanglers drift, the bed is 
4' to 10' thick, and except on the very steep dips is usually 
in good condition. The Stroh colliery (abandoned) north 
of Newton (sheet XV) worked a steep 70° north dipping 
bed, not certainly identified ; on the mine sheet the work- 
ings are printed in purple, the color assigned to the Rab- 
bit Hole bed, but it seems quite probable that it is a more 
important bed than this perhaps either the Tunnel or the 
Black Mine bed ? 

Tunnel bed occurs about 150' above the Peach Mountain 
or Black Mine, the bed was worked many years ago by a 
slope, with gangways [driven west, along the West West 
branch a half mile above Silverton Junction ; the thick- 
ness here is reported as 5' without slate but the bed is in- 
clined to be faulty. At Feger Ridge colliery, a recent op- 
eration a mile northeast of Newtown, the bed is opened 
by water level drifts and by a new slope, sunk since the 
publication of the mine sheet ; it has a variable thickness 
of 2' to 8', some sections showing 7' of good coal, while at 
other points the coal is pinched and worthless. This coal 
is also opened by trial shaftings at several other places 
along its outcrops, but no additional records of its thick- 
ness were obtained. 

Salem t bed : — Recent explorations at the Albright col- 
liery above Silverton Junction, develop the shape of the 
South Gate Ridge anticlinal, and prove conclusively the 
relative position of the coal beds on both sides of its axis. 
The so called " Salem" bed of the First Survey (incorrectly 
named the Black Mine bed, on the workings from the slope, 
mine sheet XV) is only 160' above the Tunnel bed; whereas 
at the York Farm colliery this distance is about 300', with 
the Faust and Rabbit Hole beds in between. The Report 
of First Survey, page 175, says — that '^ the Salem bed '' as 
worked from the slope, '' has only 3^' of coal; the benches 
here are not regular ; there is often a bottom bench V 

South Salem t bed: — Some 400' south of the Salem 
slopes, and 250' higher in the measures, '*,a 4' bed of coal, 



soft and faulty " has been drifted upon. This is appar- 
ently the highest bed opened in the division. 

It seems highly probable that the ''Salem" and "South 
Salem" beds of the Albright tract, are not the same as the 
Salem and South Salem beds of the York Farm colliery 
and other parts of the field ; and it is not certain that the 
Tunnel and Black Mine beds of this tract are correctly 

27. East FranJcLin— Broolcside Division. 

The area coverd by this division is mapped on mine sheets 
XVII and XVIII. * The structure is shown by sections 24, 
25, and 26 published on cross section sheet* XVI to XlX.f 
Sections of the measures cut in the various tunnels are 
given on columnar section sheets X and XI4 

The division extends from the sheet line near the East 
Franklin breaker, nine miles west, to the sheet line just be- 
yond the Brookside colliery workings. At the east line 
the full width of the field about three and one-half miles is 
embraced. The rapid westward rise of the Gate Ridge or 
Smoky Hollow anticlinal, lifts the coal measures and con- 
glomerate to outcrop in a high, broad arch, a mile or so 
west of the East Franklin breaker, and separates the field 
into two long narrow basins diverging westward ; the mine 
sheet of this division cover all of the broad arch and the 
eastern half of the northern or Wiconisco basin which is 
two miles wide. 

The surface within the basin is rather elevated ranging 
from 1000' to 1350' A. T. along the streams and the con- 
glomerate rims to the basin are 300' to 400' higher. 

Good Spring and Lower Rausch creeks, flowing east and 
south, drain sheet XVII : and a second Rausch creek flow- 
ing north through the only gap in Thick mountain fur- 
nishes drainage for sheet XVIII. Within this coal area 
there are no towns of importance ; but Tower City in the 
red shale valley just south of Brookside is practically a 
mining town. 

* Page plate 391 gives the general location of the division. 

I Page plates 384 and 387 contain selected cross sections. 

X Page plate 885, 386, 388 and 892 contains some selected columar sections. 

Smith.'\ 8. 0. F. EAST FRANKLIN-BR00K8IDE DIV. 2127 

Lincoln and Brookside collieries, both large producers, 
working exclusively the Lykens Valley beds of No. XII ; 
and the East Franklin and Good Spring, working the 
Mammoth and adjacent beds, are the operating collieries of 
the division. 

The structure is well shown by the cross sections* and 
mine sheets, the North Gate Ridge or Smoky Hollow and 
the Big Lick Mountain are the chief anticlinals ; the most 
extensive mine workings are about the arch of the former ; 
while the latter sub-divides the Wiconisco basin, And 
where it dies out in the southern rim at Brookside makes 
-the flat dips worked by that colliery. 

Formation No. XII is assigned a thickness of 1475' on 
the south side of the Gate Ridge arch ; the lower 360' con- 
tains beds of red shale interspersed with the conglomerate 
and sandstone beds. The great mass of coarse heavy con- 
glomerates are in the upper half of the formation, the 
lower half contains more beds of sandstone and slate. Six 
of the Lykens Valley coal beds are recognized as workable, 
in addition to which some four or five thin coals V to V &' 
thick are usually seen. The tunnels at Lincoln and at 
Kalmia collieries combined furnish a complete and reliable 
section of the whole formation, see page plate 392 or coU 
see. sheet XI. 

LyJceus Valley coal beds are extensively worked at the 
Lincoln colliery,! on the south flank of the Smoky Hollow 
or Gate Ridge axis, at New Lincoln colliery:}: on the north 
flank of the same axis, and at Brookside colliery on the 
south side of the Wiconisco basin 6 miles to the west ; some 
small openings have been made on these beds at Lorberry 
and Fishing creek gaps in the Sharp mountain, and at 
Klinger's gap in Thick mountain. 

The lowest Lykens Valley bed of the district, bed No. 6^ 
lies about 450' above the Mauch Chunk red shale, this bed 
is quite thin and apparently not alway persistent ; a brief 

*Soine portions of these sections are given* on plates 884 and 387. 
t Gross section on piate 387 ; columnar section on plate 892. 
X Cross section on plate 319; columnar section plate 888. 


attempt to work the bed was made at Lincoln colliery where 
the bed is V to 3' thick. 

LyTcens Valley No, 5 hed^ known also as the ^'Lykens 
Valley bed," is one of the principal beds of the group ; it 
lies about 60' above No. 6. At Lincoln colliery this bed, 
when in good condition, yields about 4! of coal, but like all 
the Lykens Valley beds its thickness and quality fluctuates 
considerably. At New Lincoln a tunnel south to No. 5 bed 
found 9' 2" of slate and dirt, unworkable. Along the south 
side of the Wiconisco basin, to the west, the bed greatly 
improves ; and it is the only source of supply for the big 
Brookside colliery, which works the bed on mostly mod- 
erate dips found where the Big Lick mountain axis dies 
out in the north dip of the basin ; the bed here averages 
fully 10' with about T of good coal, occasionally the thick- 
ness increases to 15' or 20' or runs down to only 3' or 4' in 
thickness ; when the former the coal is often shelly or soft. 

LyTcens Valley No, i l>ed at Lincoln and New Lincoln 
collieries is 125' above bed No. 5, but at Brookside the in- 
terval is 80'. Three lifts on this bed are worked at Lincoln 
colliery, the bed varies from 3' to T in thickness, with an 
average of 6i' or 6', yielding 3' 6" to 4' of coal. The tunnel 
at New Lincoln cut this bed 4' 7" thick, but all dirt and 
slate ; and a gangway driven upon it found but little im- 
provement. At Brookside colliery the bed has been opened, 
at several points, by rock slopes from No. 5 bed, and by a 
short slope from the outcrop ; the bed is but 2' to 4' thick 
and so high in refuse as to be unworked for the present. 

LyJcens Valley Nos, 3 and 2 beds are separated by only 
a few inches of slate at New Lincoln colliery, and practi- 
cally form one bed 8' to 10' thick, which was operated with 
considerable success. At Lincoln colliery tunnel the part- 
ing slate is about 10' thick and the beds are mined sepa- 
rately, the workings are mostly in bed No. 2 which is ex- 
tensively worked ; occasionally the coals come together and 
make one bed about 8' thick, yielding about 5' of coal ; 
where separated the lower bed No. 3 is thin, 2' to 4' and 
dirty, and has yielded but little coal ; but the upper bed 
No. 2 will average about 6' thick with 4' to 4' 6" of good 



I i!  


coal. These coals are not opened at Brookside, bat it is 
perhaps one of them which is cut in a trial shafting near 
the southern end of section line 25" (see mine sheet XVII) 
with a reported thickness of but 2' of coal. The distance 
between beds Nos. 8 and 4 is about 260'. 

LyJcens Valley No. 1^ bed, a thin bed or leader lying 
about 70' above No. 2 bed was opened with some 600' of 
gangway at New Lincoln colliery, it is only about 2' thick 
and can hardly be regarded as a workable bed. 

Lylcens Valley No. 1 bed at Lincoln colliery is an import- 
ant member of the series, there and at New Lincoln this 
bed is found about 350' above bed No. 2 and 300' below the 
Buck Mountain bed at the top of formation No. XII; at 
Good Spring colliery* the interval between it and the 
Buck Mountain has diminished to 220'. The thickness of 
the bed at Lincoln colliery varies from 3' to 10', but the 
average thickness is about 6' with 4' of good coal. At New 
Lincoln it was reached by a tunnel from No. 2 bed and 
about 1000' of gangway driven ; the bed is 4' to 6' thick 
but containd so much refuse that its working was aban- 
doned. A tunnel north from near the foot of the Good 
Spring slope cuts this bed with a total thickness of 3' 6". 

North Brookside colliery, — One fourth mile northwest of 
Good Spring breaker, and just over the flat crest of Thick 
mountain, a slope, dipping 38° S. and 400' deep, is sunk on 
the No. 2 bed and a tunnel nearly 800' long driven north 
from the slope level cuts the underlying Lykens Valley 
coal beds. No. 2 bed although 9' thick is here nearly all 
slate and dirt, and the underlying beds are thin and also 
dirty; the slope has been allowed to fill with water. 

At Kohlers gap\ in Thick mountain 3 miles to the west 
the Lykens valley beds have been opened at their outcrop; 

* Cross section on plate 384. 

fSome confusion exists as to the name of the creek which finds an outlet 
through the gap in Thick Mountain and indeed oi the name of the gap 
itself; the First Survey calls it Klingers gap but on the mine sheet of the 
Second Survey it was marked Kohlers gap on authority which seemed 
conclusive; the stream is called both Rausch creek and Bear creek, the 
mine sheets giving the preference to Rausch creek; either name is unfor- 
tunate, as we have a Rausch creek heading Just over the divide to the east 
and a Bear creek over the first divide to the west. 


these openings are mostly fallen shut with the exception 
of a drift on No. 2 bed operated for the use of the farmers 
in the Pine Creek valley on the north. Report of First 
Survey page 190, gives the following thickness for the 
Lykens Valley beds here and cross section 26 on sheet XIX 
shows their relative position. *'The No. 6 bed, the lowest 
opened, is 2^ thick; No. 4 is 7' thick but squeezed in the 
gangway; No. 3 is 6' thick with only 2' of good coal; No. 
2 is a good bed 6' thick, and No. 1 is a small coal." 

Buck Mountain hed^ sofarasdevelopedin this division, 
is thin and irregular, and its outcrop does not make the 
plainly marked terrace so often seen in the eastern part of 
the field. At East Franklin colliery a tunnel was driven 
to this bed and an attempt made to work it; the thickness 
at the tunnel is 5' 7" but the amount of refuse is such that 
work was stopped after driving a 1000' of gangway. Near 
the Lincoln colliery the Buck mountain has been shafted 
with a thickness of about 3'. At Good Spring the tunnel 
driven north cuts this bed, and an air hole is driven upon 
it to the surface ; the coal is thin and unworkable. The 
report of the First Survey, page 190, gives a much 
better account of the bed at Kohlers gap, where it is called 
" 11' thick with a 4' coal at 12' above." It seems likely 
that this is a local thickening of the bed. 

Skidmore hed^ 120' above the Buck Mountain, is worked 
along the foot of Thick mountain at the Good Spring colliery 
and formerly at Eckert colliery 3 miles east; at Good 
Spring the bed is 6' to 7' thick with 4' to 5' of good coal. 
At East Franklin the tunnel from the Mammoth to the 
Buck Mountain cut several leaders of coal less than 1' 6" 
thick, one of which probably represents the Skidmore;that 
this is a local thinning of the bed is perhaps indicated by the 
result of some surface shafting 1500' west of the New Lin- 
coln breaker where two coal beds 4' 5'' and 5' 1" thick were 
found 80' and 100' south of the Mommothanda 2^ 9" bed 
(the Buck Mountain ?) was opened 60' beyond. Between 
Good Spring and Brookside little or nothing is known of 
the thickness of this bed. 

Mammoth bed is in two splits but so near together that 

1 ^/dArtus&'AfficH/- ^oudum, CfolMei^U 





JSmiih.] s. c. p. east franklin-brookside div. 2131 

both members are often worked from one gangway driven 

either on the top or the bottom split ; this is the condition 

in the extensive workings at the Rausch Creek colliery* 
where the totaJ thickness of the bed averages abont 20', for 

the most part in good condition ; the average dip of the bed 
is about 25° southerly. At East Pranklinf on the opposite 
side of the axis, the bed is about 16' thick with 4' or 5' of 
slate separating it into two splits ; on the moderate dips 
close to the Smoky Hollow axis the bed was mostly sound 
and good, but on the steep dips of 60° to 70°, further north 
it is soft and shelly at times. Schmoele Slope two miles 
westward is on a 50° north dip, the splits are worked sepa- 
rately, the total thickness is about 15', but condition of the 
bed variable. The Good Spring slope on the north side of 
the Wiconisco basin is sunk 400' on the Top split of the Mam- 
moth, at the slope the two splits are 20' apart but this in- 
terval varies in the workings ; the Top split run about 10' 
thick with 8' to 9' of coal, and the Bottom split 6' thick 
with 4' of coal. Three miles east, along the outcrop, the two 
splits of the Mammoth were worked separately at the Eck- 
ert colliery, thickness not recorded. To the west of Good 
Spring at Kohlers gap the bed according to Report of First 
Survey, page 190 is the Lomason or Big coal 10' thick in 
two benches 4' and 6' each ; west of this the bed is not 
opened in this division. The interval between the Mam- 
moth and the Skidmore is 90' at Good Spring. 

JFour Foot hed is not worked, the Good Spring tunnel 
<3uts it 18' 6" thick, but all dirt. Where cut in the East 
Franklin tunnel its thickness is 4'. 

Black Heath or Holmes hed is worked at East Franklin 
and Good Spring collieries, the only collieries in the divis- 
ison operating beds above the Mammoth ; the bed has a 
good general thickness of 8' to 10', but is high in refuse 
yielding not more than 50 to 60 per cent, of good coal. It 
occurs 200' to 250' above the Top split of the Mammoth. 

Primrose hed^ 80' to 100' above the Black Heath, is 
opened at Good Spring with a thickness of about 7' but is 

•Cross section on plate 387. 
t Columnar section on plate 385. 


dirty. At East Franklin the Primrose is worked 9' to lO'^ 
thick, but high in refuse, yielding perhaps 5' or 6' of good 

Orchard ted 130' above the Primrose at Good Spring is. 
4' to 5' thick fairiy good. At East Franklin the interval is 
about 80' and the bed 6' to 12' thick with an average yield 
of 6' to 7' of good coal. 

Diamond hed. — At 460' above the Orchard bed, the East 
Franklin tunnel cuts near the axis of the basin lying be- 
tween Little and Big Lick mountains a thick bed of coal 
called there the ''Diamond" bed ; that this is the true Dia- 
mond bed is a matter of considerable doubt as its distance 
here above the Orchard is twice that usually found, and the 
presence of the two large, though soft and dirty and per- 
haps worthless, coal beds between at 120' and 360' above 
the Orchard is also quite exceptional ; the bed is 10' to 
12' thick, high in refuse due largely probably to the steep 
dip of 60° to l(f and its position close to the axis of the 
basin. In the hill facing Kohlers gap, but still on the 
north side of the basin, at Nye's drift a coal bed at about 
the same horizon in the measures and perhaps identical 
with the ''Diamond" of East Franklin is opened ; its thick- 
ness is about 10' with 6' of coal, the basin of this bed must 
be here quite narrow although the north dip is not yet de- 

The ''Diamond" bed is probably the highest workable 
bed of this division ; to the south however in the Schuyl- 
kill — Dauphin basin still higher beds, the precise idenity 
of which is doubtful, are found (see cross section 24). 

The Old Rowe tunnel cuts about 1100' of measures above 
the Mammoth and passes through some 7 coal beds mostly 
small or dirty at the tunnel. The first or highest bed in the 
tunnel, known locally as the Greenwalt was worked by a 
water level drift through to Stumps run, the bed is 4'-6 
thick, dipping about 70° south, the coal has an excellent 
reputation. This bed occupies about the same horizon 
as the "Diamond" bed of East Franklin and is perhaps 
identical with it. 

Higher ieds^ on Stump run, 300' above its junction with 

Smith.'] 8. C. F. WILLIAM8TOWN-LYKEN8 DIV. 2133 

Lorberry creek and near the axis of the basin, two coal 
beds close together the lower ''8' thick" and the upper 
**6' thick" are opened along the outcrop ; these coals seem 
to be about 500' above the "Greenwalt" bed, 1400' above 
the Mammoth and are the highest coal known in the di- 

28. WilliamstowTir-LyTcens Division. 

This area is mapped on mine sheets XIX and XX.* The 
structure is shown by cross sections Nos. 27 and 28 on cross 
section sheet No. 20,t and columnar sections of the meas- 
ures are given on columnar section sheet No. VII.:|: 

The division includes the western half of the Wiconisco 
basin, and extends from a mile east of the Williamstown 
colliery nine miles west, to the end of the basin. 

The mountain ridges of No. XII, bounding the basin, 
gradually approach going westward to unite and form a 
short high ridge, called Short mountain, where the forma- 
tion lifts into the air some three miles west of Lykens. The 
mountain sides slope steeply down to the deep red shale 
valleys bounding the field, which are 1000' lower than the 
mountain crests. The narrow valley between the ridges, 
although 600' to 700' below the crest, is still high above the 
surrounding country. This valley is drained chiefly by 
Bear creek which finds an outlet through a break in 
the Big Lick mountain north of Lykens ; a long branch of 
the creek extends up the valley eastward and a little short 
branch drains the cove to the west. The VVest branch of 
Rausch creek flowing eastward drains tlie eastern edge of 
the division. The northern or Thick mountain is without 
a break in this division. There are no towns within the 
measures, but Williamstown, Wiconisco and Lykens are 
large and prosperous mining towns situated in the red shale 
valley along the south. 

The structure is nearly that of a simple basin with both 
sides dipping steeply, the exception is made by a narrow 

*Page plate 391 gives the general location. 

t Page plates 389 md 390 contain selected poitions of the cross sections. 

1^ Page plates 386 and 388 give columnar sections at Williamstown. 



overturned axis, developed in the Short Mountain colliery 
workings, along the north side of the basin; this axis, with 
gentler dips probably, extends east and bulges up the center 
of the basin south of Bear Valley shaft.* 

The disappearance of the Lykens Valley No. 1 bed, and 
the thinness of beds Nos. 2 and 3, has the effect of making 
two distinct coal bearing groups. (1) The lower or 
Lykens Valley group consists of 3 or 4 workable beds found 
within a space of 200' to 250' at the top of the lower half of 
Formation No. XII; all of these beds outcrop well below 
the mountaia rim of the basin and on the outside. Between 
the upper and lower group there is a space of 600' to 700' 
consisting almost entirely of coarse, massive conglomerate 
beds with occasional thin beds of sandstone, slate, or a 
leader of coal but a few inches in thickness; these measures 
constitute the upper half of Formation XII and make the 
crest of the mountain. The upper group is comprised of 
400' to 500' of measures between the Buck Mountain and 
the Orchard beds, and contains 5 or 6 coals which reach 
locally, at least, a workable thickness. 

The precise identity of the upper beds is a matter of some 
uncertainty; the coal beds and probably the intervening 
slate and sandstone have thinned very materially coming 
west, and the section at the Bear Valley shaft differs 
from a section of the same measures cut at Good 
Spring, t the nearest working colliery, 6 miles to the east ; 
the identity of the Mammoth andSkidmore beds is perhaps 
less questionable than the others. This thinning of the 
upper group continues across the division, the beds grow- 
ing still leaner as we approach the western end of this 

Two large and well equipped collieries operate in this 
division. The Williamstown, on sheet XIX, works ex- 
tensively the Lykens Valley beds on the south side of 
• the basin; also the upper group of beds, from the out- 
crop, on both sides of the basin. The Short Mountain 
colliery, on sheet XX, mines only the Lykens Valley beds; 

*See cross sections on plates 389 and 390. 
t See sections on plate 386. 


* t 

* • 

Smith.'] 8. 0. F. WILLI AMSTOWN-LYKENS DIV. 2135 

and the workings extend clear to the westward spoon, 
and around the basin to the opposite side; the beds are 
opened by two deep slopes, on the north dip, nearly to the 
basin*, and by a new water level tunnel piercing almost 
through Thick mountain on the north(see cross section 20). 

Formation No. XII at Williamstown is about 1400' 
thick, thinning somewhat towards the west, and apparent- 
ly less than 1200' thick at Short Mountain; the Williams- 
town tunnel cuts a complete section of No. XII;t this sec- 
tion is given on columnar section sheet VII, but the de- 
tail of all the rock beds could not be obtained. The new 
water level tunnel at Short Mountain now cuts nearly the 
whole formation, but the sharp anticlinal axis encountered 
makes its precise thickness a matter of some uncertainty; 
a columnar section is published on sheet No. VII. The 500' or 
600^ of transition measures seen at Pottsville between 
Formations XII and XI have mostly disappeared and are 
represented by only about 100' of sandstone and red and green 
shales. A brief general description of the coal beds of 
XII has already been given and we will now consider them 
separately; the beds are known by names here; both the 
name and its supposed equivalent number will be given. 

Zero hed^ of the Williamstown colliery, is the lowest of 
the Lykens Valley coals and occurs 230' above the top of 
Formation XI and 37' below the Little or No. 6 bed, it has 
not, heretofore, been classed as workable ; since the publi- 
cation of the mine sheet it has been opened at the Wil- 
liamstown colliery by short tunnels from the Little bed ; 
and is found to have a thickness of 2' to 6' ; its workable 
extent is not yet determined. 

Little or LyTcens Valley No. 6 bed is a persistent but 

*See cross section on plate 890. 

fSee columnar section on plate 388. 

Note. It is interesting to note that, although the Pottsville shaft work- 
ings, 1576' below the surface, are usually quoted as the deepest workings 
In the anthracite region; the lowest gangway at the Short Mountain slope 
actually reaches a slightly greater depth, the mouth of the slope is 887' A. 
T. and the foot 692' B. T., making a total vertical depth of 1579*; with refer- 
ence to tide however, the Pottsville colliery reaches 836' B. T. or 144' lower 
than the Short Mountain slope. 


thin coal, with an average thickness of not more than 3\ 
yielding perhaps 2' of coal ; the bed is worked to a small ex- 
on the south side of the basin both at Williamstown and 
Short mountain collieries. 

LyTcens Yall-ey^ or No, 6 bed is the principal bed of this 
division, it is found 30' to 60' above the Little bed, and has 
probably yielded two-thirds or more, of all the coal pro- 
duced by this area. Here, as to the east^ at Brookside, 
the bed shows marked fluctuations in its thickness and 
proportion of refuse, but its average thickness in the large 
area worked over will reach 9' to 10' with a yield of 6' or 7', 
of good coal. 

A new tunnel, north in Thick mountain, from the foot of 
Bear Valley shaft cuts this bed ''12' to 15' thick, but faulty 
and badly crushed." 

Whites or LyJcens Valley No, Jf. bed is 75' above No. 5 
bed, and although much smaller, ranks next to it in size 
and productiveness. The workings thus far are all on the 
north dip : at Williamstown and the Short mountain col- 
lieries the bed will average about 3' 6" in thickness with 2' 
6" of coal. 

Lykens Y alley Nos, 2 and 3 beds, within 150' above the 
Whites bed some 2 or 3 small beds of coal are usually seen, 
representing probably beds Nos. 2 and 3, but no places in this 
division are they found of workable thickness and quality. 

Lykens Valley No. 1 bed, although an important bed to 
the east at New Lincoln, is apparently absent here or re- 
placed by a thin leader a few inches in thickness ; the whole 
interval, of about 600' ; between the thin beds Nos. 2 and 3 
and the Suck mountain is composed almost entirely of 
coarse heavy conglomerates and sandstones. 

Buck Mountain bed, at the top No. XII, is worked near 
the northern end of the Williamstown tunnel, the bed is 
but 2' to 3' 6" thick. On the north side of the basin at the 
Summit slope apparently a couple of thin unworkable 
''leaders" is all that remains of this bed ; and to the west, 
at the Lykens Valley tunnel, even these thin leaders seem 
to have disappeared. 

Skldmore bed is opened on both sides of the basin at the 

Smith.'] S. 0. F. WILLIAMSTOWN-LYKENS DIV. 2137 

Williamstown colliery; on the north dip the bed is about]3' 
thick, but on the south dip the bed averages about T with 
6' of coal ; the beds thins to the west and at the Lykens Val- 
ley tunnel is unworkable. 

A ^^Leadef^ 2' to 3' thick, which is now worked at Sum- 
mit slope^ lies between the Skidmore and the Mammoth 

Mammoth bed, found about 160' above the Skidmore, 
barely retains first place among the upper coal beds ; its 
thickness at Bear Valley and Summit slopes is about 8' 
when in good condition ; the bed grows thin and faulty 
proceeding west, and in the old workings from the Lykens 
Valley tunnel the bed is 2' to 4' thick, with a rather uncer- 
tain percentage of good coal. 

A '^LeadcTy^^ 80' above the Mammoth, yielding 1' 6" to 
2' 0" of good coal, is now being worked from the Summit 

HoVmes hed^ at llO' above the Mammoth, is not worked 
in this division ; where cut by the tunnel at Summit slope 
it is 9' thick but faulty and unworkable ; where opened to 
the west it is mostly thin and unworkable. 

Primrose bed is mined quite extensively from Summit 
slope, the workings on this bed are incorrectly marked on 
mine sheet XIX as the "Holmes bed;" the bed will aver- 
age about 5' with 4' of coal. In the old workings from the 
Lykens Valley tunnel (sheet XX) the '^Etting" bed is 
supposed to be indentical with the Primrose ; the thickness 
of this bed where worked on the south dip is very variable, 
but it probably does not 'yield, on the average, more than 
2' or 2' &' of coal ; on the north dip the bed is not worked. 

Pat Martin or Orchard t bed was formerly worked, on 
both dips, from the Lykens Valley tunnel ; its thickness 
averages perhaps 4' but its quality is verj' variable. 

All the coal measure beds at the Lykens Valley tunnel 
lie close to the axis of the basin and the measures are 
sharply compressed and folded, with the beds mainly 
pinched and variable ; the identity of the beds, even where 
cut in the tunnels, on the opposite sides of the basin, is 
perhaps doubtful and their precise identity with the bed of 


the same horizon to the east of Williamstown, still more 

In the basin at Williamstown colliery the 600' or more of 
measures found above the Primrose bed is entirely desti- 
tute of workable beds, the same interval about Tremont 
contains at least two beds of good size and quantity. 

Division 29. ScTiuylkill-Dawphin hasin. ' 

This division is mapped on mine sheets XXI (south of the 
overlap of XVII) and XXII to XXVII;* cross sections 29 
to 31 on sheet XXI serve to show the general structure,! 
columnar section given the relative position of most of the 
coal beds are published on columnar section sheet VIIL 
The topography of the basin, west of sheet XXII, is shown 
on the mine sheets by contour line 10' vertically apart.J 

The Schuylkill-Dauphm basin, or the Southern Fishtail 
as it is sometimes called, is a long narrow deep trough, 
some 30 miles long from Lorberry gap, westward, to within 
one and one-half miles of the Susquehanna river above 
Dauphin. At the east the basin is a mile and a half wide, 
but tapers to a very slender point, where the coals of No. 
XII lift into the air along the high narrow crest of the 
synclinal mountain, close to the river. 

Sharp mountain is the southern rim of the trough, and 
Fourth mountain the northern rim ; as the basin narrows 
westward the mountains converge, and make the "Big fiats," 
north of Water Tank station and a narrow single crested 
spur, called Short mountain, reaching out some 6 miles 
beyond. The narrow interior valley or plateau, high above 
the exterior red shale valleys, is deeply trenched, at the 

*Page plate 391 gives general location of the division. 

t Page plates 393 and 394 contains portions of the cross sections. 

{ A report to which reference will be made, on the ** Dauphin and Susque- 
hanna Coal Company's Lands and the Stony CreeK Coal Estate," by Richard 
C. Taylor, published about 1840, contains much information concerning the 
exploration of the coal beds, then in progress, under his supervision. The 
report of the First Survey on this portion of the field is comprised mainly 
of information furpished by Mr. Taylor, which is commented upon as fol- 
lows : — ** While employing his details, I must observe that my own later 
observations have shown me that the thickness assigned to some of the coal 
beds is too great" 



six gaps in Sharp mountain, where the streams break 
through, to drain into the longitudinal valley of Stony creek 
and its eastward extension, Fishing creek. The Fourth 
mountain, about 1600' A. T. along its crest, forms an un- 
broken barrier for its full length. 

The mining operations in this division, with the excep- 
tion of the Kalmia colliery on the north side of Fourth 
mountain, were all prior to 1858 ; and the digging of two 
boatloads of coal, from a bed outcropping near the western 
extremity of Short mountain, as early as 1802 is mentioned 
by R. C. Taylor in his report. 

Report of First Survey (1868), page 440, says: *'The 
Dauphin coal basin is now entirely deserted by coal miners; 
for several years little or no coal has been shipped from it. 
So unreliable do the seams prove, and so great is the outlay 
required, that, recollecting that former experiments have 
failed, no disposition at present is manifested to develop 
its resources. 

Kalmia colliery* at the east end of the division was 
established about 1870, and continued in operation for ten 
years or more. A water level tunnel opens the Lykens Val- 
ley Nos. 4, 5 and 6 beds, its workings connect on the east 
with those from the Lincoln colliery; the best coal was ob- 
tained from the flat dips about the George's Head axis, just 
before reaching the Lincoln workings. 

Strtccture. — The basin is apparently, for its full length, a 
single close fold. The strata on the northern side of the fold, 
or in Fourth mountain^ have a general south dip of 40** to 
50**, which is increased to 60® or 70° at the east in the Kalmia 
workings. On the south, in Sharp mountain^ between 
Lorberry and Gold Mine gaps, the beds are overturned ; 
and the inverted dips are 70"* to 80® south. As the basin 
raises and narrows westward, it brings the beds of Sharp 
mountain closer to the trough, the dips become perpen- 
dicular, then steeply north, and finally in Short mountain 
30® and .less toward the north. 

Formation No, XII: The outcrop of the top of No. XI 

* Gross section on plato 3S)3. 


or the bottom of XII is concealed on both sides of the basin 
for its full length, by blocks of conglomerate; which cover 
the mouDtain slopes all the way to the streams in the bof 
torn of the Clark and Stony creek valleys. The only 
exposures of the lower beds of XII are at Lorberry gap, 
Kalmia tunnel and in Short mountain at the west end. 

No. XII in Fourth mountain appears to have all of its 
usual thickness and to be not less than 140Q' or 1600' thick 
(see sec. 29 plate 393). The crest of the mountain is made 
by the hard and massive beds of the upper half of the 
formation; barren, so far as the explorations^ show, of coal 
beds, although they include the horizon of one or more of 
the upper Lykens Valley beds. The lower half is less 
hard and massive and contains three or four coal beds 
which outcrop on the north slope 100' to 200' below the 

On the south, in Sharp mountain, No. XII seems to have 
been more easily eroded and disintegrated (owing no doubt 
to the greater pressure and disturbance to which it has been 
subjected); its crest line is lower and narrower, and it is 
gapped at half a dozen places; and from the mine and cross 
section sheets it would appear to be much thinner.* 

The Coal Measures at the east end of the division, north 
of the Fishing Creek gap, are perhaps 1500' to 1800' thick, 

* The writer now thinks that the mine sheets are in error, in the placing of 
the southern outcrops of the *<top ot No. XI and of the lowest coal bed,'' be- 
tween Lorberry gap and Rattling run (mine sheets XXI to XXV); and 
that the actual outcrops are some 800' to 1000 south of the place indicated 
upon the mine sheets. This w^uld give No. XII its usual thickness (and I 
see no good reason to suppose it has been reduced one-halfas the sheets now 
indicate) ; and makes it highly probable that the lower Lykens Valley beds, 
perhaps thin and worthless?, will be found low down on the southern slope 
of Sharp mountain and that the beds opened at the Fishing Creek, Black 
Spring, Gold Mine, Rausch Creek and Yellow Run gaps all belong to the 
coal measures, or possibly the lowest in the top of XII. 

One of the reasons, which led the writer to place the outcrops as they now 
stand, is the remarkable jump which the crest of Sharp mountain makes, at 
Lorberry gap, from beds just below the Buck Mountain bed, 1500' south to 
conglomerate beds at the base of the formation, and below Lykens Valley 
No. 6 bed. A recent study of the topography of this gap brings the conclu- 
sion : That the crest rapidly makes its way back to the upi>er beds of XII, 
and at Fishing Creek gap, three miles west, it is once about in its former 


\ • 
I . 

t • 

SfTlith.'] 8. 0. F. SCHUYLKILL-DAUPHIN BASIN. 2141 

but with the westward rise of the basin they grow rapidly 
less and the lowest beds probably spoon just east of, or at, 
the Big Flats. Owing to the scant developments, our 
knowledge of them is very incomplete and is confined 
chiefly to the lower 600' to 800^ Mr. R. C. Taylor, to 
whose report we are indebted for much of the present in- 
formation, found it is not only impossible to identify these 
coal beds with the well-known beds of other parts of the 
field, but was quite uncertain as to the identity even be- 
tween the beds in nearby gaps. 

Condition of the coal beds : The uplifting and close fold- 
ing of the strata, in this basin, has so rubbed, crushed and 
altered the coal beds, as to render them extremely variable 
and unreliable, both in thickness and quality, and they 
are all high in refuse and small coal ; this is especially 
true of the south side of the basin. It is possible, that 
improvements in the method of burning small sizes of 
coal, will so enhance their value as in time, to make the 
mining of the beds of this basin, where there is a great 
quantity of coal above water level, a profitable one. 

The Lykens Valley beds of iVo. XII have been partly 
opened at Lorberry gap, Kalmia colliery, on the Dull and 
HoflF lands, and at several points along Short mountain. 

At Lorberry gap there are five coal beds opened below 
the '^Umbehower" bed (1' 6" to 3' 6" thick) of the 
Sharp mountain colliery, which the Survey is inclined to 
regard as the Buck mountain bed (see mine sheet XXI and 
cross section 24). The two lower beds were mined to a 
small extent ; but no reliable record of the thickness of 
any one of them could be obtained. The thickness here of 
No. XII would appear, from the cross section, to be 1500/ 
or 1600'. 

At Kalmia colliery (mine sheet XXI and XXII) Lykens 
Valley Nos. 4, 5 and 6 beds were mined. 

The beds are reached by a water level tunnel, from the 
north side of Fourth mountain, the gangways extend west 
two miles, and east three miles connecting with Lincoln 
colliery workings; average dip of the beds is about 65** 



south. The thickness of the beds, and the yield of coal, is 
very variable ; the tunnel section (colu mar section sheet XI) 
gives a thickness of 2' IV for No. 6 bed, 8' 8'' for No. 6 
bed and 2' 10" to 4' 6'' for No. 4 bed ; but the mine map 
shows in all the beds; here and there, stretches of gang- 
ways were the coal was so thin or so dirty that it was not 
thought worth while to work the breast. 

On the Dull and Hoff lands^ 2 miles northwest of Rat- 
tling run and on north slope of Fourth mountain (mine 
sheet XXV), a number of trial openings, on some four or 
five of the Lykens Valley beds, were made in the sum- 
mer of 1888. At 600' north of the summit and 100' below, 
a thin bed of slate and coal is opened. Some 200' lower in 
the measures, and about same distance north, another bed 
was opened which yielded a little clean, bright coal. At 
160' below this, is a bed of 2' 7" thick of good coal, the best 
found ; and 100' still lower a bed 5' 5'' thick of coal and 
dirt crushed and broken. Below this 40' or 50' a 2' 6" bed 
of slate and dirt was opened. 

Some three or four coal beds, of the lower or Lykens 
Valley group, are opened on both sides of the narrow 
mountain crest north of the saw mill (mine sheet XXVI). 

Youngs drift opened in 1824 is on a 25° north dipping 
bed 17" to 61" thick. Kuglers drift is on a bed 25' below 
Toungs; also on north dip, "in some places the bed con- 
sisted of four to five feet of good coal; at others it was 
greatly reduced in thickness and mixed with slate." 

North Vein drift is on south dip of the Kugler bed, 
thickness in the drift not given. (See cross section 32 on 
plate 394.) 

In the summer of 1888 some trial opens were made on 
the Bayard land on the south dip of these same beds, about 
a half a mile east of the North drift ; details of the re- 
sult was not obtained. 

A coal bed is opened at the western extremity of Short 

mountain about a mile north of Dauphin. 

The explorations on the coal beds above the conglomerate 
were mainly at the gaps in the Sharp mountain, although 






JlrdluxjbCjUj&BeQfori^ Southern CoalRdii. 










•«• ')**» 



•^11 «M . 

*•• 1»** 


•«• «•• 4#rfm •«*«4* / 



••••w 4*1 iM wmamAt 

•>• ••• 4rrTr4 MrtMJt 










•<• »*4lrf. 

I 8 

i ? 

•*• f »•• 









some few op^ings on the beds outcropped at the foot of 
Fourth mountain have been made. There were formerly two 
shipping collieries in the basin, one at Gold Mine gap and 
the other at Kausch gap. 

At Black Springs gap there are a number of old 
drifts and a short tunnel, now fallen shut. The follow- 
ing section and notes are from Mr. R. C. Taylor's report 
of 1842. 

Commencing at the Vertical Wall 
of Conglomerate, fifty feet thick, 
forming the Backbone of the 
rtdge of Sharp Mountain— 

To traces Tof a Southern rein. { 
said to be 8 feet. . . . C 

1. To Coal Drift on 4 feet vein, 

2. Vein next the Iron Ore bed, 8i i 

to 4 feet, supposed to be the >- 

Pitch Vein \ 

Bed of rich Iron ore. 2 feet thick I 
adjoining f 

5. Peacock vein; very good 

Coal : 6 to 8 feet elsewhere, 
with 6 Inches of Iron ore in 
the bottom, slate. . . . 
4. Black Spring vein 

6. Mount Evgle vein, .... 

6. Three Feet vein, north of Big i 

House, \ 

7. Helster vein Tertlcal . . 

8. Grey yeln vertical. N. 57^ B. 
Central space In the valley 

without coal; no regular strata 
were reached in any shaft here. 



Total of 

ness of 


vein of 
























The strata nearest Khe ridge 
are a little Inclining south. 

Course N. 57°E. 

Length of drift, 275 ieet. 

Bast of gap, excellent coal. 
Do. Cross cut. 88 feet. 

Do. New drift, 117 feet. 


West side the gap. 

Drift 1008 ft. long, N. 57«B. 
Drift 680 feet long. 

Apparently disturbed. 

Total proved. 

Along the Mount Eagle road, at the foot of Fourth 
mountain, some eight or nine coal beds were opened; a col- 
umnar section (No. 7, sheet VIII) was compiled chiefly from 
Mr. Taylor's notes (see also cross section 29, plate 393). 

At Gold Mine gap a water level tunnel 1000' long and 
several water level drifts were driven, all of which are now 
shut^ The position of the gangways here, as given on mine 
sheet XXII, was determined by the outcrop, easily traced by 
the falls, as no survey of the working could be found. Mr. 
R. C. Taylor's section here is as follows: 



DuTAiLS OP Coal Veins. 

Vertical wall of pudding- 
stone 50 foot tnick. 
Crop of coal and smut, . . . . 

Second crop, 

L Four feet coal vein, 1197 ) 

feet above tide, ) 

3. Peacock vein, from 2 to 

7 feet thick, 

6. Three feet vein at Old 

7. Heister vein, 

8. Grey vein, 10 or 12 feet, . 
Vein not drifted on , . . . . 

in feet 


ness of 




 •  * 

•  • • 

Not proved. 
Not proved. 




Iiargely conchoidaL 




5 Course N. 67© E. 
\ Drift 112 feet 







• • • « 

Good Coal. 

jRauscJi gap, 3 miles further west, was the scene of the 
principal mining operations. The workings, shown here 
on mine sheet XXII, are from a survey made in 1864 and 
1855, the original map' of which is in possession of the 
Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Co. ; from notes on 
this map the following information about the thickness of 
the beds and their condition was obtained. Cross section 
30 (see plate 393) gives their relative position. 

On the south side of the basin^ commencing with the 
highest bed cut in the tunnel, and proceeding downward, 
we have: 

No. 4 bed, 7' thick, soft. 

No. 3 bed, gangways east and west end in rock fault. 

No. 2 bed, west gangway ends in rock fault, east gang- 
way has 16" of coal at face. 

Grey bed, soft and soft fault. Taylor calls this bed 10' 

Heister bed, face of west drift, 1' 6" soft coal, a large 
body of coal above gangway but of inferior (Quality; face of 
east drift 3' 6'' of coal, dirt and slate. A thickness of 6' of 
coal is assigned it by Taylor. 

No. 1 bed, average thickness 8', coal at face, curly, soft, 
and mixed with slate. 

North Dan bed, face of west drift 27good coal; face of 
east drift 1' 2" of good coal. 

South Dan bed, face of west drift in rock fault. 

^nlhacittllegion^ Southern GnzlMeldL 


•>• **«• 

•■•^«*a «••>•, 

•a* *r«» 



9^¥^Vywa I 




« ei* > •« 







^1 -t 










I ~ 

1^ I 


I ! 





Four small beds are opened below tliis, all north of the 
**backbone" of conglomerate. 

On the north side of the basin^ of the beds cut in the 
tunnel the map gives the following notes: 

No. 4 bed, 37' thick, soft fault. 

No. 3 bed, coal good. 

''Leader, 1' thick."=No. 2 bed. 

Grey*bed, soft fault. 

Heister bed, dirt 1' 3". 

No. 1 bed, coal 1', dirt 6''. 

? Bed, coal 2'', dirt 2'. 

Dirt bed, 4' thick. 

Four miles west at Yellow Springs gap^ 1500' of tunnel 
was driven, north, to near the basin; 3 short drifts opened; 
and a slope commenced on the side of Fourth mountain on 
a south dipping bed ; the only data we have of the coal 
beds are those cut in the drifts, Nos. I, II and III, and 
given in Taylor's report, as follows : 

Drift No. I, 3' of hard coal and 1' of soft coal. 

Drift No. II, 6' 3" thick of fine coal, dip 68° N. 

Drift No. Ill, bed;4' thick including slate, dip 37° N. 

All three beds are north of the ^'backbone" of the moun- 

At Battling Bun gap, 3 miles west, 2 beds are drifted 
upon north of the "backbone;" the Perseverance bed 5' 
6" thick with V of slate, and a thin bed 37 yards north. 

Some distance south of the crest^ Taylor reports the out- 
crop of several coal beds the thickest of which are but 2' to 
3' ; **one of these is opened at the Reliance drift at the 
head of the inclined plane 572' above the dam— about]860' 
A. T. ; the extension of the drift did not result favorably." 
None of these openings or outcrops, although they were 
looked for, were seen in the late Survey due perhaps to the 
heavy undergrowth covering the mountain slope. It 
now seems most probable that these are the north dipping 
Lykens Valley beds, which are concealed between here and 
Lorberry gap. 

Big Flat openings^ were made in 1838 ; several trial 
shaftings were sunk, opening two or three small beds, 



from one of which several tone of coal were raised and 
brought down to the landing ; this "the bottom bed ia 20'' 
to 36" thick." The broad mountain summit called "Big 
Flats" ia formed by the heavy maaeive beds of conglomer- 
ate at the top of XII swinging around the end of the ba- 
sin ; and the coala at Big Plats are the spooning out of the 
lower beds found inside of the conglomerate ridges. 

*'Fort Lookout slmft a mile west was sunk 82' to find a 
bed report 4' thick" apparently without success. 

Composition of the coal. 

The coals of the Schuylkill-Dauphin basin shows a pro- 
gressive increase, in the proportion of volatile hydrocar- 
bons which they contain, from east to west. Some of the 
coals no doubt should be classified as semi-anthracite or 
even semi-bitumiuons, "although it is unfortunate that in 
the analysis cited by Professor Rogers (the only ones 
available) no attempt has been made to separate the mois- 
ture from the volatile hydrocarbons, all being considered 
alike volatile matter. This fact vitiates any classification 
which may be based on such analysis." 

Report of First Survey, page 970, gives the analyses as 
follows: — 




































SI. 47 




88. «6 


















1. Black Spring Gap, Lea 


2. BlackSprlDgOap, Gray 

8. Black Spring Qap Qray 

Vein, ...... 

4. Gold Mine Gap, Peacock 

Vein, . 

C. Gold Mine GupHeiater 

Vein, ... 

6. RaushOap Peacock Vein, 

7. Yellow ijpriag Gap, . . 
6. RaUliDg Run 



SstiTnate of ConterUs of the Anthracite Coal Fields. 

Report of the Pennsylvania Coal Waste Commission,* 
published in 1893, contains in full an estimate, made by 
the writer, of the ''Existing Anthracite Coal Field before 
mining began." The summary tables which follow are taken 
from this report ; for full details of method and bed thick- 
ness, reference should be made to that report. 

Table A. 

Estimate of Total Original Contents of Northern Coal 



Area No. 














cross seo- 



















\ B 
$ B 
\ A 

i i 
\ t 



of coal at 
cross sec- 








of coal for 






Surface area 
lowest work- 
able bed in 










Probable orig- 
inal contents 
in tons.! 















* The body of this report, to which the estimates are but an appendix , 
contains so much that is valuable, regarding especially the utilization of the 
small sizes of anthracite coal ; that did space permit, the writer would be 
glad to reprint it in full. 

t Specific gravity 1.53, or l,8i0 tons per foot acre. 



Table B. 

Estimate of Total Original Contents of Eastern Middle 

Coal Field. 



Name of Basin. 

Surface area 
lowest work- 
able bed in 

Upper Lehigh — Pond Creek, 

Cross Creek and Woodside, 

Big Black Creek, 

Little Black Creek, 

(Kast) Black Creek and Stony Creek, 

(West) Black Creek, 

Robert's Run and McCauley, . . . 


Beaver Meadow and Dreck Creek, . . 
Green Mountain, Nos. 1 to 5, . . . . 
Silver Brook Basins, 














Probable orig- 
inal contents 
in tons.* 













* Specific gravity 1,614, or 1,960 tons per foot acre. 


Table C. 

Estimate of Total Original Contents Western Middle Goal 






of coal at 





of coal for 



area low- 
est worka- 
ble beds in 


original con- 
tents in tons.* 

27 . . 

(M. 8. L) 

(M. S. 2 A 2a.') 











28 . . 


29 . . 

CM. 8. 3 <k 3a.) 



80 . . 

(M. 8 4 A 4a.) 


81 . . 

82 . . 

83 . . 

84 . . 
86 . . 

86 . . 

87 . . 

S (12) 

\ 13 


S 14 
i Id 

( 15 

( 16 




33.49 I 
24.29 S 
24.29 i 
21.45 S 
21.45 I 

2njb s 

37.76 \ 
37.49 S 
37.49 i 
39.88 S 
39.88 I 
33.19 \ 











* Specific gravity 1.614, or 1960 tons per foot acre. 



Table D. 
Estimate of Total Original Contents Southern Coal Field. 


38. . 

89. . 

40. . 

41. . 

42. . 

43. . 

44. . 
45 . . 

46. . 

47. . 

48. . 

49. . 

60. . 

61. . 
52. . 
63. . 

54. . 

55. . 


57 . . 

58. . 

59. . 



(M. S. L) 
(M. 8. II.) 
(M. 8. IIL) 










• 17 






























of coal at 






of coal 

for areas. 








• •  • • 


• . • » . 
















Probable ori- 
ginal conr 
tents in 























* " Specific gravity 1.6307, or 1977 tons per foot acre." 
t Specific gravity 1.614, or 1960 tons per foot acre. 
X Specific gravity 1.500, or 1818 tons per foot acre. 



Estimated total original contents and area of Pennsyl- 
vania anthracite coal-fields. 

Totals by Melds. 

A rea lowest work- 
able coal-bed, 
square miles. 

Probable original contents in tons. 


Eastern Middle, . 
Western Middle, . 

176.29, say 176 
32.72, *» 83 
94.04, « 94 

181.16, " 181 

6,697,380,784, say 6,700,000,000 

602,491,447, *« 600,000,000 

4,009,664,831, << 4,000,000,000 

9,198,486,268, « 9,200,000,000 


484.21, say 484 

19,607,072,326, say 19,600,000,000 

The trade has made the following divisions of the anthra- 
cite fields, viz: 

L Wyoming region, Northern field and Bernice basin. 

2. Lehigh region, Eastern Middle field and Southern field east 

of Tamaqua. 

8. Schuylkill region, .... Western Middle field and Southern field west 

of Tamaqua. 

Totals by Regions. 

Area lowest work- 
able coal-bed, 
square miles. 

Probable original contents In tons. 

Wyoming, .... 


Schuylkill, .... 

176.29, say 176 

45.25, " 45 

262.67, " 263 


5,697,380,384, say 5,700,000,000 

1,636,488,578, " 1,600,000,000 

12,176,002,963, <« 12,200,000,000 


484.21, say 484 

19,507,872,325, say 19,600,000,000 

The Future Supply. 

It is estimated that the production, including coal sold 
and consumed at the collieries, has exceeded the shipments 
by about 10 per cent. 

The tables compiled by Mr. P. W. Sheaf er for the years 
1820 to 1868, and since 1868 by Mr. John H. Jones, show 
the shipments to January Ist, 1893, to have been : 



Total Shipments and Production to 1893. 

Wyoming region, . 
Lehigh region , . . 
Schuylkill region, 






adding 10 per 

cenU, say. 




Basing oar estimate on, that for every ton produced 1^ 
additional tons are lost, the following table would show the 
probable amount of coal still contained in the ground : 

Coal ConsuTned and Coal Remaining^ 1893. 


Estimated original 



Amount used up 2^ 

times production. 


Estimated contents 



Wyoming, . . . 


Schuylkill, . . . 










2,255,000,000 17,245,000,000 

The above table shows 17,245,000,000 tons of marketable 
coal still in the ground; what per cent, of this will be won 
the future alone can determine. 

It is to be doubted whether the total coal won when the field 
shall be abandoned will exceed 40 per cent, of the total con- 
tents. An estimate on that basis would show the available 
marketable coal still in the ground to be as follows : 

Coal Available in the Ground^ 1893. 

Wyoming region, 
Lehigh region,, . 
SohuylklU region, 

1,859,000,000 tons. 

477,500,000 tons. 

4,561,500,000 tons. 

In all, 6,898,000,000 tons. 

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